Attitude And Practice Of Health Personnels Towards The Prevention Of Nosocomial Infection In Central Hospital Sapele, Delta State

Medical and Health Science Project and Seminar Material

Attitude And Practice Of Health Personnels Towards The Prevention Of Nosocomial Infection In Central Hospital Sapele, Delta State


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine the attitude and practice of health personnel towards the prevention of nosocomial infection in central hospital Sapele, Delta State. The study was carried out to determine the attitude of health personnels towards the prevention of nosocomial infection in Central hospital Sapele Delta State, assess the practice of health personnels towards the prevention of nosocomial infection in Central hospital Sapele Delta State, and ascertainthe preventive measures of Nosocomial Infection in Central hospital Sapele Delta State. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of healthcare workers in central hospital Sapele, Delta State.. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 200 respondents and 191 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables, and mean scores. While the hypotheses were tested using Chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that health personnels have positve attitude towards the prevention of nosocomial infection in Central hospital Sapele Delta State. The study also revealed that the practice of health personnels towards the prevention of nosocomial infection in Central hospital Sapele Delta State includes the use of the reusable instruments, pre-sterilized instruments, covering of nose and mouth during Sneezing, use of mask before approaching a patient, Washing of hands after handling every patient, not touching of eyes, nose and mouth while handling Patients, and practice of cleaning of white coat or nursing uniform regularly after hospital duty. Therefore, it is recommended that the Minister of Health to lobby for sufficient funds from the government so that the Permanent Secretary can allocate enough resources specifically for Infection Prevention and Control. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Nosocomial infection also known as hospital acquired infection are defined as infections which are acquired after 48hours of patient admission, such infections are neither present nor incubating prior to a patient’s admission to a given hospital. Nosocomial infections represent a universal serious health problem and a major concern for the safety of both patients and the health care providers. Nosocomial infections have significant consequences on patients, their families and the community as a whole.

These diseases are usually caused by bacteria or viruses and can be spread from health worker to patient or vice versa through contact – human contact with an infected surface, airborne transmission through droplets and/or aerosols and, finally, by common vehicles as food or water. These infections are particularly important in developing countries where very little amount of resources are available for use for an unbearable number of patients. HAIs not only affect patient health and safety, but also the health care system as a whole. In addition to monetary resources, hospital acquired infections increase the number of days a patient spends in the hospital, requiring additional medical care and hours spent providing patient care.3

The most common consequences of Nosocomial infections are increased morbidity, mortality and length of hospitalization such consequences contribute substantially to raise both the direct and indirect cost of the health care services, which result in additional costs to treat infected clients, hence such issue wastes the available resources which are not already enough, especially in developing countries. Nurses are responsible for providing medications, dressings, sterilization and disinfection. They are involved in more contact with patients than other health care workers. Therefore they are more exposed to various Nosocomial infections, as well as the patients, hence Nurses play a vital role in transmitting Nosocomial infections and their compliance with infection control measures seems to be necessary for preventing and controlling Nosocomial infections accordingly, they should be aware of how to prevent transmission of Nosocomial infections and be knowledgeable of its potential risk to patients, other staff and visitors, although there are many previous cross sectional studies which revealed that the levels of health workers, knowledge and practices are relatively poor and insufficient.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Regardless of the advances in public health and hospital care, infections continue to emerge in hospitalized patients, threatening the quality and outcomes of health care delivery. According to Adjugah & Ordinioha (2018), little information and inadequate infection prevention and control techniques among health personnel has raised the prevalence of hospital-acquired infections. Mbim, Mboto, & Agbo (2016) averred that although Hand hygiene is the single most critical intervention for preventing illness transmission and should be a quality standard in all health care facilities, there are numerous situations in clinical practise when health personnel handle contaminated linen with bare hands, place needles in the patient’s mattress after providing injections, do not clean the stethoscope after each patient interaction, and do not wash hands on a regular basis. Melaku, Temesgen & Nega et’al (2018) submits that antibiotic abuse is on the rise in hospitals and overuse antibiotics has allowed multi-drug-resistant organisms to thrive, which can transmit Health Care Acquired Infections (HCAIs). Therefore to combat this threat, infection control measures must be implemented in order to minimize morbidity and mortality associated with HCAIs, standard guidelines based on evidence-based care have been developed to establish worldwide standards for effective infection control among healthcare workers (WHO 2019).

Conversely, many studies have revealed disparities in infection awareness, prevention, and control. The majority of students had low awareness of hand hygiene in a research done in India by Nair, Hanumantappa et al. (2015), which examined nosocomial infection knowledge, attitude, and behavior among nurses and patients at a tertiary health care centre. Similarly, Saidu, Habu, & et’al(2015) various studies have demonstrated that the benefits of successful infection control techniques range from improved morbidity and mortality to disease prevention and cost-effective healthcare.
Despite the abundance of research on Hospital Acquired Infections, impoverished nations such as Nigeria have been estimated to have up to 20 times the risk of obtaining a nosocomial infection when compared to wealthy countries (World Health Organization 2019). Thus, spread of infection serves as a major source of worry for health care practice, particularly in developing countries where the health care system is already overstretched. Therefore, this study seek to examine the attitude and practice of health personnel towards the prevention of nosocomial infection in central hospital Sapele, Delta State.


1.3 Objective of the Study

The overall aim of this study is to critically assess the attitude and practice of health personnel towards the prevention of nosocomial infection in central hospital Sapele, Delta State.

