Knowledge, Attitude And Practice Of Hand Washing Among Market Women In Pankshin District

Project and Seminar Material for Public Health

Knowledge, Attitude And Practice Of Hand Washing Among Market Women In Pankshin District


The hands are central to many of our daily activities and the use of contaminated hands for cooking and eating enhances transmission of contaminants/germs into the body through food, thereby causing ill-health. This coupled with poor knowledge and practice of simple hygiene increase the risk of spread of diseases. A community based cross- sectional study set out to determine the knowledge, attitude towards and practice of hand washing among market Women in Pankshin District. Three hundred market Women were selected for the study using a multi-stage technique. Interviewer-administered semi-structured questionnaires were used to collect information on participants’ knowledge, attitude towards and practice of hand washing. Overall, respondents had good knowledge of hand washing but their educational status and religion were found to influence degree of knowledge of hand washing (p = 0.01 respectively with higher education and Christianity positively impacting knowledge of hand washing). More than three-quarters (81.6%) of them did not think that the use of soap was important in hand washing. Respondents’ practice of hand washing was influenced by their age and educational level (p < 0.0000001) respectively with older age group and higher educational levels corresponding to better practice. In conclusion, the study found good knowledge of hand washing among the respondents with many of them showing positive attitude in favor of hand rinsing. Those with higher education had better practice of hand washing. To realize the health benefits of hand washing, efforts to improve hand washing in this environment should encourage adding soap to current hand rinsing practices.

Table of Content

Chapter One:


  • 1.1 Background of the study
  • 1.2 Statement of the problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the study
  • 1.4 Research questions
  • 1.5 Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the study
  • 1.7 Scope of the study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the study
  • 1.9 Definition of terms
  • 1.10 Organizations of the study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the study
  • 3.3 Sample size determination
  • 3.4 Sample size selection technique and procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of data collection
  • 3.7 Method of data analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the study
  • 3.10 Ethical consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Discussion of Finding

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References

Chapter One


1.1 Background to the Study

Poor hand washing make hands a major path way through which fecal-oral diseases are transmitted among market Women (Ruban prem Kumar S.A, 2014). According to Global Public-Private Partnership for Hand washing (GPPHW), 80% of the world’s communicable diseases are transmitted by a mere touch of unhygienic hands (GPPPHW, 2014).
Diarrhoeal diseases and respiratory tract infections are the two major killers of market Women in Low and Middle Income Countries (LMICs) (Regina I Ejemot, 2008). The World Health Organization (WHO) reports that diarrhea and respiratory infections are responsible for two thirds of child deaths (GPPPHW, 2014). United Nations for market Women’s Fund (UNICEF) estimates that diarrhoea alone kills one child every 30 seconds (GPPPHW, 2014).

A disproportionate burden of child mortality is in LMICs where more than 30% of all diarrhoeal deaths occur (UNICEF, 2016b). Diarrhoeal diseases still contribute 21% of all deaths and 2.5 million deaths per year and these are attributed to improper hand washing (Mengistie B, 2013). In sub-saharan Africa and South East Asia, an estimated 1.7 billion episodes of diarrhoea occur among market Women, equaling to approximately 2.9 episodes per child per year (Katherina Diouf, 2014). Even though, proper hand washing is the easiest and simple way of preventing many communicable diseases, unfortunately most of the people do not practice hand washing.

Parents’ adherence to proper hand washing can control the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among market Women and this can further be adopted by market Women (Aigbiremolen A. O, 2015). However, to completely achieve hand washing practice in most societies and among market Women is not easy. According to the Centre for Disease Control (CDC), hand washing is defined as the vigorous, brief rubbing of all surfaces of lathered hands together, and followed by rinsing under a stream of water (CDC, 2014). Effective washing of hands takes six steps for about 15-30 seconds (Liberatore, 2016). These include; palm to palm, right palm over back of left hand and left palm over back of right hand, palm to palm fingers interlaced, backs of fingers to opposing palms with fingers interlaced, rotational rubbing of right thumb clasped over left palm and left palm over right palm and lastly rotational rubbing of backwards and forwards with clasped fingers of right hand in palm of left hand and vice versa (Liberatore, 2016).

