Workplace Inclusion And Employee Innovativeness Of Deposit Money Banks In Bonny Local Government Area Rivers State
The fast development in the Banking business has represented a few difficulties, for example, workplace inclusion which is a usual occurrence that has both negative and positive effects on employee innovativeness depending on how well it is managed. This has affected the deposit money banks, and even the Micro-Finance sector. It is in this context that this research explored the connection between workplace inclusion and employee innovativeness in deposit money banks in Rivers State. Diversity is progressively perceived and used as a critical hierarchical asset concerning whether the objective is to be a business of decision, to give excellent job performance and employee innovativeness, or to keep up an aggressive edge. The principle target of this examination was to determine the effect of workplace inclusion on employee innovativeness in deposit money banks in Rivers State. The study also tried to analyze the dimensions of education diversity, ethnic diversity, and gender diversity. Theoretically, the study adopted sociocultural theory which helps contextualize workplace learning in a diverse environment. With a population of nineteen (19) deposit money banks and a sample size of 170 employees using a cross sectional survey method. We found a significant relation between education and gender inclusion as against employee creativity and no relationship between ethnic inclusion and employee creativity. The investigation presumed that understanding the impact of inclusion in the work environment is essential for leaders, managers, and organizations who strive to be competitive, creative and innovative in the new world of work. The study further recommends that deposit money banks should consider increasing the skills and competence of their staff by providing them with a paid leave.
1.1 Background of the Study
In the light of the present realities facing companies today, it might be deduced that workforce diversity may make open doors and in addition present difficulties for the performance and conduct of organizations. In Nigeria, and perhaps in Port Harcourt, Rivers State, a Nation with a few ethnic nationalities and dialects, and additionally various social and religious backgrounds, the issue of proper workplace inclusion management should even be more important to managers. Ceteris Paribus and expecting that ability, capacity and other alluring attributes are similarly disseminated all through a country’s population and everybody has equal opportunity to work in associations, at that point there ought to be people of different elements of diversity at each dimension in organizations. In Nigeria where the populace is around one hundred and sixty million people of which the greater part are of working age, Managers of work associations will at that point be looked with a basic test of the best possible administration of diversity in the work environment.
Workplace inclusion Management is the ability of a manager to achieve success for an organization by making the best of use of the similitudes and contrasts among workers as far as age, social foundation, physical capacities and incapacities, race, ethnicity, religion, sex, and additionally as far as identity, values, attitudes, perception and cognitive style. Individuals who think towards deep level diversity are bound to see themselves as comparable, as opposed to different, to individuals from their workgroup on unobservable qualities (Liao et al., 2008). Today, diversity and consideration endeavours poses challenge for all organizations. Officials comprehend that their organizations can’t be fruitful on a worldwide stage in the event that they don’t have a varied and comprehensive workforce. A diverse and inclusive workforce is important to drive development, cultivate creativity, also, control business procedures. Numerous voices lead to new thoughts, new administrations, and new products, and empower out-of-the box thoughts. Organizations never again see diversity and inclusion endeavours as independent from their different business rehearses, and perceive that a diverse staff can separate them from their competitors and can help capture new clients.
The diversity phenomenon is evolving because of the progression in innovation and globalization. This has likewise improved associations’ survival and aggressive edge by pulling in key abilities and superior workers in deposit money banks as a result of high skills, employees expect basic part in the association using their insight to upgrade the organization’s upper hand (Hiltrop, 2009). However, holding these talents acted genuine test like for worker retention in a dynamic employment market. Various studies have been done to set up the centrality of workforce diversity in associations yet fundamental thought has not been focused on its effect in the domain of employee innovativeness in deposit money banks, in Port Harcourt dynamic environment. It is on this note the author has tried to survey the degree to which workplace inclusion identifies with employee innovativeness.
Various explorations have been led on work diversity and work diversity management. For instance, Mkoji and Sikalieh (2012), did a study on the impact of personality dimensions on organizational performance of Kenya Medical Research Institute (KEMRI); Elsaid (2012) did a study on the effects of cross cultural work force diversity on employee performance in Egyptian pharmaceutical organizations; Otike, Omboi and Mwalekwa (2011) did a study on effects of workplace diversity management on organizational effectiveness in Kenya commercial bank limited. However, none of these examinations focused on how education diversity, ethnic diversity, age diversity and gender diversity influence employee innovativeness. However, there exist a literature gap and our point of departure therefore is to investigate the relationship between workplace inclusion and employee innovativeness in deposit money banks in Port Harcourt.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Managing a diverse workforce in the bank has become a major concern for human resource because the survival of the association relies upon its ability to effectively harness and manage its diverse workforce. Deposit money banks in Port Harcourt among its basic beliefs of polished methodology, trustworthiness, inventiveness, development, cooperation, solidarity of direction, regard and devotion to client care, and corporate administration and so forth, lacks “diversity management”. Also, giving the expanding dynamic pattern of globalization and expanding assorted workforce in deposit money banks, understanding, overseeing and holding different personalities in deposit money banks is a test for human resource.
