Water Pollution

Project and Seminar Material for Chemical Engineering

Water Pollution


Abstract


This seminar studied and analyzed Water Pollution, the causes, the effects, the sources, types and control of Water Pollution in the societies water pollution occurred when pollutants were discharged directly or indirectly into water bodies without adequate treatment to remove harmful compounds, Water Pollution affected plant, and organisms living in this bodies of water. Water pollution was known to be caused by the following factors, sewage and wastewater, marine dumping industrial waste, radioactive waste, oil pollution, underground storage leakages, atmospheric deposition, global warming and petrophication. The effect of water pollution were very tremendous in our societies, there were numerous pollution of water, which we have contaminated ground water effect, effects of agriculture water pollution, effects of thermal of heavy metal water pollution, all these affected the respiratory mechanism of aquatic organism, which will also affects man that take the organism. These impacts included pollution of the water bodies, it equally affects man directly and indirectly. The most affective way of controlling water pollution was to ensure that chemical wastes should be converted to harmless substance before being dump in the sea and, sewage should be processed, treated and converted to useful fertilizers in plants and also refuse should be processed, treated and converted to useful fertilizers in sewage plant the control of this water pollution has help in our communities and in our lives.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Water can be said to be polluted when there is an introduction of a harmful substances in such a way that its natural qualities are so altered as to impure its usefulness or render it offensive to the sense of taste, smell or sight (Aminu, 2000).

According to Akpan, & Ajayi, (2016), water pollution has so many ways of definition. However, the basic elements of most definitions are the concentration of particular pollutant in water for sufficient period of time to cause certain effect. If it related health such as the ones caused by pathogenic bacteria intrusion, the term contamination is appropriate. A basis for defining water pollution can be said to the presence of impurities in clean water or pure water.

Most cause of water pollution includes sewage and wastewater, marine dumping, industries waste, radioactive waste, oil pollution, underground storages leakage, atmosphere deposition, global warming eutrophication, fertilizers contain nutrient such as nitrate and phosphate in excess level, which over stimulate the growth of aquatic plants and algae. These organisms when growth in excess, consequently clogs our water wags, use dissolved oxygen as they decompose and block light to deeper water which proves very harmful to aquatic organism as it affects their respiratory organisms as it affects their respiratory ability. Fish and other invertebrates that reside in water are affected as well (Aminu, 2000).

Finally, science provides many practical solutions to minimizing the present level as which pollutants are introduced into the societies and for remedying past problems. All the solution comes with some cost (both monetary and societal). A great deal can be done to minimize pollution in our everyday lives. If we take care and act responsibly with household chemical and their disposal and recycle, material whose production creates pollution.

The background study of water changing pollution is continuously moving around the earth and constantly its form evaporates from land, become bodies of water and is used by all forms of life on earth, and water pollution is threatening earth’s inhabitants. The causes of pollution in water are virtually endless and have many sources (Helmer & Hespanho 1997). The most polluting of them are the city sewage and industrial waste discharged into the rivers. Presently, only about 10% of the waste water generated is treated, the rest is discharged as its is into our water bodies. Due to this pollutants enter groundwater, rivers and other water bodies. This polluted water, which ultimately ends up in our households, is highly contaminated and cattis disease causing microbes. Agriculture run-off, or the water from the fields that drains into rivers, is another major water pollutants as it contain fertilizers and pesticides. Many people dump garbage onto streams, lakes, rivers and seas, thus, making water bodies the final resting place of cans, bottle, plastics and other household products (Jeantheau 2005). Today cleaning products are synthetic detergents coming from petrochemical industries. Most detergents and washing powders contain phosphates, which are used to soften the water. These and other chemicals contained in washing products, affect the health of all forms of life in the water and who uses water. Human infectious diseases are among the most serious affects of water pollution, especially in developing countries, where sanitation may be inadequate or non-existent. Clearly, problems associated with water pollution have the capabilities to disrupt life on the planet to a great extent.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

The achievement of lessening water pollution is the main issue here, what the local government as well as the local people in doing in protecting and sustaining geothermal fluids like hot springs and volcanic ejecta is critical (Aminu, 2000). What are the factors that will lead to geothermal pollution of hot springs. Conserving and protecting hot springs by means to not bathing in it for soap, even bio-soap, introduces harmful contaminates that do not break down into the water system. Keeping composites at 200 feet away system keeping composites at 200 feet away from all water sources because any pollution that gets in threatens fish, wildlits and human drinking water are some of the ways in maintaining the quality of hot springs.

