Waste Management As A Tool For Revenue Generation (A Case Study Of Riwama Rivers State)
Waste management has been important since time immemorial. With the unprecedented increase in population worldwide, especially in Sub Saharan Africa, waste management has been vital for good health, good environment and aesthetics of its towns and cities. The research intended to study solid waste management as a tool for revenue generation in Rivers state; a case of solid waste management projects in Rimawa, Rivers state, the research design is a descriptive survey. Data was collected using a structured questionnaire which were administered personally, via e-mails, enumerators and pick them after they have been filled. The data was then coded and analyzed using the SPSS version 20.0. Chi-square tested the hypothesis. 99 questionnaires were administered to the respondents with a return rate of 91%. The study concludes that the SW projects in Rimawa, Rivers state just like any other in the rest of the world have led to jobs creation in the area and other surrounding environs.
1.1 Background of the Study
Over the years, Nigeria has experienced rapid population growth, urbanization and industrialization. Currently, the population is approximately 28.5 million, of which more than 70% live in urban areas. This rapid development has resulted in the generation of more municipal solid waste (Badgie et al., 2012, Fauziah and Agamuthu, 2012). In general, the greater the economic prosperity of a nation, the higher the rate of urbanization and the greater the amount of solid waste produced, and Nigeria was one of these nations (Kathirvale et al., 2003, Uiterkamp et al., 2011). Due to the rapid increase, research and the implementation of a method for the effective management of this waste has become a serious concern (Al Ansari, 2012).
Solid waste is material that has become useless or useless for the true owner and, therefore, is projected to be discarded. The material may not be useless, but whenever the owner throws it, it has become a waste. Municipal solid waste, on the other hand, is waste produced in urban areas. In Nigeria, the Solid Waste Management and Public Cleaning Act of 2007 defines solid waste as any waste, surplus substance or any product released from human activity, but excluding scheduled waste, wastewater and waste. Radioactive (Agamuthu & Dennis, 2011).
Solid waste management covers all activities, from production to final disposal, and is defined as the control, production, storage, collection, transfer and transport, treatment and disposal of solid waste. In accordance with best practices in public health, economics and finance, engineering. Administrative, legal and environmental considerations. As in other parts of developing countries, their production in Nigeria has increased considerably at an annual rate of 3-4% (Manaf et al., 2009). The daily amount of solid waste produced recently has reached 30,000 tons (Agamuthu and Fauziah, 2011). About these amounts, approximately.
It has been reported that 70% of them are collected and about 95% (representing 75% of the waste generated) are disposed of in landfills and only 5% are recycled (Agamuthu et al., 2009b). Several researchers have conducted numerous studies on solid waste management in Nigeria, most of which indicate that landfilling and landfilling is the main disposal method (Lau, 2004, Sakawi, 2011, Tarmudi et al., 2012).
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The main challenge facing Nigeria is how to manage this growing MSW effectively and sustainably. These challenges include inadequate collection, recycling or treatment and the uncontrolled disposal of waste in ordinary sanitary landfills, which creates serious risks and environmental contamination (Agamuthu, 2001). For example, when rain falls, it removes some of these wastes and leaches from water sources such as rivers, which puts the environment at greater risk of contamination (Pukkalanun et al., 2013). Also in these landfills, greenhouse gases (GHGs) are emitted into the atmosphere, which contributes to climate change, which is another area of great concern. These and other situations make the disposal of urban solid waste a source of environmental degradation (Manaf et al., 2009, Fauziah et al., 2004, Ngoc and Schnitzer, 2009). In fact, these are just some of the reasons that led the federal government of Nigeria to assume the responsibilities that previously corresponded to local authorities for the management of these increasing amounts of waste. In an effort to improve and guarantee a quality service in solid waste management, the government privatized solid waste management in Nigeria.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study is to examine Waste Management as a tool for revenue generation using of Riwama Rivers state as case study. Specifically, the study will assess:
- Impact of Waste Management on revenue generation of Riwama Rivers state
- The factors affecting Waste Management practice of Riwama Rivers state
- The relationship between Waste Management and revenue generation of Riwama Rivers state
1.4 Significance of the Study
To a large extent, waste management efficiency depends on the way different actors understand the danger and the good of maintaining environment safe and their capacity but also the commitment of public and private sectors as well as the involvement and participation of the communities themselves in supporting the whole concept. It also depends on the useful information and lessons from current best practices in the provision of this important service. Such information and lessons can be obtained only through research and studies; hence this research can assist in the improvement and performance of waste management in the urban settlements and to identify opportunities for future strategic development in the field of solid waste management. Particularly, this study is useful to the different stakeholders including planners, administrators and private waste collectors, and in one way or the other contributes to future policy interventions in waste management sector
1.5 Study Hypothesis
HO1: There is no significant relationship between Waste Management and revenue generation of Riwama Rivers state
1.6 Scope and Limitations of the Study
The study scope is limited to investigating Waste Management as a tool for revenue generation using of Riwama Rivers state as case study. Limitation faced by the research was limited time and financial constraint.
