Problem And Challenges Of School Health Services In Nigeria (A Case Study Of Okene LGA, Kogi State)

Project and Seminar Material for Public Health

Problem And Challenges Of School Health Services In Nigeria (A Case Study Of Okene LGA, Kogi State)


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine the problem and challenges of school health services in Nigeria using secondary schools in Okene Local Government Area of Kogi State as a case study. Specifically the study was carried out to ascertain the need for implementing school health services in secondary schools in Okene Local Government Area, determine whether school health services are adequately provided in secondary schools in Okene Local Government Area, identify the challenges affecting the implementation of school health services in secondary schools in Okene Local Government Area. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of teachers of some selected secondary schools in Okene Local Government Area of Kogi State. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 59 respondents and 50 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables and mean scores. While the hypotheses were tested using Chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that the need for implementing school health services in secondary schools in Okene Local Government Area includes: appraisal of the health status of the school children, treatment of common ailments among school children, the provision of emergency for injuries and sudden illness, the control of communicable diseases in schools, the promotion of optimal sanitary conditions in the schools, the counseling of children, parents and teachers, and enhancing school nutrition programme.. Furthermore, the result of the findings reveals that school health services are not adequately provided in secondary schools in Okene Local Government Area. Therefore, it is recommended that facilities such as school based clinics, field, condusive classrooms, and enclosed counselor/psychologist office for one on one discussion should be made available in schools while equipment such as beds, drugs, chairs and teaching materials in classroom and sport equipment are very important in the implantation and utilization of school health services. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

World over, there has been a significant increase in school enrolment over the past decade(UNICEF, 2015, & Amanchukwu, 2015). In many homes across the world, children get enrolled in pre-primary schools (daycare and crèche) as early as five to six months of life as mothers need to return to work(Oguji, 2003). Furthermore, the number of children attaining school age has increased; estimated to be about 18% and 25% of the world´s and Nigeria´s populations respectively and this figure is rising(FMHN, 2015). Even though parents are in the best position to note any health problem with the child, most parents have little time for their children, spending most of their time at work or commuting to and from work, leaving their children in the care of schools for longer hours each day(Morokola, 2006). This results in the abdication of the parental role of care-giving to the schools. Having effective school-based health services, therefore, cannot be overemphasized.

School health services is that part of the comprehensive school health programme provided by physicians, nurse, dentists, health educators, other skilled health personnel, social workers, teachers, and other to appraise, protect and promote the health of students and the school personnel. (National Education Association (NEA) & the American Medical Association (AMA), 2008), School health services are operational within a school. In addition the services seek to enable children benefit optimally from their school learning experiences (Okafor, 2011).

School health service is one of the five components of the school health programme aimed at ensuring every child remains healthy to benefit maximally from his/her education(FMEN, 2003). Its proper implementation will also help in the attainment of Sustainable Development Goals (SDG), that are related to education and health(UNSDGPSDG, 2020). In a national study conducted in 2003 by the Nigerian Federal Ministry of education in collaboration with the World Health Organization (WHO), the quality of healthcare services in schools across Nigeria was found to be suboptimal(FME, 2006). Various other studies in Nigeria, mainly from the southern regions, also showed an unsatisfactory implementation of school health services/programme(Akani, 2001). To improve school health services implementation in Nigeria, there is a need to assess every region of the country. At present, there are limited studies on school health services in Northern Nigeria, including Kogi state.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

School health services embraces all the services rendered which help to prevent diseases and correct defects noticeable in children. The school is responsible for the management and care for all children who become sick or injured while at school.

The integration of school Health Services to the educational system in Nigeria seems not to be given its desired attention particularly at the primary and secondary school. According to the national policy on Education (2008), effort will be made to provide School Health Services for all educational institutions. In developed countries of the world school health services has been fully integrated into the school system and constitute an integral aspect of the school and community life. This is due to the realization of the fact that schools constitute the most strategic places to enhances promotion of health and perpetuate healthful practices clearly in the youth life.

Additionally, Lie (2008) stated that it is a general knowledge that basic health facilities are essential to the development of a healthful school living. In developing countries like Nigeria its has been observed that many schools exist where school health services of any kind have not been considered, medical personnel are hardly found in schools. Students health are hardly appraised counseled, protected from communicable disease; they are not carried out, in cases of sudden illness and injuries such a child is ask to go home. This is a sad development, which compared with what is obtainable in developed counties where school health services have been extended to nursing school.