Again, Rapport, Bancroft & Okum, (2003), observed that impending decline of highly skilled workers who possess the needed knowledge and skills to function effectively and persistent risk of talented workers who leave the bank, because of absence of security of their job, and who also take a lot of know-how with them, which can take a long time to supplant and which opens the bank to danger of losing classified data to contenders. Managers of deposit money banks particularly in Port Harcourt metropolis have to ensure with all efforts to retain key employees as well as developing the under performers to be at their best to showcase their innovativeness. Based on this facts, this study therefore seeks to establish the relationship between workplace inclusion and employee innovativeness in deposit money banks in Port Harcourt.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The general objective of this study is to determine the relationship between workplace inclusion and employee innovativeness in deposit money banks in Port Harcourt.
The specific objectives of this study are as follows;
- To determine the relationship between education inclusion and employee innovativeness in deposit money banks in Port Harcourt.
- To establish how ethnic inclusion influences employee innovativeness in deposit money banks in Port Harcourt.
- To find out the relationship between gender inclusion and employee innovativeness in deposit money banks in Port Harcourt.
1.4 Research Questions
The study sought to answer the following research questions;
- What is the relationship between education inclusion and employee innovativeness in deposit money banks in Port Harcourt?
- To what extent does ethnic inclusion influences employee innovativeness in deposit money banks in Port Harcourt?
- What is the relationship between gender inclusion and employee innovativeness in deposit money banks in Port Harcourt?
1.5 Research Hypothesis
- H01: there is no relationship between Employee Engagement and Employee innovativeness.
- H02: There is no effect of Workplace inclusion on Employee innovativeness.
1.6 Scope of the Study
Due to unmanageability of having excess data, the study focuses to assess employee inclusion and employees‟ innovativeness in the case of some selected commercial banks. In this study organizational inclusion is conceptualized as a system equality regardless of gender, level and educational background of employees in organization.
1.7 Limitation of the Study
The limitation of this research lies in its time limit. The time scope of this research was for instant the respondents completed the questionnaires handed to them. It cannot be told by the study whether the results would still hold if it was designed to cover a longer period of time. Further it is not possible to tell whether the same findings will hold for the period after responding to the questionnaires.
The findings of the research covered only one institution in Nigeria. Nigeria has many organizations that have Human Resource. It is not easy to tell whether the same findings would apply to all the other organization in Nigeria. Further, the research has not dealt with organizations outside Nigeria, for instance in the East African Community to ascertain whether the findings can still hold.
The quality of the data may be a weakness of this study. This study was based on qualitative data. Qualitative data has a weakness of being highly opinionated. The indications in the questionnaires can easily pass as opinions of the respondents which may not be an accurate representation of the facts on the ground. The effect is that if the data were collected a few months later, due to the dynamism in human behavior, results can become sharply different.
1.8 Definition of Terms
Deposit Money Bank:
Deposit money banks are resident depository corporations and quasi-corporations which have any liabilities in the form of deposits payable on demand, transferable by cheque or otherwise usable for making payments.
Employee innovativeness can be defined as engagement in innovative behaviours, which includes behaviours related to the innovation process, i.e. idea generation, idea promotion and idea realization, with the aim of producing innovations.
Work Place Inclusion
Inclusion is the culture in which the mix of people can come to work, feel comfortable and confident to be themselves, work in a way that suits them and delivers your business needs. Inclusion will ensure that everyone feels valued and importantly, adds value.
1.9 Organization of the Study
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows
- Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
- Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
- Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
- Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
- Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.
1.10 Significance of the Study
The study will be important to Deposit money banks management as it will give them insights to the importance of employee inclusion as this would lead to better performance, less turnover and increased loyalty of employees to the organization. The HR department of Deposit money banks will find the study important because they will use the findings to align the HR policies to the organizational objectives in order to increase performance. The department will also better understand the relationship between workplace inclusion and employee innovativeness.
The study will be important to other stakeholders who value the importance of workplace inclusion as a method of increasing performance. For example ministry of medical services for making policy decisions whose overall objectives is to increase employee innovativeness and reduce turnover rate thus improving service delivery. The information will also be used by other related organizations to make decisions that aim to improve the performance thus gaining competitive advantage.
Scholars’ will find the study important as it will increase the body of knowledge on the perceived relationship between workplace inclusion and employee innovativeness. The scholars will also benefit from the study by using the findings to prove theories. It can also be used by scholars as a basis for further research on other variables and methodologies not included in the study.
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations
This chapter presents the summary of the results, conclusions and recommendations drawn from analysis of data in chapter four on relationship between workplace inclusion and employee innovativeness at Deposit money banks Headquarters.
