Women And National Development (A Case Study Of Family Support)
This study is to access to activities of women and national development particularly in Njikoka Local Government Area of Anambra State. The cordial objective of this study is to examine and investigate the performance of family support programme in the above mentioned local government area. To achieve this aim, for hypothesis were formulated. They tried to national development or not, the constructing factors militating against their effort, why most of their contributions are not usually acknowledged and achievement so far on the projects. The data used wee oral interview, library instrument, participant observation and sampling technique. After a thorough research with the use of interview and hosts of others, the hypothesis was accepted. It was found that women can effectively contribute to national development in Nigeria that is the idea behind this more will intended to establish and recreate the efforts being made by some capable women to engender roles of women folk for family and national development. It is also undertaken to determine the impact of women’s programmes in mobilizing women to contribute to national development in Nigeria. It was recommended that the efforts of women toward development should be accessed and encouraged and be motivated so as to brought about national development. In conclusion women’s effort in the national as a whole should be acknowledged their right should not be deprived of them, but mobilized and accessed in order to contribute enhancing to national development in Nigeria.
1.1 Background of the Study
From the beginning of time women have made to be a vital instrument of social development in almost all capacities of human engagement. The biblical injunction that women shell be man’s helper has lured various service and capacities for instance they have laboured in the house as the mother and housewives. They have a time extending their roles a cross the frontiers of a house-wife. At sometimes many women from age to age have proved to be invaluable silent counselors by their husbands. By thus is meat that some of the policy decision of their people are the brain child of their wives who inform their husbands of the decision that sometimes convey public impacts. That is not all.
Women are also found to be involved in some trivial but equally essential services to their families and the general society. These include harvesting and processing farm products for house holds consumption or assisting their make counterparts in farming. In fact, the term “assisting” might be misapplied have, because in the practical aspect, the African women engages in more tedious labour in the farm than we husband, most work done by men are easer going and work at shorter duration compared to the women tasks. For instance, men’s work are usually confined to cleaning an area for cultivation and even her sometime with women’s assistance and then cultivation. The rest of the work which is more labourious is entirely shifted to the women. These includes planting of the crop weeding and he general technical supervision of the farm.
In spite of these contribution, instead the form of trend that women have been suppressed to exploitation, subjected to psychological and in some instance physical assaui. (C.F. Iyayi,199:8)
Today, however the situation has assumed a different dimension as women are enjoying more freedom in our economic and technological complexities. It dawned on women that their intention is no longer suspected to menial Jobs but that also have a crucial role to play in positive development in Nigeria. Among the antecedents of these changes as they occurred in a historical sequence are as follows
In 1946, the united organization created the commission on the status of women in recognition of the disadvantage status of women.
The charter include the promotion of equality of opportunities regardless of race sex etc. in 1907, the general discrimination of education and in 1967, the united Nation general Assembly adopted a declaration on the elimination against women as an elaboration of the universal declaration of human right.
In 1972, the U. N general Assembly declared 1975 an internal women’s year. This led to the first world conference held in Copenhagen in 1975 where action was to be intensified to promote equally between men and women and to ensure the full integration of women in total development and effort and also increase their contribution to the strengthening of place. Another conference on international year for women oathining a ten year plan of action on “equality development and was held in Mexico.
In 1979, the U.N. took a resolution against any form of discrimination against women in Nigeria, the idea belong women originated from the interest that evolved during the founding members believed that the liberation of women cannot be fully achieved outside the context of liberating the oppressed and the poor majority in the country.
In 1685, the world conference on women was held in Nairobi Kenya, at a very ethical period when Nigeria was undergoing econ depression. Based on the 1985 forward-looking strategies for women, the federal government of Nigeria organization awareness campaigns, workshops, seminars and rallies to mobilize women and teenage girls.
Thus resulted in creating activities for both urban and rural women.
