Waste Generation And Management Strategies (A Case Study Of Uyo Metropolis)

Project and Seminar Material for Urban and Regional Planning

Waste Generation And Management Strategies (A Case Study Of Uyo Metropolis)


Abstract


Waste management has become a common issue of discourse among individuals, groups and governments. This study assessed waste management in Akwa ibom state, with focus on Uyo. Two null hypotheses were formulated and tested using the chi square. The study used survey design whereby data were collected from the sample considered to be representative of the population, using questionnaires. Taro Yemeni’s formula was applied to determine the population. The data collected were presented in tables containing frequencies of the responses and their corresponding percentages: research finding shows that. The implications of improper waste management are that most households will soon be cut off by flood arising from the blockage of water channels, some streets and roads will be blocked by heaps of wastes and more epidemics will be contracted by the people if nothing urgent was done. The study concluded that, the Akwa Ibom State Environmental Protection Agency (AKSEPA) currently have no required manpower, technical skills and competences to curtail the tide of waste and therefore suit able recommendations were made at the end of the research.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

The generation and disposal of waste is an intrinsic part of any developing or industrial society. Waste, both from domestic and commercial sources has grown significantly in Nigeria over the past decade. Every time a householder shops at the store, and open market he contributes to the mountain of waste. It is possible to quote figures which show that the production of waste amounts to millions of tons. The percent of Nigeria’s population living in cities and urban areas has more than doubled in the last 15 years.

The cities and urban areas experience continuous growth which contributes to enormous in generation of solid and liquid waste. The management of waste is a matter of national and international concern. The volume of waste does not actually constitute the problem but the ability or inability of governments, individuals and waste disposal firms to keep up with the task of managing waste and the environment. There is no doubt that a dirty environment affects the standard of living, aesthetic sensibilities, health of the people and thus the quality of their lives.

The corollary is that improper disposal or storage of this waste can constitute hazards to the society through the pollution of air, land and especially water. In this paper, our attention would be focused on domestic waste. We will highlight some of the problems which have attended the management of this category of waste in Nigeria today. It will be seen that Nigeria has not done well in the direction of tackling the menace of domestic waste. This is even in the face advanced management strategies existing today for domestic waste management which have been adopted in many places. We will proffer suggestions that may assist in addressing this issue that seems to be aborting most efforts of International organizations, the federal government, city authorities, states and professionals alike.

The defective strategies and arrangements adopted for solid waste management in Nigerian cities create the erroneous impression that urban waste management problems are intractable. This sterns from the fact that the rate of collection and evacuation perpetually lag behind the rate of generation which makes solid waste accumulation a major source of environmental nuisance in Nigerian cities. Waste management therefore, concerns the interplay among generation, storage, collection and final disposal (Omuta, 1988). Sada (1984) has observed that in 1980, on the average, a balance of 100 metric tons of solid waste are piled up daily in Benin City. This is because while about 350 metric tons of solid wastes are generated daily, the maximum rate of evacuation achievable was only 250 metric tons daily. Uchegbu (1988) remarked that big cities like Port harcourt, Lagos, Kano, etc in Nigeria produced on the average 46kg of solid waste per person, per day.

As living standards rise, people consume more and generate more waste. Right from 1990s Uyo city has metamorphosed into a resort center because of its congenial living environment which attracts an influx of weekend leisure seekers into the city. These leisure seekers merely come into Uyo to relax, consume and enjoy themselves every weekend thus contributing enormously to weekly waste generation in Uyo City. Atuegbu (2007) reports that between 500 and 850 metric tons of waste are generated daily in Uyo city. At Itam market, the rate of waste generation is so high that in one night, a refuse dump site that was cleared the previous day could be replaced with an equal volume of waste the following morning, thus creating the erroneous impression that it was never clear before. The scenario is the same at AkpanAdem market, area of Uyo Metropolis.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Many people in African countries including Nigeria regard the concern for effective strategies for managing waste as a less important issue which may distract attention from the most urgent and serious problem of achieving a fast rate of economic growth. This attitude stems in part from the belief that environmental degradation with waste generation is an inevitable price of development.

