The Impact Of Global News Media In Nigeria, BBC News As A Case Study
The study examined the impact of global news media in Nigeria using BBC news as a case study. Survey research design was adopted in the study in order to assess the opinions of the selected respondents with the use of questionnaire. The population size comprised of broadcasting staff of BBC news Nigeria. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 57 respondents and 50 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables. While the hypotheses were tested using chi-square statistical tool. The findings of the study showed that the extent to which Nigerian mass media depend on the global news media for news coverage is high. global news media has an impact in Nigeria. There is adequate coverage of Nigeria political activities and governmental administration in the global news media, and BBC news play a significant role in reporting global news to Nigerians. The following recommendations were made that Nigerian media should be more sensitive to the task of becoming internationally recognized, hence, news media should be more sensitive to reality and responsive to the needs of their audience, an audience that has increasingly become global. There is need for effective promotion and strengthening of the local media in Nigeria.
Table of Content
- 1.1 Background of the Study
- 1.2 Statement of the Problem
- 1.3 Objective of the Study
- 1.4 Research Questions
- 1.5 Research Hypothesis
- 1.6 Significance of the Study
- 1.7 Scope of the Study
- 1.8 Limitation of the Study
- 1.9 Definition of Terms
- 1.10 Organization of the Study
Review of Literature
- 2.1 Conceptual Framework
- 2.2 Theoretical Framework
- 2.3 Empirical Review
- 3.1 Research Design
- 3.2 Population of the Study
- 3.3 Sample Size Determination
- 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
- 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
- 3.6 Method of Data Collection
- 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
- 3.8 Validity of the Study
- 3.9 Reliability of the Study
- 3.10 Ethical Consideration
Data Presentation and Analysis
- 4.1 Data Presentation
- 4.2 Analysis of Data
- 4.3 Answering Research Questions
- 4.4 Test of Hypotheses
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
- 5.1 Summary
- 5.2 Conclusion
- 5.3 Recommendation
1.1 Background of the study
The Nigerian Press has remained a vibrant institution since the 1920s. Beginning with the emergence of the West African Pilot in 1937, the press has played a pivotal role in promoting political awareness, sensitising the populace and moulding and directing public opinion. Expectedly it was a strong force in the struggle for the attainment of political independence. Not even the long period of military rule and its attendant risks could deter the press from playing its ascribed roles. In fact, more than any other period, the press became more vociferous and even took to guerrilla journalism, a practice of publishing and circulating newspapers and magazines underground, in order to prosecute a cause that it believed in (Soules, 2017).
Meanwhile the last two decades or so witnessed tremendous advancement in the spread of the knowledge of information and communication technology. Virtually every segment of society, including the press, has been impacted by these developments. Even though the knowledge spread slowly to, or was latently embraced in Nigeria, its effects have been enormous. Not only has it quickened information dissemination, it has also revolutionised the conduct, method and quality of media practices generally (Price, 2015).
Beginning from the early 1990s, Africa witnessed a new wave of democratisation, beginning with the Zambian experience. Nigeria was not left behind as the military made some half-hearted efforts to democratise. The Babangida regime (1985-1993) conceived and ill-implemented is about the most expensive transition programme in the history of Nigeria. The consistent corruption under this regime led to the distinct emergence or revival and proliferation of radical and non-conformist newspapers and magazines, which have been appropriately labelled as the activist press.4 The activist press is so called because their emergence, mode of operation and activities went beyond the known and conventional journalism that existed earlier. Reminiscent of the anti- colonial press like the West African Pilot, the activist press mounted serious press campaigns on the military and its anti-democratic tendencies (Okorie, 2018).
Meanwhile, press opposition to militarised democratisation reached its peak during the dark days of General Sani Abacha (1993-1998). Despite the efforts to suppress it mainly through proscription of newspapers and magazines as well as clampdown on journalists, the activist press became more vibrant. It would seem that the revolution in global communication aided tremendously the ability of the Nigerian press, not only to challenge anti-democratic forces, but also to pursue democratisation. Apart from speeding up the access which Africans have had to fast breaking events in other parts of the world, new communication technologies are also eroding monolithic information control within Africa (Nkana, 2016). This in effect meant that institutions like the Media (that are not government owned) became better placed not only to counter government propaganda but also to popularise views previously suppressed. More importantly, with the citizens better informed, the status quo was challenged while the growing dissent found expression in the mounting opposition to authoritarian rule (Nkana, 2016).
Furthermore, in addition to facilitating contact with other parties interested in the democratic process in Africa, this development also encouraged extensive coverage of the political situation in Nigeria. These developments coupled with the growth of the activist press aided democratisation. Globalization therefore empowers the press to contribute actively to the cause of democratisation.
1.2 Statement of the Study
In Nigeria, Internet connectivity faces some limitations. According to Internet World Stats, Nigeria, which is the most populous country in Africa, has 10,000,000 Internet users as of Mar/08. This represents 6.8% of the population, per ITU and ‘500 broadband Internet subscribers as of Sept/07, per ITU’ (Internet World Stats, 2009). The big question is: how then can Nigerians be informed if they are not well connected? It has been argued that access to up-to-date information facilitates economic and social progress. There are quite a few cyber cafés (i.e. Internet cafes) in Nigeria dotted about mainly in the urban areas, yet many urban dwellers still have limited access as they cannot afford to pay the cost of Internet connection and usage (Nkana, 2016). It is observed that the Internet mostly serves the few wealthy people in the urban areas. In addition to this, inadequate power supply is another major obstacle. For the rural dwellers in Nigeria, access to the Internet is still a myth. This is in sharp contrast with the developed world where in most cases free Internet access is provided in community libraries, primary and secondary schools, colleges, universities and hospitals, while in developing nations like Nigeria, Internet access is by no means free.