In 1989, United Nations educational scientific and cultural organization (UNESCO) stated that “human kind in entering the 21stcentury with a list of unresolved global issues on it’s agenda……women comprising half of the world’s population cannot be divorced from active participation in solving those global problem. This implies that women are entitled to equitable involvement in decision making in solving our problem.
Between August 27 and September 3, 1995, the forth U.N. conference on women was held in Belgium, China, it was the fourth and the largest world conference on women in the context of equality and sustainable development.
All these development illustrated human effort at redefining women status in the human folk. They bring with them corresponding challenges and responding challenges and responsibilities. Moreso, it is intentionally accepted that the family is the bedrock of every society.
Empowering women has become a frequently cited goal of development intervention (Mosedale, 2005). In 1970s when women empowerment was first invoked by the Third World feminist and women organizations, it was explicably used to frame and facilitate the struggle for social justice and women equality through a transformation of economic, social and political structures at national and international levels (Bisnath & Elson, 2003). The need to empower women seems to centre on the fact that women have potentials to contribute to the development process but are constrained by some factors that render them powerless. While the reasons for any particular woman’s powerlessness (or powerfulness) are many and varied, it may be necessary to consider what women have in common in this respect. The common factor is that, they are all constrained by their reproductive responsibilities, societal norms, beliefs, customs and values by which societies differentiate between them and men (Kabeer, 2000). These constraints are shaped by male dominated social structure (patriarchy), high rate of poverty among women, and gender division of labour.
Nevertheless, focusing on the empowerment of women as a group requires an analysis of gender relations, that is, the way in which power relations between the sexes are constructed and maintained. In patriarchal societies like Nigeria, men have ultimate authority over material resources in the household, such as land and cash crops, and over the labour of women and other household members. Women having no direct access to land and cash crops or men’s labour, must request these resources from their husbands or from other males in the household to whom they are obligated (Adams & Castle, 1994). Women’s level of education, poverty and men’s attitude towards women have over the years posed a serious threat to women’s participation in development. It is obvious that level of education and economic conditions of women most often determine their level of participation in decision making both at family, community, state and national levels. There is generally unequal burden of domestic maintenance and childcare responsibilities allocated to women as compared to men. Male dominance in sexual relations, with its consequence on women’s lack of control over their sexuality in many societies has denied women right to determine the number of children they want. They have a low decision making power as compared with men. The prevailing patriarchal ideology, which promotes values of submission, sacrifice, obedience and silent suffering often undermines the attempts by women to assert themselves or demand for share of resources and right (Hawkesworth, 1990).
Empowerment therefore requires an analysis of women’s subordination, the formulation of an alternative more satisfactory set of arrangements to those which exist. These can be achieved through the alleviation of the burden of domestic labour and child care, the removal of institutionalized forms of discrimination, the establishment of political equality, improving the economic status of women, freedom of choice over child bearing, and taking measures against male violence and control over women (Molyneaux, 1985). In other words, empowerment requires transformation of structures of subordination through changes in law, property rights, and other institutions that reinforce and perpetuate male domination (Batliwala, 1994). This could be done by improving the educational, political and economic status of women to enable them to participate actively in development processes. It is this realization of the need to have women run their own lives, be part and parcel of socioeconomic and political agenda in their countries, that the United Nations devoted a decade (1975-85) to issues concerning women and development. The ultimate goal was to empower women to develop their potentials, contribute to and benefit from development on equal basis as men (United Nations, 1975).
In 1990s, many agencies used the term women empowerment in association with a wide variety of strategies including those which focused on enlarging the choices and productivity of women (Bisnath, 2001). Many conferences had been held with the intention to advance the status of women and eliminate gender- based discrimination. Some of these conferences include Mexico Conference of 1975, Copenhagen Conference of 1980, Nairobi World Conference of 1985, and the 1995 Beijing World Conference. There had been other conferences on women across the globe.