Nigerian inhabitants are fast becoming more and more sophisticated with respect to their preferences and appetites and this improvement has its own attendant consequences. It has led to one of the most intractable problems of waste generation and management in Nigerian cities. Poor waste management is key factor in the spread of potential toxic compounds in the environment. When materials such as florescent tubes, batteries, paints, motor oil, detergent, television sets, computers, pesticides, insecticides, etc. are no longer useable or wanted, they become waste. Although the hazardous wastes only make up a small percentage of household waste in general, they pose a serious problem which ranges from health to environmental problems. These wastes are disposed alongside other household wastes. Separating the waste from the main waste, and treating it separately will prevent the major part of the waste from being contaminated and thus open up for an easier and less costly handling. The separation will leave a smaller, more concentrated amount of hazardous waste that could either be disposed of in a safe manner, or treated by special companies (Gatke, 2003).

Waste, when disposed of improperly, pose a threat to sanitation workers and the environment. Waste discarded in the trash may ignite or explode in the collection truck. Trash collectors can be injured from fumes and splashing chemicals. In landfills, leachate from the waste pollutes soil, surface water and groundwater reservoirs. Disposal of wastein drains can also pollute drinking water. In septic systems, hazardous waste can kill the organisms that make the system work. This may cause bulks of untreated waste to drain into the soil and eventually seep into the groundwater. Sewage treatment plants can be damaged by wastein the same way as septic systems (Connell, Lam Richardson, and Wu, 1999).

The problem of wastemanagement is assuming an alarming proportion and calls for concern. Their disposals are global issues that engage the attention of scholars from various fields of study. In Uyo Metropolis, the current method of government- sponsored household waste disposal is bagging of waste and the use of Dump-stars. There are no separate facilities for collecting waste. The mixing of waste with other household wastes does not only pose problems of disposal but difficulty in monitoring the waste content, or estimating the extent of pollution risks at dumps.

There is the need to find out the practices the households adopt in managing waste in the study area, so as to evolve ways of improving such practices for the purpose of ensuring proper disposal for sustainable environment. It is this neglected aspect of environmental management that necessitated this study. However, this study is considered important because it is necessary to have knowledge of the types of waste generated, to examine the level of public awareness concerning waste, and an assessment of current management practices of waste in Uyo Metropolis.


1.3 Objective of the Study

The objectives of this study include;

  1. Know if there are strategies for managing waste generated in Uyo metropolis
  2. To determine if there is a significant relationship between waste generation and management strategy.
  3. Identify types of waste and their characterization in Uyo Metropolis.
  4. Evaluate the level of awareness (health, environmental and disposal) of waste in the study area.
  5. Assess the spatio-temporal frequency of waste generation in the study area.
  6. Evaluate current management practices of waste, in the study area.
  7. To suggest environmentally friendly management strategies for waste disposal in Uyo Metropolis.

1.4 Research Hypotheses

Hypotheses One
  • Ho: There is no efficient waste management in Uyo
  • Hi: There is efficient waste management in Uyo
Hypotheses One
  • Ho: Residents are not aware of the health implications of poor waste management.
  • Hi: Residents are aware of the health implications of poor waste management.

1.5 Significance of the Study

Any reasonable research work must be designed to be of significance to the society. Also, the significance of a study deals with the benefits that will be derived from it after it has been concluded. This goes further to signify that any research carried out without defining its significance may be regarded as a waste of time and resources. Apart from the various diseases and toxic conditions inherent in and derivable from the indiscriminate disposal and dumping of wastes; which has become a common practice in Akwa Ibom state, the presence of waste degenerates the aesthetic value of the environment. The findings of this study will contribute it quota in the quest to making Uyo one of the cleanest 21st century city in the world. When this is achieved, the aesthetic attraction of the state will begin to boost her tourist industry, which is a source of revenue to the government and a job creator for her masses. Again, if the recommendations and suggestions of this study will be sincerely and adherently pursued, it will reduce, to the barest minimum, the adverse effect of such diseases like Malaria, diarrhea, cough, catarrh, cold, and fever.

This will in turn cut down on the high rate of infant mortality and pregnant women mortality. Also, the money being spent by individuals/families on treating patience of waste induced diseases will be channeled to some other needs of theirs. Worthy to mention is the fact that when uyo waste management agency becomes effective and efficient in waste management, the heavy traffic congestions caused by spillover of refuse dumps along the major roads in Uyo will seize to be an issue. Academically, findings of this study will serve as a platform for other research works and add to knowledge of scholars/academicians whom will in turn impact on the students and future assignments of state or national course To the bureaucrats, human resources managers, town planners, and the Lawmakers, the knowledge of the problems associated with waste management in Uyo state, and possible ways to solving them, will be a guide to them in making rational decisions and planning effectively. To the people as well, the findings and recommendations of this work will assist in transforming their negatively perceived attitudes towards waste disposal, waste management authority and its agents.


