Work Life Balancing And Employee Productivity (A Case Study Of Zenith Bank)
This study focused on work life balance and employee productivity in the Nigerian banking industry. The study started by looking at various events or issues that affects the productivity of employee most especially in zenith bank Nigeria. The study therefore proposed a statement of problem to look at and identify those anomalies that may come up as a result of poor balance between work and life.
The objectives, research questions and hypothesis were raised in line with the problems identified in the industry. The scope of the study was limited to Zenith Bank headquarters while the significance was given in line with the benefits to be expected by the stakeholders involved in the study. The literature review was done on conceptual theoretical and empirical frameworks as well as a summary and gap in the literature.
The methodology adopted as survey design with multiple regression analysis was adopted for the analysis. The data was analysed based on descriptive and inferential statistics. The findings of the study indicated that there is a significant relationship between the impendent sub variable and the dependent variables. The study therefore rejected all the null hypothesis because the estimates were statistically significant.
Table Of Content
- Title page i
- Certification page ii
- Dedication iii
- Acknowledgement iv
- Abstract v
- Table of content
- 1.0 Introduction
- 1.1 Background to the Study
- 1.2 Statement of the Problem
- 1.3 Objectives of the Study
- 1.4 Research Questions
- 1.5 Hypothesis of the Study
- 1.6 Operationalization of Variables
- 1.7 Scope of the Study
- 1.7.1 Limitation to the Study
- 1.8 Significance of the study
- 1.9 Operational Definition of Terms
Theoretical Framework And Review Of Literature
- 2.0 Introduction
- 2.1 Conceptual review
- 2.1.1 Work Life Balance
- 2.2 Theoretical Review
- 2.2.1 Structural Functionalism Theory
- 2.2.2 Supplemental and Reactive Compensation
- 2.2.3 Role Enhancement theory
- 2.2.4 Work-Family Border Theory
- 2.3 Empirical Review
- 2.4 Summary and Gaps in the Literature
- 3.0 Introduction
- 3.1 Research Design
- 3.2 Population of the Study
- 3.3 Sampling unit
- 3.4 Sampling Frame
- 3.5 Sampling Technique
- 3.6 Sample Size Determination
- 3.7 Method of Data Collection
- 3.8 Research Instrument
- 3.9.1 Validity of research instrument
- 3.9.2 Reliability of the research Instrument
- 3.10 Method of data analysis
- 3.10.1 Conceptual Model
- 3.11 Limitation of the methodology
- 3.12 Ethical Consideration
Data Presentation, Analysis And Discussion Of Findings
- 4.0 Introduction
- 4.1 Data Presentation and Analysis
- 4.2 Discussion of Findings
Summary, Conclusion And Recommendations
- 5.1 Summary
- 5.2 Conclusion
- 5.3 Recommendations
- 5.4 Suggestions for Further Study
- 5.5 Implication of findings
- 5.6 Management Practices
- 5.7 Industry
- 5.8 Society
List Of Tables
- 4.0.1 For job stress
- 4.0.2 Employee health
- 4.0.3 Model
- 4.0.4 Role overload
- 4.0.5 Job satisfaction
- 4.0.6 Model
- 4.0.7 Long working hours
- 4.0.8 Employee morale
- 4.0.9 Model
- 4.1.0 Work family conflict
- 4.1.1 Job commitment
- 4.1.2 Model
1.1 Background To The Study
Today, work-life balance has become an increasingly pervasive concern to both employers and employees of most organisations. In recent time, there has been an upsurge in the consideration of the pressures that work has on family as well as life of employees. This has triggered research bordering on work-life. In an environment where there is high level of competitive pressures stemming largely from efforts to deliver quality service, the weight of this on employees are enormous Uzoechi and Babatunde, (2012).
Work-life balance (WLB) which primarily deals with an employee’s ability to properly prioritize between work and his or her lifestyle, social life, health, family and so on. Work is generally considered as a part of life. Though separated by certain physical, psychological and temporal boundaries, the two concepts are operationalized within the same context of time and space. The nature of work itself has changed from the 9-to-5 affair to a 24-hour, 7-day society, where customers expect services at times that suit them CIPD, 2007 as cited in Adetayo, Olaoye and Awolaja, (2011). Where there is proper balance between work and life, employees tend to put in their best efforts at work, because their family is happy.
Most research studies have shown that when there are happy homes, work places automatically become conflict free and enjoyable places to be. Increasing attrition rates and increasing demand for work-life balance have forced organisations to look beyond run of the mill Human Resources interventions. As a result, initiatives such as flexible working hours, alternative work arrangements, leave policies and benefits in lieu of family care responsibilities and employee assistance programmes have become a significant part of most of the company benefit programmes and compensation packages.
The origins of research on work-life balance can be traced back to studies of women having multiple roles. Barnett and Baruch, (1985) investigated the psychological distress connected to the balance of rewards and concerns generated by individual women’s multiple roles as paid worker, wife and mother. They found that positive role and experience was related to low levels of role overload, role conflict and anxiety.