Proper hand washing with soap (HWWS) which focuses on hygiene promotion is more effective in reduction of diarrhoeal episodes among market women and reduces the risk of disease transmission to 47% (Curtis V, 2003). Hand washing does not only remove diarrhoeal pathogens from market Women’s hands after contact with faeces but it also reduces the risk of environmental contamination through contact with hands carrying causative agents (Matthew C. Freeman, 2014). In addition, hand washing with soap has a protective effect against a range of acute respiratory infections (ARIs) especially pneumonia and the risk is reduced to 16% (ANNA BOWEN, 2007). Therefore, hand washing with soap could be a powerful weapon in protecting the market Women against ARIs and diarrhoea, the two great child killers (UNICEF, 2016a).

Childhood is the best time to adopt a new behaviour such as hand washing habit. Therefore, households are the right places for the child to learn new bahaviours (Pennelope Dutton, 2011). This can further be facilitated by the care taker’s knowledge, practices and attitudes towards hand washing (Mulubirha Assefa, 2014). Hand hygiene at household level, essentially plays a major role in helping to prevent the spread of infectious diseases, however, there is significant decline in promotion of hygiene practices at household level (Scott.E, 2013).

1.2 Statement of the Problem

The practice of hand washing has remained a problem in the pankshin, especially among market Women. According to the 2009 annual report from the district and Regional hospital, majority of the market Women who were brought to the centres in the previous years were diagnosed to be suffering from diseases associated with inadequate use of water especially in hand washing with soap. These diseases include typhoid fever, worm infection and other diarrhoeal diseases. Thus, these serious health problems need a second look, since many lost their lives and others exerted an excessive pressure on the available health facilities.

Hand washing in Pankshin District has become a problem because people seem to feel reluctant in the practice, since according to them, it consumes time. Others think it is a waste of resources such as soap and water. Some people also presume that it must be something routine in human life in order to promote and protect good health. However, it is obvious that some people cannot afford soap and facilities for hand washing are not adequate and appropriate. In some cases, they are even not available. Sometimes, those who seem to have little knowledge on appropriate hand washing practices defeat the purpose of it at the end of the process, by using dirty contaminated materials to clean them. Little knowledge on or about the critical periods is also a contributory factor to the problem. Meanwhile, any exercise that induces hand contamination and others, such as after toilet, attending to a sick person, handling money, and after visiting refuse disposal sites including hand shaking is of much interest.
These and others have called for serious attention to the problem, to reduce the incidence of diarrhoeal related diseases if not a total eradication.

1.3 Purpose of the Study

The main objective of this study is examine the knowledge, attitude and practice of hand washing among market women in Pankshin District. Specifically, the study aims to

  1. Investigate the socio-demographic distribution the market women in Pankshin District
  2. Examine the knowledge of hand washing among market women in Pankshin District
  3. Ascertain the attitude and practice of hand washing among market women in Pankshin District

1.5 Research Question

The study provide answers to the following research questions

  1. What is the socio-demographic distribution the market women in Pankshin District?
  2. What is the knowledge of hand washing among market women in Pankshin District?
  3. How is the attitude and practice of hand washing among market women in Pankshin District ?

1.5 Hypothesis of the study

The following hypothesis was formulated and tested by the study

H0: There is no significant relationship between socio-demographic characteristics and knowledge of hand washing amongst market women in Pankshin District

Hi: There is no significant relationship between socio-demographic characteristics and knowledge of hand washing amongst market women in Pankshin District

1.6 Significance of the Study

The research is solely meant to know the the knowledge, attitude and practice of hand washing among market women in Pankshin District. Also, this study when completed will provide suggestions as to how hand washing can be improved among the market women to reduce infectious disease illness.

1.7 Scope of the Study

This study on the the knowledge, attitude and practice of hand washing among market women in Pankshin District;

The study was solely based on hand washing among market Women, in exception of any other personal hygiene practices.

The study also was to help find out the existence, adequacy and appropriateness of hand washing facilities in basic schools.

It excludes hand washing practices and its related activities in the communities outside the basic schools.

1.8 Limitation of Study

Finance, inadequate materials and time constraint were the challenges the researchers encountered during the course of the study.

1.9 Operational Definitions


Acute respiratory infection is an infection that may interfere with normal breathing which usually begins as a viral infection in the nose, trachea (windpipe), or lungs and if the infection is not treated, it can spread to the entire respiratory system.