What are water distribution in the area that contribute in water pollution and eventual decline of the purity of hot springs would be another issue to deal with (Adetunde, & Glover, 2010). Tarps left in hot springs produce a foreign fungus which does not break down and it harmful to the surrounding and ultimately makes it may into the local water systems. All this pollutants of water lead to the scientific study of the effect and a way to minimize or control water pollution.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The broad objective of this study is examining water pollution. Specifically but not limited to, other objectives of this study are:

  1. Determining the extent of water pollution in Nigeria
  2. Examining the causes of water pollution in Nigeria
  3. Finding out the effects of water pollution
  4. Examining the ways in which water pollution can be curbed in Nigeria.

1.4 Research Questions

The following research questions will be answered in this study:

  1. To what extent is the incident of water pollution in Nigeria?
  2. What are the causes of water pollution in Nigeria?
  3. What are the effects of water pollution?
  4. What are the ways in which water pollution can be curbed in Nigeria?

1.5 Significance of the Study

This study will be greatly significant to the government as the findings of this study will urge the policy makers to make policies that will effectively tackle this scourge of water pollution. It will further be of great significance to the society as the results will reveal the effects of water pollution on the health and on plants and the preventive ways the pollution can be stooped.

In addition, it will also be important to companies, industries and those in the oil sector as the findings will reveal the damage industrial wastes from their companies and industries is causing.

Finally, this study be beneficial to scholars and students as it will serve as an existing material for future reference and further research.


1.6 Scope of the Study

This study will be focused on water pollution. Specifically, this study will be focused on determining the extent of water pollution in Nigeria, examining the causes of water pollution in Nigeria, finding out the effects of water pollution and examining the ways in which water pollution can be curbed in Nigeria.

Selected sample of respondents from Brass LGA in Bayelsa State will serve as enrolled participants for the survey of this study.


1.7 Limitations to the Study

The researcher encountered minor obstacles when conducting the study, as with any human endeavor. The significant constraint was the scarcity of literature on the subject due to the nature of the discourse, so the researcher incurred more financial expenses and spent more time sourcing for relevant materials, literature, or information and in the data collection process, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. Furthermore, the researcher did this investigation alongside other academic activities. Furthermore, the sample size was limited because only a few respondents were chosen to answer the research instrument, therefore the results cannot be generalized to other secondary schools outside the state. Despite the constraints encountered during the research, all elements were minimized in order to provide the best results and make the research effective.


1.8 Definition of Terms

Water Pollution:

Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies, usually as a result of human activities, in such a manner that negatively affects its legitimate uses. Water pollution reduces the ability of the body of water to provide the ecosystem services that it would otherwise provide.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Summary

This chapter of the study is set aside to determine summarized the descriptive analysis done in the precious chapters. It also gives the conclusion and makes some recommendation.

In summary, the purpose of this study was toassess water pollution. Specifically the study focused on determining the extent of water pollution in Nigeria, examining the causes of water pollution in Nigeria, finding out the effects of water pollution and, examining the ways in which water pollution can be curbed in Nigeria.

In order to carry out this study research questions formulated to guard the investigation.A total of259 residents of Brass LGA in Bayelsa State, were randomly selected as enrolled participants for the survey.The study was anchored on the theory of ecological perspective of change and development by Wilkinson And Boulding (1973)


5.2 Conclusion

In the conclusion the study is beyond doubt and abundantly clear that the right intake of nutrition during pregnancy is very important. .

From results obtained and analyzed, the study reveals that:

  1. The extent of the incident of water pollution in Nigeria is very high
  2. The causes of water pollution in Nigeria include:
    1. Oil spills
    2. Improper Sewage Disposal
    3. Rapid Urban Development
    4. Fertilizer Run-Off and
    5. Chemical Waste Dumping
  3. The effects of water pollution include:
    1. Destruction of biodiversity,
    2. Contamination of the food chain,
    3. Lack of potable water and
    4. Diseases

5.3 Recommendation

Recommendation on the basis of findings. The researcher made the following recommendation with the belief that when studied and applied, would help to reduce the impact of water pollution on residents. The researcher recommends that:

  1. Environmental education should be enshrined in the school curriculum from primary to tertiary institutions to inculcate in the masses environmental friendly attitudes. Such environmental education should equally be carried out through the traditional media so as to carry along both the literate and illiterate ones in the quest for a healthy environment.
  2. Oil industries operating in the country should ensure regular maintenance of their equipment to avoid equipment failure and ruptures capable of spewing thousands of barrels of oil unto the land and under ground waters. In case of oil spill, immediate clean up of the environment should be carried out while processes of remediation should commence without delay
  3. Residents should avoid illegal activities such as bunkering and artisanal refining which are major causes of water pollution in the area. Also, they should avoid sabotaging oil facilities in the area bearing in mind that in case of oil spill it is them that suffers the consequences. Dialogue with oil industries operating in the area should be their watchword in case of threatening situations.

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