Water Pollution In The Niger Delta Region Of Nigeria, Causes And Implications

Project and Seminar Material for Environmental Science

Water Pollution In The Niger Delta Region Of Nigeria, Causes And Implications


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous organic compounds that can result from natural processes such as forest fires, volcanic eruption and petroleum products, short-term degradation of biogenic precursors (diagenesis) and sundry anthropogenic sources (Mastral et al.2003). Several studies have shown that PAHs can be transported from polluted areas to remote regions through atmospheric transport. In marine environments, these hydrophobic com-pounds with very low water solubility could be adsorbed to particulate organic matter and eventually sink to deep waters and sediments which are the final sink (Raoux et al.1999). Natural oil seepage, oil spills and discharge of petroleum products are classified as petrogenic sources, whereas all the incomplete combustion of organic matter are pyro-genic sources (Abrajano et al.2003; Benlahcen et al.1997;Baumard et al.1998).There are extensive petroleum production activities in the Niger Delta of Nigeria.

The Niger Delta, is located in the Atlantic Coast of southern Nigeria, is the second largest delta in the world. It ranks amongst the worlds most prolific petroleum production area. Delta sand accounts for about 5% of the world’s oil and gas re-serves. Enormous petroleum and gas deposit in the area is estimated at about 30 billion barrels of oil and 260 trillion cubic feet of natural gas (Reijers et al.,1996). The resource (oil and gas) exploitation has resulted in several million barrels of crude oil spillages and gas flares. The US Department of Energy estimates that since 1960, more than four thou-sand (4000) oil spills have discharged several million barrels of oil into the ponds, ditches, creeks, beaches, streams and rivers of the Niger Delta, which are interconnected and therefore leading to environmental damage (Maya2006). The region falls within the tropical rain forest zone. The ecosystem of the area is highly diverse and supportive of numerous species of terrestrial and aquatic flora and fauna and human life. Resources (oil and gas) from the region are the main source of revenue for the Nigerian state, accounting for about 97% of the country’s total export. The Niger Delta is characterized by huge environmental degradation and acclaimed government marginalization and neglect. Whereas the facts of environmental devastation maybe self-evident so to say, articulate and comprehensive scientific data discussing these issues are sparse. The present work is an improved and progressive attempt at a scientific discourse of water quality issues in the Niger Delta of Nigeria, especially as it relates to straight chain and poly aromatic hydrocarbon levels in surface water. The study seeks to appraise water pollution in the Niger delta region of Nigeria, causes and implications.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

In Nigeria’s Niger Delta region, the problem of water re-sources is the availability and good quality (potable) water because of environmental pollution (Awosika1995). Studies have shown that water resources in the Niger delta are easily contaminated by anthropogenic activities (Kaizeret al.2001; Obasi and Balogun2001; Ovrawah and Hymore2001). The inability of water bodies to support aquatic life as well as its suitability for other uses in the Niger delta is as a result of heavy pollutant and pollution. This is because surface waters are wide open to floodings which carry various contaminants, in addition to industrial wastewater discharges and mining. They constitute major source of surface water pollution. The problem confronting the study is to appraise water pollution in the Niger delta region of Nigeria, causes and implications.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The fundamental objective of the study is to appraise water pollution in the Niger delta region of Nigeria, causes and implications.

The specific objectives of the study include:

  1. To examine the prevalence of water pollution in the Niger Delta.
  2. To investigate the causes of water pollution in the Niger Delta.
  3. To understand the implications of water pollution in the Niger Delta.

1.4 Research Questions

  1. What is the prevalence of water pollution in the Niger Delta?
  2. What are the causes of water pollution in the Niger Delta?
  3. What are the implications of water pollution in the Niger Delta?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

Ho1: There is no significant implication of water pollution in the Niger Delta region.


1.6 Significance of the Study

The study intends to provide valuable information concerning water pollution in the Niger delta region of Nigeria, causes and implications.


1.7 Scope of the Study

The study focuses on the appraisal of water pollution in the Niger delta region of Nigeria, causes and implications.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

The research was confronted with logistics and geographical constraint.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Water Pollution Defined

Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies, usually as a result of human activities. Water bodies include for example lakes, rivers, oceans, aquifers and groundwater. Water pollution results when contaminants are introduced into the natural environment. For example, releasing inadequately treated wastewater into natural water bodies can lead to degradation of aquatic ecosystems. In turn, this can lead to public health problems for people living downstream. They may use the same polluted river water for drinking or bathing or irrigation. Water pollution is the leading worldwide cause of death and disease, e.g. due to water-borne diseases.

Enterprise Defined

This is referred to as an organization or a business. It is also referred to as a project, Business plan or Business activities

Innovation Defined

Innovation is the discovery of a new thing or business. It can also refer to something new or to a change made to an existing product, idea, or field.

Invention Defined

Usually something which has not previously been in existence?


Water Pollution In The Niger Delta Region Of Nigeria, Causes And Implications


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Water Pollution In The Niger Delta Region Of Nigeria, Causes And Implications


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