Waste Management Practices In Hotels

Project and Seminar Material for Home Economics

Waste Management Practices In Hotels


Waste management practices have emerged due to environment degradation and are adopted mainly to reduce negative impacts on environment. The focus of the study was therefore to assess waste management practices in hotels in Nigeria. The practices need resources for their implementation thus may result to possible impacts on the hotel operational performance. The study aimed to find out the existing waste management practices by hotels; how waste management practices affect hotel operational performance. The study employed census survey research design. The unit of analysis was hotels in Enugu Metropolis. The target population was hotels staff and managers in selected hotels in the study area or their equivalent offices depending on the structure of the hotels. The data collection was done by use of questionnaires that were administered to the respondents and corroborated with observation checklists. Data was then analyzed by use of descriptive statistics and inferential such as mean, standard deviation and used frequency in the analysis. Based on the findings of the study, the researcher recommended that hotels should adopt waste management practices that includes waste reduction, reuse and recycling, waste collection and depositing, and waste composting in order to improve their operational performance. The researcher also recommended that hotels’ top management and government agencies should formulate waste management policies and guiding principles. These policies and guiding framework should be communicated to all stakeholders for their implementation. The researcher also recommended development and implementation of sensitization programme to all hotel employees on the need to employ proper waste management practices in their respective work stations.


Table of Content

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Background to the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objectives of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Question
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisation of the Study

Chapter Two

2.0 Literature Review

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Waste Management Practices
  • 2.2.1 Promotion of Waste Reduction, Reuse and Recycle
  • 2.2.2 Collection and Disposal of Waste
  • 2.2.3 Waste Composting
  • 2.3 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3.1 Resource Based View
  • 2.3.2 Institutional Theory
  • 2.3.3 Stakeholders’ Theory
  • 2.3.4 Resource Dependence Theory
  • 2.4 Empirical Review

Chapter Three

3.0 Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population
  • 3.3 Sample and Sampling Technique
  • 3.4 Instrument for Data Collection
  • 3.5 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.6 Data Analysis

Chapter Four

4.0 Results and Discussion

  • 4.1 Result
  • 4.2 Discussion of Findings

Chapter Five

5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • Appendix

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

The world is increasingly confronted with a number of environmental challenges including global warming, depletion of natural resources and pollution. Environmental degradation is increasing at an alarming rate mainly due to poor waste disposal practices (Kim, Ko& Park, 2013). Ustad (2010) survey indicated that, enormous amounts of waste, toxic gases and depleting of natural resources has contributed to degradation of environment to a large extent. Organizations have realized the contribution of practicing best waste management practices on firms’ operational performance and realized the importance and need to save and protect it (Elkington, 1992).
Some of the theories that are of relevance to this study are resource dependence theory, institutional theory, resource based view and stakeholder’s theory. Resource dependence theory (RDT) maintains that organizations are resource-insufficient. Institutional theory points out that, social pressures from other actors in market (such as the government and public) is an important factor in determining an organization intention to adopt or even comply with waste management practices(Delmas&Toffel,2003). Organizations are redefined by stakeholder’s theory as a grouping of stakeholders and the purpose of the organization should be to manage the interests, needs and viewpoint of these diverse stakeholders (Freeman, 1984).The resource-based view (RBV) is seen as an “inside-out” process of strategy formulation that starts by identifying and classifying the firm’s resources, assess potential for value generation and end-up by defining a strategy that will allow the organization to capture the maximum of value in a sustainable way.

Waste is defined as any substance or article which constitutes a scrap material or an effluent or other surplus substances arising from application of any process(Environmental Protection Authority, 1990). Waste management is an overall approach to prevent waste and it combines a range of collection and treatment methods to handle all materials in the waste stream in an environmentally effective, economically affordable and socially acceptable way (McDougal, 2001).

Cooper (1998) defined waste management as the processes introduced by an organization for reducing, eliminating and ideally, preventing negative environmental impacts arising from its undertaking to environment. It encompasses management of all processes and resources for proper handling of waste materials, from maintenance of waste transport trucks and dumping facilities to compliance with health codes and environmental regulations. Waste management practices include solid waste collection and decomposing, waste reduction, reuse and recycling and waste composting.

The operational performance of any organizations as defined by Kaplan and Norton (1992) and Ghalayini, Noble, and Crowe (1997) revolve around cost, quality, efficiency and flexibility. Various authors argue that, operational quality performance is influenced by both internal and external factors (Garvin, 1984; Rust& Oliver, 1995; Reed, 1996). They argued that, internal operational performance relates to internal functioning of hotel such as increase in productivity, improvement in efficiency, reduction in cost and waste. Operations managers are increasingly challenged to find ways to reduce cost without sacrificing the quality standards imposed to. Operational costs refer to the expenses incurred during the normal operation of the hotels. Examples of these costs include food cost, labor cost, energy cost, water cost, waste management cost among others (Mensah 2006). The operational costs should be minimized in order for an organization to achieve the projected profits.

