Waste Disposal And Landfill; Potential Hazards

Project and Seminar Material for Environmental Science

Waste Disposal And Landfill; Potential Hazards


Abstract


Wastes have major impact on the environmental quality both nationally and globally. The waste produced could be hazardous in nature. The aim of this research is to assess the waste disposal and landfill in Zaria industrial estate, Nigeria, and the potential hazard it comes with. The study employed questionnaire administration and in-depth interview instruments. The industries for this study were purposively selected namely, Sunseed industries, Premier Seed Company, Olam Nigeria Limited and Nalmaco Industry. A total of 398 respondents‘ within the industrial zone were sampled in order to get information on the effect the waste has on them. The study employs descriptive statistic in analysis of data by the use of frequency tables and percentage in presenting the data collected from the questionnaire administered to the respondent. The effect of industrial waste disposal and landfill practice was majorly flooding (39.6%), water pollution (23.1%) and air pollution (16.3%) which was as a result of dumping solid industrial waste indiscriminately. And that community sensitization (54.9%) is what the industries use to report the effect of their waste to the community as a way of reporting waste to the community. Due to the effects of the waste a high proportion of respondents (46.2%) migrated out of the community because of the health implication the waste has on them. Based on the findings, it is recommended, that a technically based personnel should be used to handle industrial hazardous wastes. Industries need to receive authorization from Kaduna State Protection Agency (KEPA) before disposing any hazardous waste and setting up of recycling plant within the industries to enhance recycling.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background To The Study

Waste cannot be separated from human activities regardless of their socio economic and cultural development. United Nations Department of Statistics (2005) considers waste to be materials that are not prime products for which the generator has no further use for production, transformation or consumption, and wants to dispose. Waste may be generated during the extraction of raw materials, the processing of raw materials into intermediate and final products, the consumption of final products, and other human activities. Residual materials recycled or reused at the place of generation are often excluded. Waste is defined as any material unused and regarded as worthless or unwanted (James, 2010). Waste is generated at the level of household, industrial and agricultural activities and is directly linked to human development, both technologically and socially (Bandara, 2007). The compositions of different wastes have varied over time and location, with industrial development and innovation being directly linked to increase in volume and diversity of waste materials (Baud, 2004).

Waste disposal and landfill is the collection, transportation, processing, treatment, recycling or disposal of waste materials to reduce their adverse effects on human health or amenities. The management of waste therefore, should focus on how to find the value and redirect it back to the community. Unfortunately, the unorganized process of collection and dumping results in complex mixture, the reby making separation and the entire waste disposal and landfill process very expensive (Sharama, 2005). All human activities generate waste, though industrial waste have some peculiarities particularly for areas with industrial activities.

Despite the increasingly urgent calls for sustainable development, environmental issues have continued to emerge as major aspects of discussion in the problems of economic growth and development. Such issues were reported to center on global warming; noise, atmospheric, soil and water pollutions, declining of forest resources and Industrial wastes management ( Dutta and Boise, 2008).

Industrial waste is said to be any material which comes from manufacturing processes and industrial sources which can be in form of solid, liquid and gases (Theisen and Vigil, 1993). It can broadly be defined as any liquid, gaseous, or solid substance, not sewage, resulting from any manufacturing or industry production process (Tchobanoglous et al.,1993). The waste produced is no longer useful for further industrial production and manufacturing process. Industrial wastecould be hazardous and non-hazardous. The hazardous industrial waste affects the environment and human health and the non- hazardous poses nuisance to the environment (Gourlay, 1992 cited in Freduah, 2004). In fact, when the governments of African countries were required by the World Health Organization (WHO) to prioritize their environmental health concerns, the results revealed that waste was identified as the second most important problem after water quality (Senkoro, 2003).