Many strategies had also been put in place to empower women, politically, economically and educationally in Nigeria. These strategies according to Okeke (1995) include widening women’s access to education, encouraging their full participation in cash economy, getting women to participate in politics and reviewing laws on status of women.
The 1999 constitution provided promotion and protection of women’s right in Nigeria. The Federal government adopted the national policy on women in July, 2000. This policy provided, inter-alia, for affirmative action to increase to 35 percent women’s representation in the legislative and executive arms of government. The Federal Government has also set up the National Women Development Centre as a parastatal to the Federal Ministry of
Women Affairs. The Centre is primarily in-charge of research studies on women’s issues
(WomenAid Collective, 2008).
The Third Millennium Development Goal (MDG) focused on the promotion of gender equality and empowerment of women. The United Nations Millennium Projects Task Force on education and gender equality has outlined seven strategic priorities to achieve the Goal 3 of the Millennium Development Goals. These include: strengthening opportunities for secondary education of girls while meeting commitment to universal primary education; guaranteeing sexual and reproductive health and rights; investing in infrastructure to reduce women’s and girls time burdens; guaranteeing women’s and girls’ property and inheritance right; eliminating gender inequalities in employment by decreasing women’s reliance on informal employment, closing gender gaps in earnings and reducing occupational segregation; increasing women’s share of seats in national parliaments and local governmental bodies; and combating violence against girls and women (International Centre for Peace Research on Women, 2005 Report).
National governments, including Nigeria, have evolved strategies and programmes to empower women politically, educationally and economically. Indeed, many states and towns that make up Nigeria have also benefited from these initiatives and it has not excluded Nsukka town. Some of these programmes are organized by women themselves, government and non-governmental bodies at community levels to support other programmes at state, national and international levels. These initiatives include, formation of women’s organizations that engage in development-oriented activities to tackle social problems such as inequity in political, economic and education sectors, male dominance, maternal and child health, child marriage, and other related problems. Other approaches to these initiatives include economic empowerment which focuses on improving women’s control over material resource. This could be achieved by organizing women for savings and increasing women’s access to credits, income generation, skills training and other related activities. These empowerment initiatives also involve consciousness raising and accumulation of knowledge and ideas, for it is acknowledged that women’s empowerment requires awareness of complex factors causing women’s subordination. This is achieved through education and other literacy related activities.
Although some empowerment initiatives exist in Nsukka, for example, micro credit programmes, skill training centres, adult literacy centres, women cooperative societies among others, the effectiveness of the initiatives has not been examined. This study will therefore examine the availability of empowerment initiatives, evaluate their roles in promoting women’s participation in development processes and also identify factors that constrain women’s successful empowerment and participation in development processes in Nsukka town.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Women’s population of 68.3 million constitutes almost half of the entire country’s population, of 140 million (National Population Commission, 2006). This numerical strength has not been translated to equal treatment in the society. Apart from numerical strength, women have great potentials to evolve a new economic order, thereby helping in accelerating social and political development and consequently transforming the society into a better one. Olawoye (1995) describes Nigerian women as a crucial factor in production. According to her, they are largely responsible for the bulk production of crops, agro-based food processing, preservation of crops and distribution of yields from farm centres to market in both rural and urban areas.
Nigerian women are contributing their quota to the development of the nation, but their potentials seem not to have been fully tapped due to some constraints. Disparities still exist between men and women in education, employment and income opportunities, control over assets, personal security and participation in the development process (Rahman &Naoroze, 2007). This may be as a result of lingering constraints including poor economic condition of Nigerian women, lack of adequate legislation and policies to support the rights of women, unequal access to education, limited access to land, lack of assertiveness among women etc. Level of education, income level, and men’s perception on the need for women’s participation in development have been viewed as determining factors in women’s participation in development processes. With regard to political participation, women have been grossly underrepresented. The last general election revealed a 6 percent representation of women across all levels of elected offices across the country. With regard to Enugu State, out of the 17 local government areas of the state, no woman was elected as the executive chairman and only five women are in the state house of assembly that has 24 members. This is a gross under representation of women who make up about 50 percent of Nigerian population (WACOL, 2008). Affirmative action has not been fully adopted by either governments or political parties. There is still low level of education among women.
