Water Purification Unit

Project and Seminar Material for Chemical Engineering

Water Purification Unit


Water Purification Unit or filtration unit is designed in way that it will give a nice result. Like in our filtration, we have sand and carbon filter that were responded to separate the suspended solid particles, odour and taste of the water, which will give a very nice filtered water at the end of the filtration. This unit has no chemical engineering operation, but a physical separation process that will separate the dead micro organisms and the task, colour odor of the water. The chlorine content or amount of chlorine that should be close to water that full our bucket should be 4mgll and if it is hard water it will be

reduced to 3mgll. The sand was suspended on a net, where it was arranged in layers, gravel or coast sand, semi coast, and fine sand, while in carbon, also suspended on a net, where coast sand was first layer before the polished and graded carbon.

Chapter One

Introduction to Water Purification Unit.

Technologies for water treatment are now well established and are capable of producing almost any degree of purity. The main issue surrounding the selection of any given process lies in deciding which is the most appropriate and applicable technology for the particular social, political and economic environment. Hence this report concentrate on the construction of a filtration unit or purification unit to be used in filtering water suspended particle.

Water is an oxide of hydrogen, when dry hydrogen is ignited in air, it burns with a faint blue flame to give steam, which will condonse on any cold surface to form water.

2H2(g) + O2(g) 2H2O(g)

Hydrogen Oxygen Hydrogen oxide (water)

Water is one of the most common substance known. It constitutes bont 70% by mass of the earth surface.

Fundamentally, water is essential for life to exist. Man drinks between 700 and 1000liters of water every year. If one lose more than 20% water there is a sever risk of damage to oneโ€™s health. Water has a wide range of applications both domestic and industrial wise. The quality standards of water suitable for some purpose can be defined in fairly definite terms whereas the quality of water required for other uses is quite variable. Thus, the degree of purity of any water limits its uses or application. Hence, the need for water purification unit. Water purification units are of various types and functions. One could be to reduce the level of turbidity and colour, or the remove the bacterial load or more still to reduce the total dissolved solid. However, there is need for clarity of water before you ever talk of further purification needs. Hence the motive of this project which is to design a purification unit that will take care of the clarity of the water.

Objectives of the Work.

The major objective of the project is to examine and study the fundamentals of water purification units, particularly the filtration unit.

Thus, it is aimed at designing and constructing a filtration unit, that can filter water for use in areas where water is needed in a medium scale.

Therefore, the objectives of the project can be summarized as follow.

  1. To construct a filtration unit ie both standard carbon filter.
  2. To design and construct process flow system for the water filtration unit.
  3. To use locally available water source for sample and treatment.

The Scope of the Work

In the project we intend to cover the filtration aspect of water treatment as it concerns design and construction of the filtration unit. Two filtration units will be constructed, one for sand, one for carbon.

Locally sourced water will be analyzed Raw and after passing through the unit.


In this case, we will search the literature in water purification unit particularly filtration unit. Construction of this unit in the workshop and experimental of the water used in the unit test run.

Chapter Five


The use of water purification unit or filtration unit is very important, it is true that minerals are important parts of drinking water and are of both direct and indirect health significance. Sufficient evidence is now available to confirm that a certain minimum amount of minerals in water is desirable, since their deficiency have many negative health effects; diseases and possible aggression from toxic elements and bacteria. The optimum Ca and Mg levels in drinking water should lie within the following ranges: from 20 to 30mg/l for Ca and from 40 to 80 mg/l for Mg and from about 200 to 400mg/l for water hardness.

As recommended in the rolling revision of the WHO guidelines for drinking water quality, titled: nutrient minerals in drinking โ€“ water and the potential health consequences of long-term consumption of dematerialized and rematerialized and altered mineral content drinking โ€“ water โ€“ waters; there is a need nor more precise data on the impact of water composition and intake under a broader range of physiologic and climatic conditions, in order to more precisely evaluate the important of minerals in drinking water on mineral nutrition.

National governments and water suppliers should be encouraged to practice stabilization of dematerialized water with additives that will increase calcium and magnesium levels and to conduct studies that monitor public health impacts. Water bottlers should also consider providing waters with mineral compositions that are beneficial for population segments.


We were able to use end cap because ball gauge was costly, we planned for 7 ball gauges and the price changes and we use end cap in place of it. Because this purification unit or filtration unit is not going to use motor that will be pumping water inside, we decide to elevate them one after another, so that they will be working by gravity.
We were able to use bucket because there was no enough money that will be use to construct 4 cylinders and also iron pipe that will why we use rubber once for cheap and economics advantages.

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