Stevenson (1994) confirmed that ‘countries like Nigeria have a double information gap. Even the limited media serve mostly the urban elites’. Thus, there is a wide gap in media configuration between the developing and the developed countries (Goldstein and Pevehouse 2010). It can be argued that Nigeria is not only faced with the challenges of how to keep pace with the ongoing developments in information and communications technology (Umechukwu, 2001), but it is faced with the influence of the global news media. It can be argued that the sort of global news that flows in and out of Nigeria, coupled with the access Nigerians and the world have to it, as well as the way it is packaged, shaped and represented, determines the impact it makes on Nigeria.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The main aim of this study is to examine the impact of global news media in Nigeria, BBC news as a case study.
Other aims of this study are:
- To examine the extent to which Nigerian mass media depend on the global news media for news coverage.
- To determine whether global news media has an impact in Nigeria.
- To ascertain whether there is adequate coverage of Nigeria political activities and governmental administration in the global news media.
- To determine whether BBC news play a significant role in reporting global news to Nigerians.
- To determine whether BBC news play a significant role in broadcasting Nigeria news.
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions will be answered in this study:
- To what extent does Nigerian mass media depend on the global news media for news coverage?
- Does the global news media have an impact in Nigeria?
- Is there an adequate coverage of Nigeria political activities and governmental administration in the global news media?
- Does BBC news play a significant role in reporting global news to Nigerians?
- Does BBC news play a significant role in broadcasting Nigeria news?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
The following null hypotheses will validate this study:
H0: The global news media does not have an impact in Nigeria.
H1: The global news media does have an impact in Nigeria.
1.6 Significance of the Study
This work is designed to examine and address the major problems associated with the unprecedented impacts of the global news media on the Third World using Nigeria as an example. It intends to make significant contributions to the existing body of knowledge in this area as well as opening up new ground for further research to be undertaken. In particular, it seeks to evaluate the perceptions of audiences regarding Nigeria in the global news and the effect this has on Nigeria. In general, it will encourage international cooperation and understanding between developing countries and the developed world; fostering democracy, equal access and participation in the global news media. Above all, it will inform the global news media professionals of the need to cross-promote international culture, products, values, traditions, goods and services in all nations of the globe without any racial chauvinism.
1.7 Scope of the Study
This study focuses on the impact of global news media in Nigeria, BBC news as a case study. Specifically, this study focuses on examining the extent to which Nigerian mass media depend on the global news media for news coverage, determining whether global news media has an impact in Nigeria, ascertaining whether there is adequate coverage of Nigeria political activities and governmental administration in the global news media and determining whether the BBC news has reached every part of Nigeria. The respondents for this study will be obtained from the broadcasting staff of BBC news Nigeria.
1.8 Limitations of the Study
In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents. However, the researcher were able to manage these just to ensure the success of this study.
Moreover, the case study method utilized in the study posed some challenges to the investigator including the possibility of biases and poor judgment of issues. However, the investigator relied on respect for the general principles of procedures, justice, fairness, objectivity in observation and recording, and weighing of evidence to overcome the challenges.
1.9 Definition of Terms
A marked effect or influence.
The news media or news industry are forms of mass media that focus on delivering news to the general public or a target public. These include print media, broadcast news, and the Internet.
1.10 Organization of the Studies
The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.
Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:
This chapter summarizes the findings on the impact of global news media in Nigeria using BBC news as a case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.
5.2 Summary of the Study
In this study, our focus was on the impact of global news media in Nigeria using BBC news as a case study. The study is was specifically set to examine the extent to which Nigerian mass media depend on the global news media for news coverage, determine whether global news media has an impact in Nigeria, ascertain whether there is adequate coverage of Nigeria political activities and governmental administration in the global news media, determine whether BBC news play a significant role in reporting global news to Nigerians, and determine whether BBC news play a significant role in broadcasting Nigeria news.
The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 50 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are broadcasting staff of BBC news Nigeria..
In the light of the analysis carried out, the following conclusions were drawn.
- The extent to which Nigerian mass media depend on the global news media for news coverage is high.
- Global news media has an impact in Nigeria.
- There is adequate coverage of Nigeria political activities and governmental administration in the global news media.
- BBC news play a significant role in reporting global news to Nigerians.
- BBC news play a significant role in broadcasting Nigeria news.
Based on the responses obtained, the researcher proffers the following recommendations:
- There is need for effective promotion and strengthening of the local media in Nigeria.
- Nigerian media should be more sensitive to the task of becoming internationally recognized, hence, news media should be more sensitive to reality and responsive to the needs of their audience, an audience that has increasingly become global.
- The Nigeria government and all the media organizations operating in the country should, as a matter of necessity in all they do while climbing the ladder of becoming part of the global media; should not forget to promote the cultures and values of Africans as the western media are doing for themselves.
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