Under-representation of Nigerian women in educational, economic and political programmes could lead to a serious set back in development and, thus, the need for women empowerment. Many programmes have been put in place at local, state, national and international levels. These programmes and initiatives aim at widening women’s access to education, encouraging women’s full participation in cash economy and politics and reviewing laws on status of women. These initiatives are organized by both women themselves, and governmental and non-governmental organizations and include the provision of micro-credit facilities, educational programmes, skill acquisition, political participation, and related activities. These programmes are evident in Nsukka.
Though some of these empowerment initiatives exist, the effectiveness of these initiatives in promoting the participation of Nsukka women in development processes has not been empirically examined and documented. This dearth of research has created the need for this study. This research will therefore assess the empowerment initiatives available to women in Nsukka and evaluate the role of these initiatives in promoting women’s participation in development processes and identify the factors that limit empowerment and participation of Nsukka women in development processes.
1.3 Research Questions
The following research questions are to guide this study:
- What are the empowerment initiatives available for women in Nsukka town?
- In what ways have Nsukka women been empowered economically?
- In what ways have Nsukka women been empowered politically?
- In what ways have Nsukka women been empowered educationally?
- In what areas have Nsukka women participated most in the economic, political and educational development processes?
- What are the factors that may militate against Nsukka women’s full empowerment and participation in development processes?
- Does the educational qualification of Nsukka women influence their participation in development processes?
- Does the income level of Nsukka women influence their participation in development processes?
- Does the employment status of Nsukka women influence their participation in development processes?
1.4 Objectives of the Study
The general objective of this study is to assess the impact of empowerment on women’s participation in development processes in Nsukka. The specific
- To identify the empowerment initiatives available to women in Nsukka.
- To ascertain the ways in which women have been empowered politically in Nsukka
- To assess the ways in which women have been empowered educationally
- To ascertain the ways in which women have been empowered economically
- To identify the areas which Nsukka women have participated most in economic, political and educational development processes
- To identify the factors which may militate against full empowerment and participation of Nsukka women in development processes.
- To determine the relationship between Nsukka women’s educational qualification and their participation in development processes
- To determine the relationship between women’s income level and their participation in development processes
- To ascertain the relationship between Nsukka women’s employment status and their participation in development processes?
1.5 Significance of the Study
The study has both theoretical and practical significance. Theoretically, this study will add to the body of knowledge on the levels of women’s empowerment at the local and community levels. It will throw more light on the existing literature with regard to the role of empowerment on women’s participation in developmental processes and the factors that limit women’s empowerment and participation in development processes. It will be of great help to students and researchers who may want to investigate issues relating to women. Practically, this work will produce data, which will enhance the understanding of major factors that hinder women empowerment and participation in developmental processes and the best strategies for eliminating the constraints. Based on this, governmental and non-governmental organizations would be able to mount effective policies and empowerment programmes that would be beneficial to women and the world in general. This work will also serve as a working document to women community-based organizations and other established women organizations that are interested in improving the status of women.
1.6 Definition of Key Concepts
Development processes for this study include all the activities involved in the political, economic and educational activities which can lead to the upliftment and enhancement of women’s status and the society at large. These activities include voting and contesting for elections, belonging to political parties and involvement in other political activities, involvement in both formal and informal educational training, and involvement in money-yielding, production activities and other related activities.
Economic Development Process:
This includes entrepreneurship activities, cooperativerelated activities, production activities and all other processes relating to money-yielding activities that lead to improvement of the well-being of women and the society.
This entails women’s access to and control over the means of making a living on sustainable and long term basis and receiving the material benefits of this access and control which leads to economic independence. It includes access to land, agricultural facilities, micro credit, cash crops, and skill and technical training.