Efficiency is the capability of an organization to deliver products or services to its customers in the most cost-effective manner possible while still ensuring the high quality of its products and services. It denotes the organization’s ability to minimize waste of inputs and maximize resource utilization so as to deliver quality, cheaper products and services to their customers. It is a useful measure utilized in managing the available resources (Muhittin&Reha, 1990).

Waste management in the organizations is not only concerned with output of the operations that damage the environment but of great essence is the input of resources as well as totality of systems and processes involved in the operation of production facilities (Kirk, 1998; Lorente, 2001). Kirk (1998) indicates that, proper waste management practices are of much value to firm’s operational performance in that: it improves efficiency in service delivery, reduce organizations operational cost through efficient operations, reduces time spend to offer service, enhances quality of service, and productivity. As a result, organizations image is improved in the eyes of the public enhancing company’s competitive advantage (Kirk, 1996).

Organizations are faced with challenges of cost containment, more demanding customers in terms of quality and speed of service delivery. The success of any organization is dependent to a large extent on its flexibility to the ever changing internal and external environment. Adoption of best waste management systems reduces operational cost through waste minimization and efficient production processes. Also by practicing waste management, organizations improve on hygiene standards and as a result, the quality of its services and products are improved.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

Waste management is not only concerned with output of the operations that damage the environment but of great essence is the input of resources as well as totality of systems and processes involved in the operation of any organization. For firms to manage cost effectively, manage its operations efficiently and have flexible undertaking, they need to practice best waste management practices (McCrea, 2010). Thus, methods used by companies to dispose waste do not only affect the environment but also the operational performance.

Being large users of consumer goods, the growth of hotel industry in Nigeria and especially in Enugu Metropolis has sparked concerns on quality of services and speed of service delivery. Hotel operating cost are on increase because of unplanned sewage system, high food cost and accommodation supplies. Poor solid waste management and dependence on non-recyclable materials a real problem to hotel managers (KTB, 2015).Hotels operate twenty four hours a day and seven days in a week round the year making operational cost high. Also customers are demanding new things that match current technology forcing the market players to develop flexible systems that come with additional cost.

Firms within a common industry context tend to implement similar environmental management strategies since they have similar situational contexts such as relationships with stakeholders and government regulations. Since then, quite a number of hotels have participated actively on green operation initiatives and adopted a pro-environmental policy.

Despite all these noteworthy contributions, the literature on waste management practices in hotel sector suffers from two significant limitations. First, most of existing studies investigated the general contribution of hotel operations in a broad perspective of environment, its sustainability and green hotels in developed tourists origin and destination countries. Secondly, past studies have failed to explicitly examine waste management practices in line with operational performance of hotels in Enugu. Therefore this research is needed because little empirical research has been conducted to examine the relationship between hotel operational performance and waste management practices in developing countries. Also in contrast to the existing research work on waste management practices, this study aims to cover a specific portion of Nigerian hotel market. The study therefore sought to assess waste management practices in hotels.

1.3 Objectives of the Study

The aim of this study is to assess waste management practices in hotels in Nigeria. Specifically, the objectives of the study include to;

  1. Determine the extent to which waste management practices are implemented by hotels in Nigeria.
  2. Establish relationship between implementation of waste management practices and operational performance of hotels in Nigeria.

1.4 Research Question

The following research questions are formulated to guide this research:

  1. What is the extent to which waste management practices are implemented by hotels in Nigeria?
  2. What is the relationship between implementation of waste management practices and operational performance of hotels in Nigeria?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  • HO1 There is no significant relationship between implementation of waste management practices and operational performance of hotels in Nigeria
  • HA1 There is a relationship between implementation of waste management practices and operational performance of hotels in Nigeria

1.6 Significance of the Study

The present day environmental degradation challenges are believed to have led to the adoption of waste management practices by diverse industries in the efforts to reduce or present further negative effects on the environment. The hotel industry has not been left behind and the main adopted waste management practices include solid waste collection, reduction, reuse, and recycling, waste composting and practicing zero waste management approach. The need for waste management practices in the hotels is due to the fact that, hotels are large consumers of natural resources and in return expel waste which affect the environment.