5.2 Summary of Findings
The objective of this research was to establish the perceived relationship between workplace inclusion and employee innovativeness in DMB. There was no significant variation in gender. Most respondents were lower level employees in job group K and below. The respondents had worked at DMB long enough thus were well conversant with issues to do with workplace inclusion and performance. Most of those who participated in the research held undergraduate degrees.
Some of the respondents demonstrated satisfaction with working relationship with their boss; friendliness of working environment; training of employees by the organization; opportunities for development of skills; equity of salary with others with similar qualifications while others did not. Some of the workers would still work for the same organization if given a chance and would recommend the organization as a good employer while others would not. Some of the respondents were happy about the values, policies, procedures and systems of the organization and the ways in which it conducts its business while others were not.
The respondents demonstrated dissatisfaction with the nature of engagement they received at work. Despite getting on well with colleagues, the respondents demonstrated dissatisfaction with engagement in duty on issues concerning lack of adequate resources to perform duties, involvement in decision making, and manner in which promotions were awarded. The workers also showed dissatisfaction with their work and compensation. They were unsure whether their ideas were valued, the management was concerned with employee well being and whether their bosses gave helpful feedback on their performance of tasks.
The respondents strongly agreed that they respected national diversity and gender at work. They work well as a team with colleagues, they focus on customers/citizens, they perform duties and responsibilities professionally and that they are technically competent. Though, do not always achieve performance targets, have poor time management, and creative and innovativeness is poor.
The results indicate a positive relationship between workplace inclusion and employee innovativeness. The correlation coefficient (r) equals 0.89 showed that there was positive correlation between workplace inclusion and employee innovativeness. This indicates that when workers are engaged in activities at work, there is also an improvement in performance. This was also supported by the regression analysis. In the analysis, the coefficient of workplace inclusion was positive. This indicates that improvement in workplace inclusion leads to improved employee innovativeness at DMB.
Basing on the findings of this research, the following conclusions are drawn. First, the working duration with the organization confirms that the respondents were knowledgeable with issues to do with workplace inclusion and employee innovativeness thus gave responses relevant to the study. The study was able to collect information from all employees of Access Bank. Secondly, involving employees in making decisions at work place increases workplace inclusion and performance. Equally, equal treatment of workers with similar qualifications in terms of equal remuneration leads to Workplace inclusion. However, other than basing on qualification, not much is said concerning whether there are other parameters that are used to create unfair treatment. The respondents were not happy with the remuneration package despite being technically competent to perform duties.
The study, finally, found a strong relationship between workplace inclusion and employee innovativeness (r = 0.89, p< 0.001). The relationship is positive. This means that when workplace inclusion improves, so does their performance. These results confirm the findings of previous studies of the social exchange theory (Saks, 2006; Schaufeli and Bakker, 2004).
5.5 Recommendations for Policy and Practice
5.5.1 Policy Recommendations
On the conclusion that the workers have good working relationship with their boss and that the bosses even provide good support for improved performance of work this study wishes to recommend that the support is continued. However, the management can come up with a support policy so that issues that bring about higher performance are given higher support.
Basing on the conclusion that the workers are equally treated as indicated by the equal remuneration of workers who are equally qualified, this research recommends that this is continued and possibly improved. The improvement can arise from other areas apart from remuneration that can result in unequal treatment for example promotions, sharing of responsibility etc.
This study recommends the improved use of teams approach to work. This is based on the finding that workers get on well with colleagues. This is an indication of team work. If the team work is not already in place, the management can build it.
Workers strongly indicated lack of involvement in the decision making processes affecting their work. Some did not even have the opportunity to develop their skills and careers. This study recommends that decision making be more inclusive so that relevant members of staff provide input to decisions that affect them.
Concerning the strong positive relationship between workplace inclusion and employee innovativeness, this study recommends careful engagement of employees in the work environment. Positively engaging employees will surely bring about higher performance of duty. On the contrary, poor engagement will surely bring about poor performance. This is because of the close connection between workplace inclusion and employee innovativeness.
5.6 Suggestions for Further Research
There is a need to answer the question of whether the findings of this research can be made universal across time in organizations in Nigeria and outside Nigeria. There are many organizations in Nigeria and abroad which have unique HR issues. This study just covered one organization for one moment in time. This reduces the power of universally applying the results. A research can be done to determine the nature of the relationship between workplace inclusion and employee innovativeness in more organizations and for a longer period of time to get more universally useful results.
This research has not answered the question of whether workplace inclusion causes employee innovativeness. Attempts made been limited to demonstrating correlation. Correlations are limited to showing the nature of correspondence between variables, but do not indicate whether one variable causes the other. A study can be done to show whether workplace inclusion causes employee innovativeness or the reverse.
The study can be repeated with aid of secondary data. Since secondary data is recorded with a higher level of objectivity, the results found can provide strong and objective support to the findings that are based on primary data. It is the recommendation here that such a study can be repeated using secondary data.
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