The importance of work-family balance, whether implicit or explicit, to the organisations and employees cannot be ignored. This is because when employees struggle to balance their work and family lives, their families and work will be negatively affected Gryzwacz and Carlson, (2007). The most common approach is to view work-life balance practices through a business case lens: that is, by offering these practices, organizations attract new members and reduce levels of work-life conflict among existing ones, and this improved recruitment and reduced work life conflict enhance organizational effectiveness. A review of the literature, however, questions this purported link between work-life balance practices and organizational effectiveness. The mechanisms by which the provision of work- life practices affects both employee behaviour and employee productivity remain unclear, and under-researched Allen, 2001; Schutte & Eaton, (2004). It is on this premise that the study will be conducted in other to find out how Nigerian workers are being affected when it comes to the issue or concept of work-life balance.
This study examines the literature to identify the various ways in which organizational work- life practices may influence employee productivity. Using a wide range of studies from a variety of disciplines, the empirical support available for the link between work-life practices and employee productivity at both the individual and organization level will be detailed. Findings from literature will provides us with important new insights regarding potential moderators and mediators of the link between work-life practices and employee productivity, and suggests new research questions that may further enhance our understanding of how (or if) this link operates.
1.2 Statement Of Problem
Sparks, Cooper, Fried and Shirom, (1997) in their study provide some indication that when people spend too many hours at work, and spend less with their families, their health and work performance begin to deteriorate, therefore resulting to poor employee health due to job stress. There are various explanations for this associated with affluence, the growth of single parent families, the privatization of family life and the lack of local resources and facilities Noor and Maad (2008) argue that a positive relationship exists between work to family conflict, stress, and job turnover intentions. Research found that workload and work to family conflict also cause job dissatisfaction. Job satisfaction in women and either sex of older people has been negatively affected by work to family conflict Martins, (2002). While steps to redress these concerns transcend work and employment, it is nevertheless argued that the demands of work contribute to a reduced participation in non-work activities resulting in an imbalance. Moreover, there is a view, widely promoted by some management writers but not strongly supported by sound empirical evidence, that workers are less willing to display unlimited commitment to the organization.
Lack of work flexibility, high work pressure and longer working hours are stressing out many Nigerian workers, reducing their job performance and productivity as well as causing broken homes. In the community, there is growing concern that the quality of home and community life is deteriorating. These have resulted to poor employee input and performance at his or her job place, because an employee, who finds it difficult to properly balance his or her family life, tends to also have difficulties managing tasks at his or her workplace, therefore resulting in poor employee performance and employee morale.
The pressures and demands of work, reflected both in longer hours, more exhaustion and the growth of evening and weekend work leave less scope for quality family time. The consequences include increases in juvenile crime, more drug abuse, and a reduction in care of the community and in community participation and less willingness to take responsibility for care of elderly relatives and for the disadvantaged resulting work life conflict.
One reason offered for this is the changing nature of the psychological contract at work; turbulence in organizations has made it less feasible to offer secure progressive careers and therefore to justify why workers should be committed. It is on this premise that this study will investigate the relationship between work life balance and its impact or potential effects on employee productivity. From the discussions above, it will suffice to ask, can work life balance impact on employee productivity?
1.3 Objectives Of The Study
The objective of this study is to evaluate work-life balance and employee productivity and to identify which factors of work life balance have more influence on employee productivity. Specifically the following specific objectives will be pursued.
- To examine the effect of job stress on employees health.
- To evaluate the effect of role overload on employee job satisfaction
- To evaluate the influence of long working hours on employee morale
- To evaluate the effect of work family conflict on Job commitment
1.4 Research Questions
- What is the effect of job stress on employee health?
- How does role overload affect employee job satisfaction?
- How does long working hours influence employee morale?
- How does work family conflict affect job commitment?
1.5 Hypothesis Of The Study
Accordingly, following are the hypothesis to be tested for this study:
- H01: Job stress has no effect on employee health.
- H02: Role overload does not affect employee job satisfaction.
- H03: Long working hours does not influence employee morale.
- H04: Work family conflict does not affect job commitment.
1.6 Operationalization Of Variables
In essence, there are variables that will be used to test the relationship between work-life balance and employee productivity.
X = Work Life Balance.
Y = Employee Productivity. X = x1, x2, x3, x4,
Y = y1, y2, y3, y4,
- x1 = Job Stress
- x2 = Role overload
- x3 = Long working Hours
- x4 = Work family Conflict
- y1 = employee health
- y2 = Job satisfaction
- y3 = employee morale
- y4 = Job commitment
Functionally, Y = a + bx + µ
From the operationalization above, it means that the (X) variables will be used as determinants on the (Y) variable.
1.7 Scope Of The Study
The scope of the research will be limited to one of Nigeria’s Indigenous Banks, Zenith Bank Nigeria Plc. The population of workers altogether are 80. The research will rely on the bank for vital information including data for the study through the total enumeration method in as the sampling technique. This will be done in Lagos State. The depth of the information required of the research is to determine the effect of Work life balance and Employee productivity on Staff.
1.7.1 Limitation To The Study
This study is limited to the effect of work life balance and employee productivity, a study of Zenith Bank, thus the findings of this study might not be generalized so it can’t be applied to other industries like SMES.