Hence, the study will be channeled to the following specific objectives;

  1. To determine the attitude of health personnels towards the prevention of nosocomial infection in Central hospital Sapele Delta State
  2. To assess the practice of health personnels towards the prevention of nosocomial infection in Central hospital Sapele Delta State
  3. To identify the preventive measures of Nosocomial Infection in Central hospital Sapele Delta State

1.4 Research Questions

The following research question will guide the study:

  1. What is the attitude of health personnels towards the prevention of nosocomial infection in Central hospital Sapele Delta State?
  2. What are the practice of health personnels towards the prevention of nosocomial infection in Central hospital Sapele Delta State?
  3. What are the preventive measures of Nosocomial Infection in Central hospital Sapele Delta State?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  • Ho: Health care personnels does not have positive attitude towards the prevention of nosocomial infection in Central hospital Sapele Delta State.
  • Ha: Health care personnels have positive attitude towards the prevention of nosocomial infection in Central hospital Sapele Delta State.

1.6 Significance of the Study

Infection-related diseases are still the main cause of morbidity and mortality in tertiary hospitals in Delta State, Even with regular infection control training in the hospital, gaps have been identified in knowledge and practice of infection control among doctors and nurses. Findings of this study will be of significance to hospitals, other medical facilities, healthcare workers and patients. The study will emphasize on the need for health facilities to prioritize health care delivery as Nurses with inadequate knowledge, bad practices in infection control and prevention, jeopardize the safety of the patient. Furthermore NCDC will benefit from the nosocomial infection study due to the timeliness to be able to contain and issue standard policy guidelines on Hospital Acquired Infections by this therefore preparedness in infection prevention and control measures is strengthened. More so, the study will acquint healthcare workers with efficient knowledge, good attitude and best practices by the nurse in infection prevention and control which in turn contribute to decreasing in infection rate in the hospital. Finally, the study will contribute to empirical body of knowledge on Hospital-acquired infection (HAI) and serve as reference material to student and scholars who wishes to conduct further studies in related field.


1.7 Scope of the Study

The scope of this study borders the attitude and practice of health personnel towards the prevention of nosocomial infection in central hospital Sapele, Delta State. The study will be delimited to only central hospital Sapele, Delta State.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

As every human endeavor is once faced with a constraint, the same was tenable during the period of this study. In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents. In addition, there was the element of researcher bias. Here, the researcher possessed some biases that may have been reflected in the way the data was collected, the type of people interviewed or sampled, and how the data gathered was interpreted thereafter. The potential for all this to influence the findings and conclusions could not be downplayed.  More so, the findings of this study are limited to the sample population in the study area, hence they may not be suitable for use in comparison to other tertiary institutions in other , states, and other countries in the world.


1.9 Operational Definitions of Terms

Nosocomial Infection:

Nosocomial infection is an infection or toxin that exists in a certain location such as a hospital, now Nosocomial infections is use interchangeably with the terms health-care associated infections and hospital-acquired infections.

Prevention:

Prevention is an action taken to decrease the chance of getting a disease or condition. For Nosocomial infection it includes fully disinfecting skin and equipment, washing hands regularly, wearing protective equipment like face masks and gloves. regularly changing urinary catheters, and removing them as soon as possible, removing hair near a surgical area and prescribing antibiotics only when needed.

Control:

In health care and public health practice settings, infection control includes various measures that prevent and contain the spread of infectious disease. For nasocomail infection this includes maintaining a safe, clean, hygienic hospital environment, screening and categorizing patients into cohorts, public health surveillance and following patient safety guidelines.


1.10 Organisations of the Study

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the attitude and practice of health personnel towards the prevention of nosocomial infection in central hospital Sapele, Delta State. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine the attitude and practice of health personnel towards the prevention of nosocomial infection in central hospital Sapele, Delta State. The study is was specifically carried out to determine the attitude of health personnels towards the prevention of nosocomial infection in Central hospital Sapele Delta State, assess the practice of health personnels towards the prevention of nosocomial infection in Central hospital Sapele Delta State, and ascertainthe preventive measures of Nosocomial Infection in Central hospital Sapele Delta State.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 50 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent were healthcare workers in central hospital Sapele, Delta State.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher concluded that;

  1. Health personnels have positve attitude towards the prevention of nosocomial infection in Central hospital Sapele Delta State.
  2. The practice of health personnels towards the prevention of nosocomial infection in Central hospital Sapele Delta State includes the use of the reusable instruments, pre-sterilized instruments, covering of nose and mouth during Sneezing, use of mask before approaching a patient, Washing of hands after handling every patient, not touching of eyes, nose and mouth while handling Patients, and practice of cleaning of white coat or nursing uniform regularly after hospital duty,
  3. The preventive measures of Nosocomial Infection in Central hospital Sapele Delta State includes; hand hygiene, maintaining a safe, clean, hygienic hospital environment, screening and categorizing patients into cohorts, public health surveillance, antibiotic stewardship, and following patient safety guidelines.

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.

  1. The Minister of Health to lobby for sufficient funds from the government so that the Permanent Secretary can allocate enough resources specifically for Infection Prevention and Control.
  2. Resources should be allocated for Infection prevention and control conferences locally and internationally.
  3. Nursing schools should emphasize the importance of infection prevention and control (Hospital acquired infections) in the syllabus.
  4. The General Nursing Council of Nigeria should continue to emphasize on the introduced a Continuous Professional Development Booklet for Nurses.
  5. Training on infection prevention and control be mandatory yearly and that it should be a requirement for yearly nursing registration.

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