Factors Associated With Health Seeking And Prevention Of Human. Papilloma Virus Infection
The purpose of this study is to examine the factors associated with health seeking and prevention of human papilloma virus infection. Three (3) research questions and hypotheses were raised to solve the research problems. The research employs exploratory, survey and descriptive research methods using quantitative and qualitative analysis. The population of this study comprises of all the female students at Babcock University High School Ilishan remo, Ogun State. The sample size of this research comprises of two hundred and twenty (220) respondents using random sampling technique.
The data employed for this study is the primary data obtained through the use of questionnaire. Findings revealed that awareness and knowledge on HPV, cervical cancer and vaccination were generally fairly good and marked by the fact that many of them are aware of HPV infection, Pap smear test and cervical cancer. Majority of the respondents believe the vaccine is not available in their school while many believe the vaccine is available in Nigeria. The study recommends that there are things that still need to be done in educating the population about HPV, cancer of the cervix and HPV vaccine, in view of the poor knowledge demonstrated by some students.
1.1 Background of Study
Since 2006, human papilloma virus(HPV) Vaccination has become available to adolescents girls in several countries to protect against virus causing cervical cancer. Human papilloma virus is what many people especially the adolescents are not aware of and this is because the vaccine is not embraced by parents. Prents feel the children shouldn’t get the vaccine in other not to be exposed to sexual practices. HPV is characterised by having more than one sexual partners , early sexual activities, parents unawareness, stigmatization of the vaccine and promiscuity. The HPV is a virus in the genital area that is sexually transmitted which both men and women get infected and pass the virus.
According to Garland and Smith (2010) and Pomfret, Gagnon found that two HPV vaccines are available which are Cervarix and Gardasil. The cervarix is a bivalent HPV vaccine which targets types 16 and 18 which are responsible for nearly 70% of all the cervical cancer cases while Gardasil, a quqdrivalent vaccine which targets type 6 and 11 and this cause nearly 90% of anogenital warts( Bonanni, Boccalini, Bechini 2009).
Skinner and copper (2010) acknowledged that most acceptable way to achieve high uptake of vaccine is to offer voluntary school based vaccination, The two vaccines are to be taken in three doses and this is to be delivered intramuscularly at intervals of 0, 2 and 6 months (Garland SM, Smith, 2010).
HPV Vaccinations of adolescent girls( ideally before they become sexually active) is currently recommended in many developed countrie s and nationally or regionally funded vaccination programs for HPV are common (Lai P et al, 2011). The Human papilloma virus is the casual agent for cervical cancers and other cancers of anogenital area (Walboomers, Jacobs MV, 1999).
It is estimated that at least 50% of women with an active sexual life have a genital HPV infection at some time during their lives (Koutsky L, 1997). Also, some strategies for primary prevention of HPV infection are sexually abstinence or mutually monogamous relationship between uninfected partner.
Vaccination programs require public education and in order for the people to accept the use of vaccines, they must understand the neccesity and be inforned of the benefits and risks.The estimated incidence of cervical cancer in the united states in 1996 was 15,700 new cases with 4900 deaths(American cancer society, 1996).
1.2 Statement of Problem
Human papilloma virus has been a major problem both in the middle and developed countries because of the lack of knowledge among girls and women.Ethnicity have been a major problem too by comparing two studies( Cook, Zang J, et al, 2010) which are the Black and Asian girls that are likely to initiate vaccination.It has alsso been reported that higher vaccination rates were reported among older girls (Centers for disease, control and prevention, 2009).
Studies have shown that vaccination rate decreased from the age of 17 years and two studies also reported that the highest HPV vaccination rates were found among 13 to 15 years old gils( Brewer NT, Gottleib, 2011). No significance difference in vaccine initiation by geographic region was detected in two studies, although in of these studies( Rand CM,2011) the number of people who refused the vaccine differed significantly by residentaials location with 23% of suburban parents and 10% of yhe urban parents refusing to take the HPV Vaccinations for their daughters( Rand CM, 2011).
Vaccine initiation was higher among the girls living in urban areas compared with rural areas. A distance between home and vaccination centres is also a problem.
Another problem is that there is no significant association between the parents education and HPV vaccine uptake( Gerend MA,Bland, 2009).
1.3 Research Questions
- What is the level of knowledge of female adolescents of HPV infection and cervical cancer?
- What is the level of perception of susceptibility of HPV infection and cervical cancer.
- What is the level of seriousness and benefits of HPV vaccine and al cervical cancer?
1.4 Research Objectives
- To assess the level of knowledge of HPV infection and cervical cancer among female students.