Industrial waste disposal and landfill is the method employed in the control of generation, storage, collection, transfer and transport, processing and disposal of Industrial wastes in a manner that is in accord with the best principles of public health, economics, residenting, conservation, aesthetics and other environmental considerations and that is also responsive to public attitudes (Tchobanoglous, Theisen, and Vigil, 1993). According to the authors, in order to accomplish an efficient industrial waste disposal and landfill, the fundamental aspects and relationships involved must be identified and understood clearly. In the light of this, Industrial waste management is an important environmental health service, and an integral part of basic Industrial services. Matete and Trois (2008)posit that the implications of poor waste disposal and landfill strategies is damaging to people’s health and the environment. Despite the fact thatdeveloping countries spend about 20 to 40 percent of their revenues on industrial waste disposal and landfill and other waste form, but they are unable to keep pace with the scope of the problem (Zerbock, 2003).

Industrial waste disposal and landfill is an integrated part of waste disposal and landfill, with an emphasis on maximizing resource use efficiency. In the pursuit of sustainable Industrial waste disposal and landfill, the prevention of waste generation is the first priority, followed by waste recovery and safe disposal of waste on the hierarchy of principles for Industrial waste disposal and landfill. These principles need to be put in practice through joint waste prevention and management measures if growing environmental degradation is to be avoided (La Grega et al. 2001).

Next is recovery, which is another method of disposal and it involves passing the waste through a chamber at high temperature with an adequate supply of oxygen to oxidize all organic material. Its advantage is that it requires less land than landfills. Recovery disposes 99.999% of organic waste if properly carried out at 1200°C temperature and ambient oxygen (Hill, 2004). Energy recovered from the process can be utilized for electricity generation. Although it appears to be an extremely attractive option,the high financial start-up and operational capital required to implement incineration facilities is a major barrier to successful adoption in developing countries (United Nations Environmental Programme, 1996). Lastly in the hierarchy is reporting which involved disclosure of industry environmental performanceinformation, similar to the publication of its wastes generation information. Thus, process of communicating the social and environmental effects of industrial wastes to particular interest groups within society and to society at large (Gray, Owen and Adams, 1995).

In the past few years, research on waste disposal and landfill (WM) in Nigeria has focused essentially on contextualizing waste recycling as an approach to urban environmental management and livelihoods (Adeyemi, Olorunfemi and Adewoye, 2001; Agunwamba, 2003; Nzeadibe and Eziuzor, 2006; Nzeadibe and Iwuoha, 2008). The knowledge of waste reduction, reuse, recycling, recovery and reporting known as the 5s, might not be totally new in the Nigerian context. Rather, it is the current sophistication involved, which is the 5R that is rather new. Waste facilities in developing countries are minimal, but substantial quantities are diverted for recycling (Tajuddeen, 2003).

In spite of the enormous benefits associated with Industrial waste management strategies such as the 5Rs, only a handful of countries are able to put them into practice. For instance, mostof the economically developed countries are still unable to report, restore and recycle much of their waste (Anthony, 2009). Unfortunately, many people in African countries including Nigeria, until recently, regard the concern for effective strategies for managing industrial waste as a less important issue which may distract attention from the most urgent and serious problem of achieving a fast rate of economic growth. This attitude stems in part from the belief that environmental degradation with industrial waste generation is an inevitable price of development (Salau, 1992; Chukwu, 2010). Generally, the levels of concentration of heavy metal pollutants in river kubanni is on steady increase as observed by Iguisi et al. (2001) and Ewa et al. (2004). Thus, industries contribute greatly in the pollution of the water body close toit and the environment thus posing serious toxicological risk (Udiba et al., 2012).It is on this note that this study attempts an assessment of industrial waste disposal and landfill strategies using Zaria as the spatial focus.