1.8 Significance Of The Study
This study seeks to bring out the various work-life balance practices in the Nigerian banking sector. The study will be of great significance to the banking industry in Nigeria. This study will therefore help enlighten management of various organizations of the various effects of work-life balance practices on the performance of employees in an organization. The study
will also bring out specifically, the work-life balance practices which the bank has been able to make available to its employees. It will also point out those practices that are not in accordance. It also seeks to bring out the level of encouragement and motivation the bank has given to its employees to work effectively, among others. The importance of this study is therefore to highlight the various employee work-life balance practices and how it affects the productivity of an organization. This study will go a long way to illustrate how organizations should treat its employees in order to increase productivity.
1.9 Operational Definition Of Terms
An individual who works part-time or full-time under a contract of employment, whether oral or written, express or implied, and has recognized rights and duties. Also called worker.
Work-life is the business practice of creating a flexible, supportive environment to engage employees and maximize organizational productivity.
A measure of the efficiency of a person, machine, factory, system, and so., in converting inputs into useful outputs. Productivity is computed by dividing average output per period by the total costs incurred or resources (capital, energy, material, personnel) consumed in that period. Productivity is a critical determinant of cost efficiency.
This is seen as the demands and intricacies that are evident or existing in the job that an individual is engaged in in the organization.
Lack of balance or reasonableness in the number of extent of expectation from a job or position in hold
Work family conflict
This occurs when there are incompatible demand between work and family roles of an individual that makes participation in both roles difficult.
Description of the emotions, attitude, satisfaction and overall outlook of employee during time in a work place environment.
This is an individual psychology attachment to an organization to carry out task as at when due.
Summary, Conclusion And Recommendation
This chapter is focused on bringing the work to a close based on the introduction, literature review and findings that has been done in the previous chapters. This is a brief presentation of the process that led to the abridged findings
This study focused on work life balance and employee performance in the Nigerian banking industry. The study started by looking at various events or issues that affects the performance of employee most especially in Zenith Bank Nigeria. The study therefore proposed a statement of problem to look at and identify those anomalies that may come up as a result of poor balance between work and life.
The objectives, research questions and hypothesis were raised in line with the problems identified in the industry. The scope of the study was limited to zenith bank headquarters while the significance was given in line with the benefits to be expected by the stakeholders involved in the study.
The literature review addressed other author’s notion on the subject matters on conceptual theoretical and empirical frameworks as well as a summary and gap in the literature.
The methodology adopted as survey design with multiple regression analysis was adopted for the analysis. The data was analysed based on descriptive and inferential statistics. The findings of the study indicated that there is a significant relationship between the impendent sub variable and the dependent variables.
The study therefore rejected all the null hypothesis because the estimates were statistically significant.
Finally, Chapter five discusses the summary of all chapters , findings and suggestions that led to the recommendations,
The study therefore concludes that:
Having flexible working hours in an organization significantly influenced employee job performance by enabling a balance between personal commitments and responsibilities and organizational roles and duties of an employee. Flexibility in working hours enhanced employee motivation and commitment to the organization. Employee assistance programmes in the organization created a good avenue for an organization extending a helping hand to individuals in the organization. This contributed highly in creating a healthy, motivated workforce; enhance cooperation and individual productivity in the organization. Finally it can be concluded that Leave from work created a change of environment and a break from the daily working environment. This has a lot of impact on employee’s psychosocial wellbeing, eliminating fatigue, and work related stress which translated to better employee performance after the leave.
The study on the basis on the findings and conclusions made recommends that:
- ZENITH Bank could share the best practices on employee work life balance with other commercial banks in the country which have been struggling with the same.
- In ensuring the psychosocial wellbeing of staff, the ministry of labour could consider revising the existing labour laws to have mandatory staff welfare programs run by the employer rather than the union.
- Organizations in the banking industry due to the nature of the job and precision required in undertaking the jobs should exploiting leaves as a way of rejuvenating their employees by coming up with more innovative methods of implementing them rather than the traditional annual leave systems.
5.4 Suggestions for Further Research
Areas arising for further investigation include:
- First, this methodology and tools should be employed in conducting similar studies in other banking institutions to establish the reliability of the study findings.
- Secondly, a study could be carried out to determine the optimum duration of leave from work and frequency that would ensure maximum productivity in an employee.
5.5 Implication of the study
The implication of the study would be discussed on the following:
The study of management will be enhanced as different approaches have been looked into under Work Life balance and Employee productivity. This implies that if good work flexibility, Low work pressure and good working hours are studied properly. Many organisation would be benefiting from this new strategy and thus increase efficiently in productivity.
Manager, Economists will gain in-depth knowledge. This will be able to adopt appropriate Work life balance for their employee and would help them to build a stronger organization
The society at large would benefit from this study. Being customer of the organization, as they would gain in-depth knowledge about the organisation and would be treated properly by a settled staff who has no issue with the work life balance of the organization
Work Life Balancing And Employee Productivity (A Case Study Of Zenith Bank)
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