The way you think and feel about someone or something.


Is the range of actions and mannerisms made by individuals, organisms, systems, or artificial entities in conjunction with themselves or their environment, which includes the other systems or organisms around as well as the (inanimate) physical environment.

Care Giver:

A person who provides direct care (as for market Women, elderly people, or the chronically ill).


Is having more frequent, loose, watery poo, which may be referred to as ‘stools’


The terminal part of the human arm located below the fore arm, of the wrist, palm, four fingers, an opposable thumb.

Hand Washing:

Is the act of cleaning one’s hands with or without the use of water or another liquid, or with the use of soap for the purpose of removing soil, dirt, and microorganisms.


Is a dwelling-place used as a permanent or semi-permanent residence for an individual, family, household or several families in a tribe.


Consists of one or more people who live in the same dwelling and also share at meals or living accommodation, and may consist of a single family or some other grouping of people


Is a familiarity, awareness or understanding of someone or something, such as facts, information, descriptions, or skills, which is acquired through experience or education by perceiving, discovering, or learning.


The act of rehearsing a behavior over and over, or engaging in an activity again and again, for the purpose of improving or mastering it.


Water soluble compound made by a reaction (called saponification) between caustic soda (sodium hydroxide) or caustic potash (potassium hydroxide) with animal and/or vegetable fats (oils).

1.10 Organization of the Study

This research is made up of five chapters. In chapter one, it comprised introduction, background of the study, statement of the research problem, general objective, specific objectives, research question, significant of the study, justification, and the organization of the chapters. Chapter two talks about literature reviews based on the specific objectives set for investigations. Chapter three talks about methodology which comprise research design, the methods and actual techniques used in the collection, analysis and presentation of research findings are discussed in this chapter. The limitations encountered during the execution of field work, together with how I overcame some of them are also presented in this chapter; it also gives the geographical setting, as well as the physical, social and economic profile of the study area it also includes ethical consideration. Chapter 4 presents data analysis, which came as a result from the research findings through the administration of primary and secondary data collecting tool and discussion of results. Chapter 5 includes conclusion, recommendations, references, and additional information in appendix.

Chapter Five

Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the Knowledge, Attitude And Practice Of Hand Washing Among Market Women In Pankshin District, Pankshin Local Government Area in Plateau State as case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.

5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was on the Knowledge, Attitude And Practice Of Hand Washing Among Market Women In Pankshin District, Pankshin Local Government Area in Plateau State as case study. The study is was specifically focused on investigating the socio-demographic distribution the market women in Pankshin District; examining the knowledge of hand washing among market women in Pankshin District and ascertaining the attitude and practice of hand washing among market women in Pankshin District.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 300 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are market women in Pankshin District.

5.3 Conclusions

The study respondents demonstrated a relatively good degree of knowledge, attitude and practice of hand washing although those with higher educational levels demonstrated better knowledge and practice of hand washing. The Christian respondents had better knowledge than the Muslims about hand washing. However, a significant proportion of the respondents did not think that it was necessary to use soap for hand washing. To optimally realize the health benefits of hand washing, we recommend that efforts to improve hand washing practices using evidence-based behavior communication strategies and multiple dissemination channels such as campaigns, health outreaches and mass media health education messages in the study community (and in Nigeria as a whole) should be instituted especially to encourage adding soap to current hand rinsing practices. Strategies targeted at improving the educational levels of primary care givers of under-five children should also be embarked upon by the various tiers of government if MDG 4 will be attained in Nigeria.

5.4 Recommendation

From the above findings and conclusion made, the following recommendations aimed at encouraging handwashing practice in the study area include:

  1. The need to emphasize; handwashing with soap and water at critical times to ensure greater compliance. Also the messages should be designed and disseminated in the patterns that will be attractive and interesting to the respondents.
  2. Adequate provision and maintenance of handwashing facilities by government, NGOs; and school management to schools in the study area in other to create and sustain handwashing practice among the students.
  3. Hygiene awareness and public health education programmes should be included in the students’ syllabus for proper sensitization; and practice.
  4. Finally, the use of the findings made from this study to promote handwashing practice among the students in the study area should be encouraged.

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