Educational Development Process:
This involves all formal and informal training activities, including teaching, creating awareness on the need for education, and skill acquisition that results in the enhancement of women’s status.
Educational empowerment entails women’s opportunity to acquire literacy skills, ideas and knowledge which will help in liberating their minds and improving their socio-economic and political statuses. This is achieved through access to media, adult literacy programmes, workshops and awareness campaigns.
Employment status is the type of endeavours or occupation that women engage in for their livelihood. This is categorized into self-employed, civil servants, women employed in private firms and unemployed women.
This is a process whereby women are provided with both material and nonmaterial assets to enable them to engage in activities that aim at reducing their powerlessness which was created by their membership of a marginalized group. These activities include income generating activities, educational activities, and political activities.
Empowerment initiatives are programmes which are established by individuals, government and non-governmental organizations in communities to help in improving the status of women and the society. These programmes range from micro credit programmes, activities initiated by women organizations, literacy programmes, women skill training, and other related programmes.
Gender is defined as the social, economic, political and cultural attributes, perceptions, and opportunities which a society associates with being male or female.
Recognition that women and men have differences in needs and roles in society. Gender awareness enables one to identify problems arising from gender inequality and discrimination that must be addressed.
Following Aidoo, et al (2002), gender discrimination in this research means a differential treatment of individual groups based entirely on their being male or female. This difference contributes to structural inequality in the society. It has manifested in systemic and structural discrimination against women in the distribution of income, access to resources, participation in decision-making, education and power.
A principle that ensures equal rights and opportunities for women, men, girls and boys in all sectors of human endeavour, politically, educationally, legally and economically.
This is the denial of equal rights and opportunity for both sexes in all sectors of human endeavor, politically, educationally, legally, and economically.
This is the denial of equal rights and opportunity based on membership of a particular sex, class, ethnic group etc.
This means being actively involved and taking part in development processes in the society.
Political Development Process:
This entails all activities relating to political decisionmaking, electioneering activities, organizing women for change, and other activities that are concerned with mobilization of women for enhanced status in the society.
Political empowerment is the process of promoting women’s access to power and decision-making. This involves giving women the opportunity to participate in political matters like electing people and contesting for elections, belonging to political parties and women organizations, and attaining leadership in order to challenge the existing structures of inequality.
For the purpose of this study, the term women is defined as adult females from the age of 18 and above.
This is a process through which women acquire skills and willingness to critically analyse their situation and take appropriate action to change their status in the society. It is a process of enabling women achieve control over their lives through expanded choice. It encompasses women’s access to education, landed property, political positions and involvement in money–making activities and decision-making processes. It is a function of individual initiative which is facilitated by institutional change and support.
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
This study was conducted in three autonomous communities that make up Nsukka, namely, Nru, Ihe/Owerre and Nkpunanor autonomous communities. A total sample of 540 respondents was chosen for this study. Five hundred and ten (510) copies of the questionnaire were administered and were duly completed and collected. An in-depth interview (IDI) which involved 15 men and 15 women, was also conducted to complement the survey instrument (questionnaire).
The general main objective of this study was to assess the impact of empowerment on women’s participation in development process. In addition to this main objective, other objectives were stated. These objectives include, to identify the empowerment initiatives available to women in Nsukka, to ascertain the ways in which women have been empowered politically; to ascertain the ways in which women have been empowered economically; to access the ways in which women have been empowered educationally; to identify the areas in which women have participated most in economic; political and educational process; to identify the factors which may militate against full empowerment and participation of Nsukka women in development processes; and to determine the relationship between women’s educational level, income level, employment status and women’s participation in development process. In line with these objectives, research questions were also raises and hypotheses postulated to guide the study.
Empirical and theoretical literature were reviewed to support the issues raised at the beginning of the study and the study was anchored on the Stromquist (1995) and Batliwala (1994) models of empowerment.