Practically, the study can be beneficial to hotel operators in understanding the best waste management practices and its contribution on organizations operational performance. The paper will also provide a theoretical understanding to readers to recognize the relationship between waste management practices and organizations operations performance and suggest best ways to enhance performance. The findings of the paper will add to the pool of knowledge in the field of academia already existing on waste management practices and operational performance. Finally the study will guide policy makers in the government agencies, top management of the hotels and other key stakeholders in the formulation of policies governing hotel operations and the environment.

1.7 Scope of Study

This study was carried out to assess waste management practices in hotels in Nigeria. The study was limited to selected hotels in Enugu Metropolis, Enugu state, Nigeria.

1.8 Limitation of the Study

The descriptive survey as a research design had its limitation of difficulty in using its findings for generalization since only a part can be used to represent the whole. To reduce this limitation however, literature works were widely consulted to make references to issues being discussed which are of relevance to the other areas of the country.
Difficulty in the collection of primary data from selected hotels. This challenge was the result of the seemingly reluctance of respondents to provide information relevant to the study. This was taken care of by taking a letter from the authorities that served as evidence that this study was just for academic purpose. Thus, the information given was treated with utmost confidentiality.

1.9 Definition of Terms


Is any substance which is discarded after primary use, or is worthless, defective and of no use. Examples include municipal solid waste (household trash/refuse), hazardous waste, wastewater (such as sewage, which contains bodily wastes (feces and urine) and surface runoff), radioactive waste, and others.

Waste Management:

Includes the processes and actions required to manage waste from its inception to its final disposal.


A hotel is an establishment that provides paid lodging on a short-term basis. Facilities provided inside a hotel room may range from a modest-quality mattress in a small room to large suites with bigger, higher-quality beds, a dresser, a refrigerator and other kitchen facilities, upholstered chairs, a flat screen television, and en-suite bathrooms.

1.10 Organisation of the Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding it is broken down as follows:

  • Chapter one kicks off with the introduction, which consists of the background of the study, statement of the problem, objectives of the study, research hypothesis, scope and significance of the study.
  • Chapter two begins with the conceptual framework on which the study is based, the theoretical literatures and also the empirical literature and thus the review of related literature.
  • Chapter three deals on the research design, the population of the state used as a case study, the sample size and the sampling techniques used, the data collected, data analysis and the limitations of the method used.
  • Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis, interpretation and presentation of finding.
  • Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.

Chapter Five

5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Summary

The study aimed to assess waste management practices in hotels in Nigeria and to determine the extent to which waste management practices are implemented by hotels in Enugu. It was established that 10% of hotels have been in operation for less than 10 years and 13.8% have been in operation for over 40 years. The study also found that Business leisure tourist, an emerging market for Enugu hotels was important surpassing the traditional mass organized (package tours) which was a key market in only 6.9% of the hotels targeted. 17.2 % of the respondents were indifferent about the importance of all the three main target market and indicated that all segments were important.

The outcome of the study revealed that, all hotels embrace the concept of waste management practices on their day to day operation. The most used practices include but not limited to waste collection, reduction and reuse. However the study indicated that very few hotels use waste for energy technology, recycle water and none of them practice waste composting method and the respondents agreed that the practices are indeed important to the hotels. The respondents viewed waste collection method as key compared to other methods of waste management. Other preferred practices are waste reduction, recycling/ reuse, use of waste for energy in that order. The least used method is waste composting practice.

5.2 Conclusion

The study concludes that100% of the hotels are committed to improving already existing waste management practices since they have positive effect operational performance. The study also conclude that the method of waste management used depends on the size of the hotel, its target market and its level of operation. It was also noted from results of the research that, even though none of the hotel practice was composting and water treatment, these waste management practices play a significant role in the whole process of waste management and need a reconsideration. The observation of the study indicated that waste management practices have insignificant effect on operational performance and the hotels should embrace them in order to improve public image of hotels and save environment.

The findings of the study agreed with observation made by Karimi (2014) and that of Kemunto, Iravo and Munene (2013) that most of waste management practices that are adopted by hotels affect hotel operational performance positively while others have negative effect on the performance.

5.3 Recommendation

From the findings and conclusions, the study recommends that the hotels should adopt waste management practices that includes waste collection and depositing, waste reduction, recycling and reuse and waste composting.

The study also recommend that there is a need to understand the best waste management practices to reduces its negative effect on operational cost, efficiency, speed of service delivery and quality of products and services offered. Government agencies and hotels need to develop policies and waste management guiding principles/ framework and communicated to all stakeholders for implementation.

The frame work will guide hotel employees on best waste management practices and the role these practices play on hotel operational performance. Hotels should partner with external stakeholders such as NEMA, local communities, NGO’s and other government agencies to promote waste for energy technology, reuse and recycling of waste as well as developing waste composting systems and water treatment plants.

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