Women Participation In Transformation Of Agricultural Development Programme Of Bauchi Local Government Area Of Bauchi State, Nigeria
The study examined the participation of women in transformation of agricultural development programme of Bauchi local government area of Bauchi state, Nigeria. Data were collected from 60 respondents in the study area using structured questionnaire.The data were analyzed using simple descriptive statistics and regression analysis. The results shows that 61.7% of the respondents were female, 70% of the respondents were within the age range of (35-45) years and married (78.3%), and (30%) educated. The findings revealed that 50% of the respondent’s access credit through farmers co-operatives. Majority (93.3%) were often visited by extension agents on a weekly basis, received advisory services (75%) in the area of crop production.
The regression results indicated R2 value of 0.974 implying that 97.4% of the participating farmers were influenced by the independent variable involved in the model. The major constraints of women participation in transformation of agricultural development programme in the study area were lack of subsidy by government, inadequate fertilizer, climate change and inadequate farm inputs. The study recommends provision of subsidy on inputs by government, adequate fertilizer and more farming inputs should be provided. There should be less complication in terms of obtaining loan; postharvest equipments should be adequately provided.
Table of Contents
- Table of Contents
- List of Tables
- 1.1 Background of the Study
- 1.2 Statement of Problem
- 1.3 Justification of the Study
- 1.4 Objectives of the Study
2.0 Literature Review
- 2.1 Concept of Agriculture
- 2.2 Women Participation in Agriculture
- 2.3 Agricultural Extension Service
- 2.4 Women Access to Agricultural Extension Service
- 2.5 Socio-economic Characteristics of Women Farmers
- 2.6 Women`s Time Use
- 2.7 Factors Militating Against Women Participation in Agricultural Production
- 2.7.1 Women contribution to agricultural labour force and its challenges
- 2.7.2 Access to resources
- 2.7.3 Access to land
- 2.7.4 Access to credit
- 2.7.5 Access to agricultural inputs
- 2.7.6 Access to education, training and extension services
- 2.7.7 Access to decision making
- 2.7.8 Access to research and appropriate technology
- 2.7.9 Access to mobility and time
- 2.8 Programmes Involving Women
- 2.8.1 Women groups and organization
- 2.8.2 N.G.O`s
- 2.8.3 WIA
- 2.9 Agricultural Technology
- 2.9.1 Definition
- 2.9.2 Purpose
- 2.9.3 Scope
- 2.9.4 Educational and career links
- 2.9.5 Farming outcomes
3.0 Research Methodology
- 3.1 The Study Area
- 3.2 Sample Size and Sampling Techniques
- 3.3 Data Collection
- 3.4 Tools of Analysis
4.0 Results and Discussion
- 4.1 Socio-economic Characteristic of Respondents
- 4.1.1 Gender
- 4.1.2 Age
- 4.1.3 Marital status
- 4.1.4 Family size
- 4.1.5 Level of education
- 4.1.6 Participation in farmer`s organization
- 4.1.7 Years of farming experience
- 4.1.8 Main occupation: Primary
- 4.1.9 Main occupation: Secondary
- 4.2 Access to Production Resources
- 4.2.1 Whether a farmer owns a farm
- 4.2.2 How many hectares
- 4.2.3 Access to land
- 4.2.4 Access to credit
- 4.2.5 Source of credit
- 4.2.6 If no, why?
- 4.2.7 Extension agent visitation
- 4.2.8 How often is the visitation
- 4.2.9 Advisory Services
- 4.3.1 Agricultural extension delivery
- 4.3.2 Area extension services was received
- 4.3.3 How often was advice received
- 4.3.4 Area influenced by extension message
- 4.4 Farming Activities of the Respondents
- 4.4.1 Farming activities
- 4.5 Regression Analysis
- 4.5.1 Regression analysis
- 4.6 Constraints
5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations
- 5.1 Summary
- 5.2 Conclusion
- 5.3 Recommendations
List of Tables
- Table 1; Distribution of Respondents according to gender
- Table 2; Distribution of Respondents according to age
- Table 3; Distribution of Respondents according to marital status
- Table 4; Distribution of Respondents according to family Size
- Table 5; Distribution of Respondents according to Level of education
- Table 6; Distribution of Respondents according to participation in farmer’s organization
- Table 7; Distribution of Respondents according to years of farming experience
- Table 8; Distribution of Respondents according to main occupation primary
- Table 9; Distribution of Respondents according to main occupation secondary
- Table 10; Distribution of Respondents according to whether the farmers owns a farmland
- Table 11; Distribution of Respondents according to how many hectares owned
- Table 12; Distribution of Respondents according to Access to land
- Table 13; Distribution of Respondents according to credit
- Table 14; Distribution of Respondents according to source of credit
- Table 15; Distribution of Respondents according to If no, why?
- Table 16; Distribution of Respondents according to extension agent’s visitation
- Table 17; Distribution of Respondents according to how often is the visitation.