1.2 Statement Of Problem

Industrial waste disposal and landfill is of great importance due to lack of proper planning and management of wastes which leads to extensive pollution of surface and ground water, soil and atmosphere of surrounding environment (Vahidi, 2012).In the last decades, the uncontrollable impact of industrial waste on the natural environment has created critical ecological sustainable problems (Burritt, Hahn and Schaltegger, 2002).
One of the major environmental problems encountered in Nigeria is industrial wastes management (Alakinde, 2013). Industrial wastes are hazardous in nature and about 80% of the industries in Nigeria discharge solid, liquid and gaseous effluent directly into the environment without prior treatment (NESREA, 2007). The solid industrial wasted is dumped on land as it constitutes environmental nuisance. Some are also disposed in the drainages which block the flow of water and this is a breeding ground of insect-vector which transmits diseases. The liquid industrial waste is emptied directly into the streams and this pollutes the water and make it unfit for drinking. Meanwhile, industrial fuels burning and production processes produce dangerous gas and dust, which when inhaled and these have certain health impacts such as morbidity caused by dizziness, vomiting, and headache including death from lead poisoning, (World Bank, 1995).

It is a known fact that the developing countries lack the necessary information to set priorities, strategies, and action plans on environmental issues (Osibanjo, 2009). Plant- level monitoring of air, water and toxic waste emissions is at best imperfect, monitoring equipment is not available and where available is obsolete; data collection and measurement methodology arequestionable, and there is usually lack of trained personnel on industrial sites (Oketola and Osibanjo, 2009). Waste abatement technologies are largely absent and the consequence is a gross pollution of natural resources and environmental media.

Omole and Alakinde (2013) examined the influence of socio-economic factors on waste generation and disposal in Ibadan metropolis. The study which made use of questionnaires, direct interview and correlation matrix realized that waste generated in the metropolis is a reflection of variation of socio-economic factors of the people. Also, the socio-economic factors such as income, age, education, and occupation and building types have greater influence in the choice of methods of disposal in Ibadan Metropolis. Their findings showed that 65% of waste was generated by the residents, 3.3% by commercials while 17% of waste generated by the Industries. While the predominant management method of the industrial waste generated was recycling (13%) and energy recovery (4%) is the least practice. Recycling and resources recovery are implemented in Nigeria and these is quite not significant compares to many developed countries (Wilson et al., 2009)

Ajero and Chigbo (2014) in their study on the evaluation of industrial waste disposal and landfill approaches in some industries in Aba, noted that there was inadequate provision of protective measure in most of the industry and the awareness of respondents to the consequences of improper waste disposal and landfill was high (75.50%) while the level of attendance of health and safety treatment training was average (46.25%), however, none of the industries had health policy plan. The finding shows that open dumping (46%) which is the least acceptable method superseded the others while sanitary landfill (15.1%) and burning (13.5%) ranked 2nd and3rd respectively. These finding agree with those of Olafusi (2004) andIman et al. (2007) who reported that in most cities of Nigeria and other developing countries, the greater percentages of waste generated waste are dumped on the surface of the ground along major roads, streets and open spaces.

The assessment of industrial waste disposal and landfill problems greatly varies depending on the nature of industry, their location and mode of disposal of waste (NESREA, 2007). Sound waste disposal and landfill cycle helps in reducing the adverse impacts on the human health and environment, while enhancing the lifestyle and developing the economic state of the country.


1.3 Research Questions

  1. What are the type and composition of waste generated by the industries in Zaria?
  2. What are the waste disposal and landfill practices adopted by the industries the study area?
  3. What are the effects of industrial waste disposal and landfill practices on communities in the study area?

1.4 Objectives Of The Study

  1. Identify the types and composition of waste generated by industries in Zaria.
  2. Examine the waste disposal and landfill practices adopted by industries in study area.
  3. Examine the effects of industrial solid practices waste disposal and landfill on communities in the study area

1.5 Scope Of The Study

The study is confined to the assessment of waste disposal and landfill in Zaria industrial estate and the potential hazard it causes. In terms of spatial extent, it covered the two industrial estates of Zaria which are Dakace and Chikaji industrial estates. The industries include Sunseed Nigeria Limited, Olam Nigeria Plc., and Premier Seed and Nemacol Limited. The industries were categorized under Food and Agro- Industries. These industries were basically selected because of the typical nature of their production activities, types of raw materials used, and methods of waste disposals. The temporal scope covered the industrial waste disposal and landfill practices as at 2020.


