The Impact Of Challenges And Limitations Confronting International Organisation In Carrying Out Humanitarian Aid

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The Impact Of Challenges And Limitations Confronting International Organisation In Carrying Out Humanitarian Aid


Abstract


The gap between the magnitude of humanitarian need and the global capacity to respond is massive and growing.Humanitarian crises directly affect more than 140 million people in 37 countries, according to the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs.The aim of this study was to examine the impact of challenges and limitations confronting international organization in carrying out humanitarian aid. The method used in this study is mainly of doctrinal or library research in nature.What can be concluded from this analysis is that policy makers, diplomats and aid workers are increasingly struggling to develop appropriate responses to humanitarian crisis and conflict in contexts characterised by state breakdowns and competing military and para¬military structures. From the observations and reports, it can be concluded that the major constraints to effective humanitarian aids are Counterterrorism Regulation, Bureaucratic Constraints, Violence and Insecurity,and Funding


Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

Crises in so many regions of Nigeria have really caused so many set back in recent times. There are some states in Nigeria that even the indigenes find it difficult to settle down; most of them move out of their own state to another state just to find peace.

By this time early last year, in Benue state of Nigeria, there was a dispute between the Tiv tribes and the Fulani in gboko local government area.

This fiasco was on for a very long period of time. Indigenes of gboko; running out of their own village to another local government area just to find peace.

Questions were ask as regard the ongoing crises, so many responses were given by the people in gboko area.

It was heard from a reliable source that the Fulani herd’s men were fighting over a land; claim was that the land was given to them to graze on for at least 7 years.

The elders of gboko local government area claimed that there was no record of any agreement what so ever given to them neither by the state government nor the local government as regard the purpose. The fulami herd’s men reacted to being cheated by Benue state.

They ask the elders to return their money, but all to no avail. The killings continued; when the state government came to settle the crises, it became war on the government.

Nigeria has really suffered so many crises in recent years; is it terrorist attack by book haram? Or is it just crises? All these happening will definitely affect some of the organizations in carrying out humanitarian aids especially in most of these areas of crises; some might end up being killed or kidnapped.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

The gap between the magnitude of humanitarian need and the global capacity to respond is massive and growing. Humanitarian crises directly affect more than 140 million people in 37 countries, according to the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UNOCHA). More than 65 million of these people have been forcibly displaced from their homes — the highest level since the Second World War. Nearly 60% are currently in Africa and the Middle East, including in Turkey, Lebanon, Uganda and Ethiopia1 . The rest include refugees, asylum seekers, people displaced internally, those not yet seeking asylum and many more. Much of this humanitarian need derives from violent conflicts and civil wars that target civilians and their support systems, including shelters and hospitals. Much also follows natural disasters such as earthquakes, hurricanes, floods and drought. With climate change, it is highly likely that some of these disasters will get worse and more frequent. All of these people need aid, and the funds available are increasingly inadequate. Just one-third of the US$25.4 billion required for humanitarian aid for 2018 was covered. In other words, the current humanitarian system is buckling. It desperately needs much more programme funding to close the gap. At the same time, it needs more funding for innovative solutions: uses of technology, products and processes from other sectors; new forms of partnership; and drawing on the ideas and coping capacities ofcrisis-affected people — in a way that is iterative and rigorously evaluated. A balance of the two types of funding would help the humanitarian system to become more efficient and more effective.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The aim of this study is to examine the impact of challenges and limitations confronting international organization in carrying out humanitarian aid.

Specifically, the study seeks:

  1. To determine the challenges confronting international organization regarding humanitarian aid.
  2. To determine the impact of these challenges on the crisis-affected people.

1.4 Research Questions

  1. What are the challenges confronting international organization in carrying out humanitarian aid?
  2. What are the effects of the above challenges on the crisis-affected people.
  3. What are the possibly methods to ameliorate the impact of these challenges?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

H0: Crises do not have significant effect in carrying out humanitarian aid in Nigeria.

Ha: Crises have significant effect in carrying out humanitarian aid in Nigeria.


1.6 Significance of the Study

The study will explain the factors that has been limiting the reception of help from the international organization for crisis-affected areas. The study will help policy makers to make informed decisions concerning international humanitarian aid, that will facilitate effectiveness.


1.7 Scope and Limitation of the Study

This study is focused on the challenges the international humanitarian organizations encounters in the course of providing assistance to crisis-affected people. The study however limits its findings from the responses obtained from the place of study.


1.8 Organization of the Study

The study is divided into five chapters. In the first chapter, the research problem, objectives and scope of study were clearly defined. In the second chapter, we reviewed the various activities of the humanitarian organization across the globe. In the third chapter, we describe the methodology employed for the study. In the chapter four, a brief analysis was drawn to highlight the challenges of international organizations towards providing humanitarian aid. In the last chapter (chapter five), the findings of the study is summarized and concluded.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Summary of Findings

What can be concluded from this analysis is that policy makers, diplomats and aid workers are increasingly struggling to develop appropriate responses to humanitarian crisis and conflict in contexts characterised by state breakdowns and competing military and para¬military structures. But what comes out very clearly from the humanitarian experience in the past three decades is that the international community does not know yet how to deal with such dysfunctional states, particularly those which have limited strategic interestsand even less in complex human crisis contexts.

From the observations and reports, it can be concluded that the major constraints to effective humanitarian aids are Counterterrorism Regulation, Bureaucratic Constraints, Violence and Insecurity, and Funding.


5.2 Conclusion

Humanitarian aid is one of the most effective and practical means of mitigating situations of armed conflict, natural disasters and other disaster situations. Humanitarian crisis crises are in many most cases unexpected and require immediate action to minimize suffering. It is a very complex area and assistance is given in many different forms, from efforts in conflict prevention to support to the difficult transitions phase towards peaceful development.
It includes support in areas related to health, sanitation, food security, shelter, migration and refugee issues, as well as efforts to clear mines, and peace-keeping efforts including police and military. Drawing borderlines between humanitarian policy, international security policy and migration policy is not an easy task. An increased number of natural disasters and drawn out situations of conflict have resulted in an increased need for humanitarian aid and international humanitarian operations have expanded substantially in reach and scale. Disaster risks such as extreme depletion of water resources, rapid and unplanned urbanization, global climate change, and environmental degradation, among other reasons, are expected to create more frequent and severe disasters in the near future.

The number of international humanitarian actors has grown considerably including Civil Society Organisations (CSOs), humanitarian donor countries and regional organisations. In addition, the UN agencies, as well as the Red Cross and Red Crescent movement, have developed and expanded. There has also been an increased engagement and support from military entities and in recent years also private companies and foundations. The increased humanitarian needs and growth of humanitarian assistance, in combination with a larger and more diversified group of actors, makes an increased international coordination and a strong, efficient and effective international humanitarian system even more important.


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