- Table 18; Distribution of Respondents according to advisory services
- Table 19; Distribution of Respondents according to agricultural extension delivery
- Table 20; Distribution of Respondents according to which area extension services was received
- Table 21; Distribution of Respondents according to how often was the advice
- Table 22; Distribution of Respondents according to products activity
- Table 23; Distribution of Respondents according to farming activities
- Table 24; Distribution of Respondents according to regression table
- Table 25; Distribution of Respondents according to constraints
1.1 Background of the study
Agricultural development has been a major concern to most developing countries within the last two decades. It represents a cluster of six related but separate concepts; agricultural expansion; increased production per acre of cropped land or per head of livestock; agricultural growth; a situation characterized with agricultural products per agricultural worker, rising income per person employed and agricultural transformation.
Agriculture is the mainstay of the Nigerian economy, employing about 80 percent of the population with the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) contribution of ₦34, 950.00 million, between 1980-1985(World Bank,2003). This increased from ₦40, 500.00 million in 1986 to ₦59,389.00 million in 1996 (FOS, 2000). The aggregate agricultural production declined till 1980 (oil boom era) this led to a sharp decline in per capita real GDP in agriculture. By 1985, the index per capital real GDP of agriculture was 35 percent (Arokoyo, 2003).
In Nigeria, the rural areas are the food and fiber producing centers. They are also the seed bed of national population which serves to replenish the human resources of the urban centers. During the period of national emergencies and crises, the rural areas constitute a reservoir of national patriotism and manpower (Ekong, 1988). Hence, household security relies heavily on rural food production. According to (Ekong, 1988), the rapid increase in global food prices over the past years has raised a lot of issues in the developing countries.
Development will therefore not be achieved without rapid agricultural growth. Rural development is the bedrock of agricultural development in developing countries (including Nigeria) where most farmers are involved in subsistence agricultural practice. A review of current response to food crisis across the world has shown that these measures are being used with varying degrees of successes and failures, depending on the nature of the crisis per country. Various strategies are being used to protect the poor from the increase in price shocks. It is therefore necessary to invest in agricultural sector for rural development to increase agricultural output. Women’s role is also very crucial to the overall success of efforts directed towards rural development for increased agricultural productivity. They are more involved in agricultural activities than men especially in sub-Saharan Africa and provide most labour for a number of agricultural activities. They constitute about 90 percent of the workforce involved in direct arable crop production (Ogunlela and Aisha, 2009). The role of women in agricultural and rural development can therefore not be over-emphasized when considering rural and national development of Nigeria. Rural Development will therefore take place when attention is paid to various relevant institutions such as the cooperative societies, land tenure system, bank and credits, development of viable local government areas, educational institutions, medical institutions, and agricultural marketing outlets.
In the rural areas where most of the world’s hungry people live, women produce most of the food consumed locally. Their contribution could be much greater if they had equal access to essential resources and services, such as land, credit and training. Eliminating the obstacles that hamper women could be the key to achieving the goals of the World Food Summit. This can only be done if policies are shaped by better information about the difficulties experienced by women, and their aspirations, as well as by the participation of rural women themselves.
In developing countries, most women’s work is devoted to agriculture. Women are involved in every stage of food production and processing. Although men usually plough the fields and drive draught animals, women do most of the work involved in sowing, weeding, fertilizing and harvesting the staple crops – such as rice, wheat and maize – which allows for more than 90 percent of the rural poor’s diet.
Women’s contribution to secondary crops, such as legumes and vegetables, is even greater. Most of these crops are grown in home gardens, tended almost exclusively by women. These gardens are often remarkably productive and critically important to nutritional and economic well-being. A study in Eastern Nigeria, for example, found that home gardens occupying only 2 percent of a household’s farmland accounted for half the farm’s total production. Similarly, home gardens in Indonesia are estimated to provide more than 20 percent of household income and 40 percent of domestic food supplies.
Women are responsible for at least 70 percent of food staple production in Africa. They are also important in food processing and marketing, cash cropping, and animal husbandry. They are both laborers and decision makers and as more men migrate from the rural areas for work, an increasingly large number of women are managing farms on a day-to-day basis. Women farmers operate under greater constraints than men, constraints of which there is too little awareness. Women have less access to information, technology, land, inputs, markets, and credit. As primary caretakers of children, they have less time and mobility- and in Africa they are often illiterate. They need effective agricultural extension services, but these services are still geared toward male farmers, both in content and delivery method. Extension systems should be modified- with women farmers helping design changes to better reach women farmers. The extension message should be more tailored to the needs of women farmers. To this end, the information and technology needs of women farmers should be identified more effectively, and the links with agricultural research institutes strengthened so that they address women’s activities and constraints. Tools and machines appropriate for Women farmers should also be designed and made more easily available.