1.6 Significance Of The Study

Industrial waste disposal and landfill has become a major development challenge in Zaria in recent times. This deserves not only the attention of the waste disposal and landfill institutions but also concerns of corporate organizations and individuals to find a lasting solution to the problem. This is because, human health and resource could be lost through poor waste disposal and landfill and this will affect productivity. Careless and indiscriminate disposal of industrial waste and effluents contribute to the spread of disease such as cancer, liver and lungs failure (Environ quest, 2007). Reduction, reuse, recycle, recovery and reporting are some of the conservation means for sustainable natural resource management, including industrial waste (NESREA, 2015). This is the environmental justification for this study.

Inefficient means of waste disposal has led to pollution of the environment, this result to untimely human deaths, which was estimated to about 20,000 in a year (NEMA,1998). Poor waste disposal and landfill has been found to result into pollution of both surface and ground water through the leachate draining and impairing the permeability of soils as well as blockage of drainage systems (NEMA, 1998). Studies in the Kasubi- Kawala industrial area have established that the count of harmful Coliforms (1980 cfu/ml), Eschelica coli (540 cfu/ml) in protected springs far exceed the World Health Organization (WHO) thresholds (0 cfu/ml). The study will serve as a reference point to the waste disposal and landfill institutions as far as waste disposal and landfill is concerned. Additionally, the study will contribute to existing body of knowledge on waste disposal and landfill and also stimulates further research on the subject in other State in Nigeria.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion And Recommendations

5.1 Summary Of Findings

The study revealed that the major waste produced by the industries in the study area was gaseous waste, cotton wastes, ash, spent earth, soap stock, organic and liquid waste. The study notes that Sunseed (68.2%) is one of the industries that generate the largest amount of waste produce every month. These include liquid sludge which is highly acidic and affect lands and humans, soap stock, organic waste, spent earth, gaseous waste and firewood scales. Most of the wastes produced employed source reduction, reused, and recycled as the waste disposal and landfill practices the industry adopts, while Olams Nigeria limited (8.0%) produced mote and trash every month. The industrial practices for managing waste is reuse and source reduction. Premier seed with a percentage of (17.9%) adopts source reduction, reused and recovery used to manage impurities, chemical water, chemical container, empty bags and dusts they produced.

Less processing and manufacturing activities is taking place in Nalmaco as these characterized the little amount of waste produced. The waste includes chaff, dust, empty container and broken kernels with (6.0%) every month. The industry carried out waste reused and recycled. The survey indicates that most of the industries carried out community sensitization (54.9%) as a way of reporting their waste because of lack of transparency in their industrial operation in Zaria due to hazardous waste (78.15%) generated by majority of the industries and causes harm to human and the environment.

The study revealed that Sunseed Nigeria limited 3.67 has the highest compliance level as they followed strictly the guidelines. This shows that the industries produce less toxic waste into the environment more than what is made public. This was followed by Olam Nigeria limited with a compliance value of 3.58. The industry with the least compliance level was Premier seed Nigeria limited and this is due to lack of proper industrial monitoring and adherence to the FEPA Act.

It also emerged that most of the industries uses open dumping (48.4%) to dispose their waste. And only few of them dispose their waste through landfill (19.2%) and incineration (19.2%). The disposal sites had no internal access and are sited near residential area or settlement. Industrial dump site in Zaria are not designated and the environmental implications as revealed by the study are that waste are indiscriminately disposed create unsanitary outlook and other effects like environmental degradation, air pollution, outbreak of diseases like diarrhea, cholera etc and that landfill which is the only means of disposal are very close to residential areas and are not properly managed.

The study also noted that community sensitization (54.9%) is the reporting techniques most of the industries used to report the effect of waste. However, only few of the industries uses internet (16.5%) and radiobroadcast (12.6%) to report the effect of their waste. However the lack of reporting techniques that covers a wide range of populace is not practice within the industries in Zaria.