1.7 Organisation of Study
The study is grouped into five chapters. This chapter being the first gives an introduction to the study. Chapter two gives a review of the related literature. Chapter three presents the research methodology; chapter four presents the data analysis as well as interpretation and discussion of the results. Chapter five gives a summary of findings and recommendations.
Summary of Discussions, Conclusions and Recommendations
5.1 Summary of Findings
Questionnaires were the main data collection tools that were used and they were allocated to a population sample of 99 respondents of whom 90 returned well filled questionnaires that were valid for the study. Findings from the field show that, in relation to the first objective that sought to examine how waste management provide revenue for the people of Rimawa, Rivers state, 80% of the respondents supported the argument, 10% said no while the remaining 10 were not sure. Examples given to support the answers included: workers in the spots where waste is collected, lorry drivers and loaders, the waste boards’ managers and many more. On a rating scale, in relation to the first statement that read, SW management projects have led to Menial Jobs creation at all phases, responses were as follows: 7 respondents strongly disagreed with the statement, 9 disagreed, 4 were neutral, 40 agreed, while the remaining 30 strongly agreed with the idea that menial jobs have been created. This was the case in the second statement that read, SW management projects have led to Management Jobs creation all phases whereby there were 5 of the respondents who strongly disagreed, 9 respondents disagreed, neutral were 10, those in agreement were 38, while 28 strongly agreed who formed the remaining proportion. When averages were calculated, all the statements accepted values that were agreeing i.e 3.85, 3.83 and 4.07respectively.
From a series of issues that have come into bow starting from the literature review, the information gathered in the field and the summary of the findings, the research concluded that the SW projects in Rimawa, Rivers state just like any other in the rest of the world have led to jobs creation in the area and other surrounding environs.
The researcher also concludes that health hazards and issues have been surrounding the implementation of the SW projects in the area just like any SW projects across the world in countries like China, India, Uganda, and many more.
Also, the researcher concludes that social conflicts, wars, misunderstandings and societal clashes have been linked to SW projects implementation in the Rimawa, Rivers state.
Finally, the researcher concludes that environmental pollution, soil degradation, ground water contamination among others has been associated to the implementation of waste projects in the Rimawa, Rivers state. This has gone beyond to include the ugly looks of the lands enclosed in the dumpsite areas that have made it difficult for tourists for example to visit.
Based on the findings of the study the researcher makes the following recommendations:
First, the researcher recommends that the SW projects in the county should be formally organized from the low levels/village levels to the wider county levels since the projects have been proving more than self-employment.
Secondly, the researcher recommend that health hazards associated with SW management projects need to be controlled (through recycling and wastes toxics check) since the waste doesn’t only lead to diseases cause but has led to a number of deaths and strained families health care.
Thirdly, the researcher recommends that social conflicts associated with such projects in the county and country at large must be addressed through various avenues like mutual designed committees, reconciliation bodies and penalties should be attached to those who break the set rules.
Finally, the researcher recommends that bodies like NEMA should be contacted in doing an up to date EIA so as to come up with better strategies of handling and disposing the waste with minimal pollution to the environs ifany.
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