1.6 Scope and Limitation of the Study

This study is primary concerned with waste generation and management strategies. This study/project work covers Uyo metropolis. The researcher encountered some constraints, which limited the scope of the study. These constraints include but are not limited to the following

a) Availability of Research Material:

The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study

b) Time:

The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.


1.7 Definition of Terms

Waste:

This refers to an unwanted or unusable material, substance, or by-product.

Waste Management:

This is the collection, transportation, and disposal of garbage, sewage, and other waste products.

Waste Management Strategy:

This is the process involved in dealing with thewaste of humans and organisms, including minimization, handling, processing, storage, recycling, transport, and final disposal.


1.8 Organization of the Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows

  1. Chapter one is concerned with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
  2. Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
  3. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
  4. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
  5. Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study

Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Introduction

It is important to ascertain that the objective of this study was to ascertain a critical analysis of waste generation and management strategy.

In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations are made, which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefit in addressing the challenges of waste generation and management in Uyo, Akwa Ibom State.


5.2 Summary

This study aimed at havinga critical analysis of waste generation and management strategies. Seven objectives were raised.

These objectives include:

  1. Know if there are strategies for managing waste generated in Uyo metropolis
  2. To determine if there is a significant relationship between waste generation and management strategy.
  3. Identify types of waste and their characterization in Uyo Metropolis.
  4. Evaluate the level of awareness (health, environmental and disposal) of waste in the study area.
  5. Assess the spatio-temporal frequency of waste generation in the study area.
  6. Evaluate current management practices of waste, in the study area.
  7. To suggest environmentally friendly management strategies for waste disposal in Uyo Metropolis.

5.3 Conclusion

Based on the above findings pertaining to the objectives of the study the following conclusions are drawn.
The findings of this study leave nobody in doubt about the devastating effects of urban solid waste in Uyo as a result of inappropriate and inadequate management. We therefore posit that both the individuals and the government through AKSEPA have not made appreciable efforts to get and train the required manpower with technical skills and competences that would nip the ever-increasing solid wastes in Uyo urban in the bud through proper generation, disposal, control, sorting and other management strategies, and should the current state of affairs in handling wastes in Uyo urban continue, the resultant negative consequences will have multiplier effects on the present and future inhabitants of the area. Government is therefore advised to sit up and treat Uyo urban solid wastes with the seriousness they deserve if it must keep faith with protecting the environment and lives of people in the area


5.4 Recommendation

In line with the findings of this study and its implications, the following recommendations were therefore made:

  1. Akwa Ibom State Government through Akwa Ibom State should as a matter of urgent public importance, strengthen the already established department of Environmental and Public Health in the School of Health Technology and the Faculty of Environmental and Health Sciences, Akwa Ibom State University (Uyo by providing them with modern equipment including machines, for students to be exposed to practical methods of contemporary waste management.
  2. Akwa Ibom State Government should partner with foreign-based waste management firm under public-private-partnership (PPP) arrangement to commence operation in Uyo. Such firm should at least be a specialist in any waste management operation including; generation, sorting/separation, recycling and conversion. The firm shall be encouraged to collaborate with AKSEPA staff to complement the manpower needs. The firm apart from serving as a source of revenue to the government will also serve as a training centre for Industrial Training (IT) students. They can also employ graduates of health and environmental related courses as suggested in number one. Government can afford to donate free land to such firm as a mark of commitment and seriousness. The services of the private sector (firms) that will operate day and night to complement AKSEPA’s should be employed by the state government for the constant evacuation of the wastes to the permanent dumpsites that must be mapped out. The waste pulverization machines purchased by Akwa Ibom state should be leased to such firm for proper use. The waste management machines and/or plant should be stationed near the permanent dumpsites to be provided by the government.
  3. Akwa Ibom State government should as a matter of urgent public importance, provide permanent waste dumpsites that must be far from markets, schools, churches, commercial and residential areas. This will at least, reduce the dangers of communicable and other life threatening diseases. This should be immediately followed with public enlightenments, symposia, workshops and seminars to sensitize residents on the modalities for generation and disposal of their wastes in the must-mapped out waste collection centres that must be increased beyond the current provisions of the AKSEPAequipment. Defaulters should be prosecuted to imprisonment or sentenced without an option of fine to serve as deterrent to others.
  4. The landlords and other inhabitants of the state should be properly represented when planning for any waste minimization or management strategy

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