The study revealed that there are several effects caused by improper disposal of waste in Dambo and Dakace ward ranges from flooding (39.65%), which is the major effect to disease out-break, destroyed environmental aesthetic, unfit water for drinking and reduces soil fertility.


5.2 Conclusion

By adopting the wealth aspect from waste or treating industrial wastes as resources, in terms of waste disposal and landfill practices has effectively become not only a service but an instrument for ensuring a good healthy environment for all.

The findings of the study reveal that the types of waste generated by industries in the study area were ash waste, cotton, organic waste, smoke, liquid water soap stock, spent earth. Also the composition of industrial wastes includes metal, oil, grease, bacterial and cyanide. Most of these wastes are hazardous 78.15% in nature and poses serious danger to human health and the environment.

Sunseed Nigeria limited 3.67 has the highest compliance level as they foll owed strictly the guidelines outline by FEPA. That source reduction 37.9% and recycling 36.3% are the waste disposal and landfill practices adopted by the industries in Zaria.

This shows that there is a cause and effect relationship between proper industrial waste disposal and landfill and people’s health conditions and environment. It is when industrial wastes are efficiently handled, that the environment becomes pristine, friendly and protected from diseases. This calls for a synergy between government, private sector, groups, individuals and the media.


5.3 Recommendations

Based on the findings, recommendations were developed to promote industrial waste disposal and landfill in Zaria industrial estate and they include:

The type of waste produce by industries should be separated from other sections and handled by technically-biased personnel to avoid overlap of functions which leads to inefficiency. A holistic and industry-focused approach in empowering the industries to make choices for their waste management should be the key focused of intervention. Within this framework, the collaboration of all stakeholders such as company and allied matter, government agencies such as the ministries of trade, labour and state security and Manufacturing Association of Nigeria to dialogue and design policies and regulations that will create a strong waste department with the expertise to management hazardous waste by the use of scientific techniques develop for dealing with industrial waste disposal and landfill. This will encourage the emergences and development of industrial ecology where wastes from one activity are input of raw materials for another activity.

Enforcement of compliance standard should be pursued by KEPA. The results from this study have indicated that waste disposal and landfill from the industries compliance level is inadequate. The situation is worst among small scale industries. Industries need to be responsible to follow the national waste standard management level. The small and large scale industries in Zaria should be required to seek authorization from Kaduna State Environmental Protection agency before disposing harmful waste under relevant rules; equally the agency should be committed inenforcing the relevant rules. Towards this, law should be promulgated to tax the industries that violated these rules. The tax will help offset the environmental damage by going towards environmental restoration, protection and spreading information to increase knowledge on these issues. It is possible that through the efforts of KEPA and industries, a mechanism could be evolved for better management. The industries should be made to undertake the detailed risk assessment of the waste.

Produce and implement an integrated industrial management plan with the relevant stakeholders. A policy should be formulated based on reduce, reuse, recycle recover and reporting by the industries. Companies are expected to improve their waste and environmental performance and efficiency on a regular basis. Segregation should be done at the point of waste generation and can be achieved through proper training, cleaning standard and tough enforcement. Industrial waste should be collected and transported in safe containers. The open dump site should be closed and municipal should work in conjunction with the industrial sector towards development of specific sanitary landfill for the treatment and disposal of waste. Facility should be installed to extract gas which can be burnt to generate the needed electricity in Zaria

Personnel handling wastes of the industries should be made to wear appropriate protective clothing by government environmental protection agency. Mechanical methods for handling waste should be adopted where machine are used to collect the waste for disposal instead by the use of hand. Also, the waste department of the industries should be educated about the dangers of manual handling of hazardous waste. When there is a pollution that affects the community, industries should be made to pay the affected people as a way of compensation and protect the community from further reoccurrence. There should be a synergy between the industrial management and the community Head to organize programmes to educate the people and provides incentive as a way of corporate social responsibility.


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