Two instruments: questionnaire and in-depth interview were used for data collection and the data were analysed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software. Weighted means were used in the analysis of research questions. With regard to the findings of the study, evidence from data analyses show that the results of the study are supportive of the major assumptions made at the beginning of the study and also support some of the literature that were reviewed. The results of the study show that the higher the educational level of women the higher their participation in development processes. This corroborates the assertions of Ahmed (1992), Rahman and Naoroze (2007), and Meena et al (2008).
On the issue of the relationship between income level and women’s participation in development process, the findings show that the higher the income level of women the higher their participation in development processes. This appear to corroborate Hoque and Itohara (2009), and Garikipati (2008) studies.
The findings also reveal that women are participating in development processes especially in agricultural production and voting in election. There is also an indication that women’s participation in development processes is still generally low. This low participation according to the findings of the study is attributed to reproductive and domestic roles of women, discriminatory attitude of males, lack of group coalition among women, poor economic base of women, and illiteracy among women.
Women can be described as an indispensable group in the development of any nation. Women’s empowerment creates a powerful influence on community, family and the nation at large. Thus, women empowerment can be seen as a vital strategy for any development effort. Although some initiatives have been established by government, nongovernmental bodies and individual, some factors have constituted constraints to women’s involvement in these initiatives. Ignorance of the existence of these initiatives, lack of interest among women and restriction from husbands and other males have denied womenaccess to these initiatives.
The study revealed that income level and educational level have significant relationships with women’s participation in development processes. This supports the view of Lasiele (1999) that preference to boy child education has to low educational empowerment of women which has led to their poor participation in development process. He further asserts that poor economic bases of women have also affected women’s participation in development processes. Thus, to help improve the participation of Nsukka women in development processes, they should be empowered politically, educational and economically.
The study also reveals that women’s participation in development is still low. It was observed that many factors still constitute barriers to active participation of women in development processes. There is need for government, non governmental bodies and individuals to work hand in hand in eliminating or reducing these constraints in order to create a conducive environment for women to actively participate in the development process. This will lead to sustainable development in Nigeria.
Based on the findings of this study, the following recommendation were made:
- The National gender policy should be enacted into laws to provide a legal framework for gender mainstreaming in the national development plans and strategies.
- There should be coalition among women organizations and groups. This will help them share experiences and be able to tackle problems facing women. Women groups could be used as an effective mechanism for information dissemination, social and mutual learning, institutionalized process for capacity building and empowerment.
- Considering the relationship between income level of women and their participation in development processes as illustrated by the findings of this study, programmes for women upliftment must integrate the vital dimensions such as formation of social capitals, provision of financial and credit support systems, and enterprises and need based skill development through training. This should also include regular monitoring of women to ensure that they invest their resources in something meaningful to give them some degree of economic independence.
- Re-orientation of men’s mind set on women’s empowerment and participation could greatly enhance women’s empowerment. This could be achieved through seminars, training and workshops.
- Women should be given unlimited access to education and media. Through these, women will come to realize the scopes and opportunities through which they can improve their status in the society.
- The empowering agents (e.g. governments, non-governmental bodies, individuals) should create necessary awareness on the availability of the existing empowerment initiatives so that women can take advantage of these initiatives to empower themselves.
- All traditional and religious practices affecting women and girls should be abolished by the appropriate authorities.
- Finally, women leaders and other highly educated women should make effort to sensitize and educate their fellow women. They should write about women achievers and their achievement in order to educate the public on the immense contributions of women to the socio-political and economic evolution of Nigeria.
5.4 Suggestions for Further Research
- It will be interesting to conduct a research that will discover the available empowerment initiatives in rural communities in Nsukka local government area since this study was carried out in an urban community.
- The existing empowerment initiatives should be evaluated to determine the problem which the organizers encounter in the process of executing these initiatives.
- Other researches should be carried out in other rural communities in Nsukka local government to assess the level of women’s participation in development activities in the rural areas.
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