- To assess the level of perception of susceptibility of HPV infection and cervical cancer
- To assess the level of seriousness and benefits of HPV vaccine and cervical cancer
1.5 Research Hypothesis
Ho1; There is no significant relationship between age of respondents and their knowledge of HPV and cervical cancer.
Ho2; There is no significant relationship between respondents knowledge of HPV infection and vaccination
Ho3; There is no significant relationship between the primary care giver and engaging with multiple sexual partners.
1.6 Justification of Study
In line with previous literature, this study shows that born overseas was associated with the increase of human papilloma virus infection and the lower intake of human papilloma virus vaccine uptake( Jeudin P, Liveright E 2014).
This subject matter revealed the factors associated with the health seeking and prevention of Human papillomavirus and cervical cancer among female students in babcock university high school and I also look forward for greater change in the sexual prevention among these students and a positive influence, societal moral norms to prevail through this study.
1.7 Limitation of Study
An administered questionnaire may lead to social desirability bias that may explain the positive response to vaccines uptake among study participant. Gathering information on age at first sexual inercourse was a bit difficult because of the social cultural environment that belief of sex as something (sacred) not to be talked about in the society. Respondents do not want to reveal that they are not up to date on current events or knowledge. Time was another major constraint of the study.
1.8 Definition of Terms
Human Papilloma Virus (HPV):
is a member of the papilloma virus family of viruses that is capable of infecting humans and establish productive infections only in the stratified epithelium of the skin or mucous membranes (Schffman and castle, 2008).
Is the ability to perceive feel or to be conscious of events, objects, thoughts of a subject.
facts, information and skills acquired through experience or education.
Discussion, Conclusion and Recommendation
In this study, about half of the female secondary school students were aged between 14-16 years with mean age of 14.31 (SD=3.32) years classified as adolescent age group. This is almost similar with a study done among all the youths in Ondo town in Ondo State Nigeria which found that higher proportions (40%) were aged between 10-16 years with a mean age of 15.2 years. This may be attributed to the level of exposure of adolescent age goup, since this age group is active.
Knowledge of HPV and cervical cancer were good among most of the respondents in secondary school. This finding is similar with the study done in Imo State University Staff school, Orlu, Nigeria of which more than two third of the respondents had good knowledge of HPV and cervical cancer. This may be attributed to the fact that over two third of the respondents: are aware HPV can cause cervical cancer, have heard and are aware of unsafe sexual practices that can get them infected. Also most of the respondents had some form of education which increases their level of awareness of HPV and cervical cancer.
Some of the respondents have good perception on some factors and practices that can make them susceptible to HPV infection and cervical cancer. Many of them are aware of the severity of getting infected with HPV infection and cervical cancer and prefer getting vaccinated against the disease.
In order to reduce the incidence of infections, good attitude and compliance with preventive interventions are mandatory. In many settings, sexual abstinence may be seen as a trivial issue that is not routinely taken serious, most especially in relationships that involves adolescents.
This study described the sexual behaviour characteristics, knowledge of HPV infection and cervical cancer, perception of adolescents susceptibility of getting infected with HPV infected and cervical cancer/vaccine and factors associated with level of seriousness and benefits of getting vaccinated among female students at the secondary school.
It was noted that a few of them are in a relationship and sexually active. Awareness and knowledge on HPV, cervical cancer and vaccination were generally fairly good and marked by the fact that many of them are aware of HPV infection, papa smear test and cervical cancer. Some of them knew the association between HPV and cancer of the cervix. Majority of them believe the vaccine is not available in their school while many believes the vaccine is available in Nigeria. This clearly show that a lot of awareness activities has been done to inform the youth about HPV infections, cervical cancer and vaccination through different for a or public media. However, the study revealed that the factors that can encourage health seeking behaviours like availability of vaccine, comprehensive education about the infection etc. are not adequately promoted.
Based on the aforementioned findings of this study the following recommendations can be drawn.
- There is need to embark on behaviour modification education among adolescent students, given the prevalence of risky sexual behaviours reported in this study.
- A lot still needs to be done in educating the population about HPV, cancer of the cervix and HPV vaccine, in view of the poor knowledge demonstrated by some students whom, because of their potential to get education and social status one could assume they know better than the ordinary women in the community.
- Health care institutions and workers should take the centre stage in providing this information because have been to be shown in this study to have more positive influence and also have the technical know how to correct any misconceptions which have been shown to be prevalent in this study.
- There is urgent need to review the cost of the vaccine, or make it available in the public health sector so that it will be accessible to a greater number of clients. Otherwise, vaccine uptake may be harmed by the existing disparities in health care access and thus, widen rather than narrow existing disparities in cervical cancer deaths among Nigeria females.
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