To ensure more effective delivery of the extension message to women, there should be a concerted effort to increase the number of female extension agents. Until more female extension agents are trained, female home economists and a matrix should be retrained and redeployed, and female agents presently in the extension system should be used as initial contacts with women farmers to familiarize them with the extension system. It is also very important that male extension agents be trained to work more effectively with women farmers. The extension system should identify ways to extend services to women to overcome constraints on their time and mobility and their limited education. Suggested approaches include mobile training courses and wider use of such mass media as radio and video cassettes. More generally, there should be a substantial increase in the number of female contact farmers to better reflect their significant role in the sector. The use of women’s contact groups is a particularly cost-effective way of providing extension. Monitoring and evaluation should include gender-disaggregated indicators to better assess the impact of extension on both men and women famers.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Over the last several decades, considerable effort has been made throughout the world to provide women farmers and women on the farm with efficient, effective, and appropriate technology, training, and information. The positive effects are beginning to show in agricultural production statistics and in indices of family welfare. Yet, these successes still fall far short of what is needed at a time when public sector investments in agricultural research and extension are under pressure, when ever-greater demands are being placed on rural women in the face of rapid social transformation, and, in an increasing number of areas, when evidence of environmental degradation is mounting.
Agriculture is underperforming in many developing countries for a number of reasons. Among these is the fact that women lack the resources and opportunities they need to make the most productive use of their time. Women are farmers, workers and entrepreneurs, but almost everywhere they face more severe constraints than men in accessing productive resources, markets and services. This “gender gap” hinders their productivity and reduces their contributions to the agriculture sector and to the achievement of broader economic and social development goals. Closing the gender gap in agriculture would produce significant gains for society by increasing agricultural productivity, reducing poverty and hunger and promoting economic growth.
Clear synergies exist between the gender-equality and hunger-reduction goals. Agricultural policy-makers and development practitioners have an obligation to ensure that women are able to participate fully in, and benefit from, the process of agricultural development. At the same time, promoting gender equality in agriculture can help reduce extreme poverty and hunger. Equality for women would be good for agricultural development, and agricultural development should also be good for women.
Empowering and investing in rural women has been shown to significantly increase productivity, reduce hunger and malnutrition and improve rural livelihoods and not only for women, but for everyone.
1.3 Research Questions
- What is the socio economic status of women farmers and how are they related to their participation in agriculture?
- What type of support services do women farmers receive in the study area and what are the once they don’t receive?
- What are the sources they are more prone to in adopting innovation?
- What are the challenges women are facing that are limiting their participation in agriculture?
- How much time do they spend on agriculture and agricultural related activities?
1.3 Justification of the Study
Women in Africa (including Nigeria) generally play an important role in small-scale traditional agricultural production (Afolabi, 2008). Over the past two decades, issues relating to the recognition of women’s role in economic and social development and of equality between men and women have fostered increasing interest among policy makers and development practitioners. Despite a noticeable improvement in gender awareness worldwide, data on women’s work and economic contribution have remained far from comprehensive (Odebode 2008).
With the rapid socio-economic growth, now being experienced, all over the world, women are found to be playing significant roles wherever they are found, though it is an established fact that the majority of people in developing countries such as Nigeria live in rural areas and that over 50 percent of the rural population are women. It is therefore important to examine the contributions of women to agricultural development if self-sustained rural development is to be achieved. Rural women have several roles such as farm management, home makers and agricultural laborer (Odebode, 2007).
1.4 Objectives of the Study
The broad objective of this study was to evaluate the women participation in agricultural transformation of Bauchi Local Government Area of Bauchi State.
Specific objectives were to:
- To determine the socio-economic characteristics of the respondents;
- Examine women access to resources and support services in the study area;
- To determine the activities carried out by women farmers especially those related to Agriculture; and
- Ascertain major constraints faced by women farmers in the study area.
5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
The study examines women participation in transformation of agricultural development programme in Bauchi local government area of Bauchi state
An attempt was made to describe the socio economic characteristic of women involved in transformation of agricultural development programme in the study area. Other objectives were to determine the activities carried by women farmer especially those related to agriculture, examine women access to resources and support services and to ascertain the constraints faced by women farmers in the study area.
To accomplish these objectives, sixty (60) questionnaires were administered in three (3) different districts of the local government out of which (20) were adequately administered to each of the districts namely: Zungur, Galadima and Bauchi metropolis the data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics and multiple regression.
The major findings of the study indicated that about 70% of the respondents feel within the age bracket of (31 – 45) years. 46.7% of the respondents had a family size between (4-6) people marital status showed that 78.3% of the respondents were married. Analysis of educational background showed that 30% of the respondents were educated up to primary school level also analysis of the secondary occupation of the respondents revealed that 68.3% where farmers, 61.7% of the respondents had access to production resources and extension services. The results further revealed that 50% of the respondents had access to credit through farmer’s cooperative societies
The regression analysis revealed an R2 value of 97.4% where age of farmer, marital status, family size, education level, farm size and access to credit were found to be significant at 99.9%. The major constraints of women participation in transformation of Agricultural development programme as identified by the study were lack of subsidy on inputs by government, inadequate fertilizer and inadequate farm inputs.
Based on the findings, it was concluded that women participated more in transformation of agricultural development programme in Bauchi Local Government Area of Bauchi State with a total respondents of 61.7% and 68.3% of them were actively involved in farming.
The study therefore recommended that: There should be subsidy on input by government for farmers in the study area. There should be adequate provision of fertilizer, more farming inputs and less-complications in-terms of obtaining loan. Post harvest and harvesting equipment should be adequately provided. Use of local farm implement should be replaced by modern inputs.
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