1.3 Objective of the Study

The overall aim of this study is to critically examine the problem and challenges of school health services in Nigeria using secondary schools in Okene Local Government Area of Kogi State as a case study. Hence, the study will be channeled to the following specific objectives;

  1. Ascertain the need for implementing school health services in secondary schools in Okene Local Government Area.
  2. Determine whether school health services are adequately provided in secondary schools in Okene Local Government Area.
  3. Identify the challenges affecting the implementation of school health services in secondary schools in Okene Local Government Area.

1.4 Research Questions

The study will be guided by the following questions;

  1. What is the need for implementing school health services in secondary schools in Okene Local Government Area?
  2. Are school health services adequately provided in secondary schools in Okene Local Government Area?
  3. What are the challenges affecting the implementation of school health services in secondary schools in Okene Local Government Area?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  • Ho: School health services are not adequately provided in secondary schools in Okene Local Government Area.
  • Ha: School health services are adequately provided in secondary schools in Okene Local Government Area.

1.6 Significance of the Study

This study will provide the schools with the knowledge of school health program and its importance. It will guide policy and practice and can serve as a basis for further research. It will also provide available data that can be used at the local, regional and national levels.

The findings of this study will enlighten the general public, social workers, the school nurse physicians and health educators to collaboratively ensure that a well planed, organize and make health services are made available for primary and secondary school students, so as to ensure the safety of children while in the school environment.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This study is structured to generally examine the problem and challenges of school health services in Nigeria. Geographically, the study will be delimited to some selected secondary schools in Okene Local Government Area of Kogi State.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

Like in every human endeavour, the researcher encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. More so, the researcher simultaneously engaged in this study with other academic work. As a result, the amount of time spent on research will be reduced.

Moreover, the case study method utilized in the study posed some challenges to the investigator including the possibility of biases and poor judgment of issues. However, the investigator relied on respect for the general principles of procedures, justice, fairness, objectivity in observation and recording, and weighing of evidence to overcome the challenges.


1.9 Definition of Terms

School:

Refers to an institution for educating learners

Health:

Refers to the ability to perform daily activities

Service:

Refers to function provided by somebody

School Community:

Refers to all the people living/working within the school premises

School Health Day:

Refers to a day set aside annually to create awareness on health and health related issues in the schools.


1.10 Organization of the Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows.

  • Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
  • Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
  • Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
  • Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
  • Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.

Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the problem and challenges of school health services in Nigeria using secondary schools in Okene Local Government Area of Kogi State as a case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine the problem and challenges of school health services in Nigeria using secondary schools in Okene Local Government Area of Kogi State as a case study. The study was specifically set to ascertain the need for implementing school health services in secondary schools in Okene Local Government Area, determine whether school health services are adequately provided in secondary schools in Okene Local Government Area, identify the challenges affecting the implementation of school health services in secondary schools in Okene Local Government Area.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 50 responses were teachers of some selected secondary schools in Okene Local Government Area of Kogi State.


5.3 Conclusions

In the light of the analysis carried out, the following conclusions were drawn.

  1. The need for implementing school health services in secondary schools in Okene Local Government Area includes: appraisal of the health status of the school children, treatment of common ailments among school children, the provision of emergency for injuries and sudden illness, the control of communicable diseases in schools, the promotion of optimal sanitary conditions in the schools, the counseling of children, parents and teachers, and enhancing school nutrition programme.
  2. School health services are not adequately provided in secondary schools in Okene Local Government Area.
  3. The challenges affecting the implementation of school health services in secondary schools in Okene Local Government Area includes: inadequate financing of the secondary schools, lack of qualified health personnel, poor infrastructural facilities, inadequacy of health equipment, and poor health attitude among school stakeholders and the students.

5.4 Recommendation

On the basis summary and conclusions made above, the following recommendations were made:

  1. School health services should be made available in both primary and secondary schools in Ovia local government so as to improve their health habit.
  2. Personnel play an important role in the implementation of school health services. Qualified nurses, doctors, counselor/psychologist, health teachers, physical education teacher, nutritionist and school administrators should be present in schools for proper implementation of school health services.
  3. Facilities such as school based clinics, field, condusive classrooms, and enclosed counselor/psychologist office for one on one discussion should be made available in schools while equipment such as beds, drugs, chairs and teaching materials in classroom and sport equipment are very important in the implantation and utilization of school health services.
  4. The government, NGOs and other able and willing individuals or group of people should provide constant financial aid to both primary and secondary schools in Ovia local government for proper running of the school health programme. Clue should be taking from Nigerian business Coalition against HIV/AID (NIBUCAA) which is an organization set up by multiinternational companies in Nigeria to curb the surge of pressing health problems.

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