A Visualization Of The State Of Unemployment In Nigeria And How To Tackle It

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A Visualization Of The State Of Unemployment In Nigeria And How To Tackle It


Abstract


This study is on a visualization of the state of unemployment in Nigeria and how to tackle it usingAwgu local Government Area as a case study. The study evaluated how the government, individuals and organizations have carried its operations to bring this phenomenon to its minimum. In order to active this empirical survey research design was adopted. The sources of data are the administrative questionnaire and oral interview, while the secondary sources includes statistical tools. The study made use of primary data sourced from 220 respondents in Awgu local Government Area, Enugu State through administering of questionnaire. Their responses were tested using appropriate statistical tools like the simple percentage and the Chi-square research techniques; our study revealed that the unemployment problem in Nigeria can be solved through effective management of resources and that government effort in this regard is not sufficient given the magnitude of the unemployed in Nigeria. Therefore, the study recommended that solving the unemployment problem should not be left in the hands of the government alone rather we should employed the public private partnership approach so as to allow the involvement of private individuals in helping to establish effective management of resources centres as well.

 


Table of Content


Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Background to the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of Problem
  • 1.3 Objectives of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of Study
  • 1.8 Limitations of the Study
  • 1.9 Operational Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisation of the Study

Chapter Two

2.0 Literature Review

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Concept of Unemployment
  • 2.3 Effective Resource Management
  • 2.4 Consequences of Unemployment
  • 2.5 Steps at Combating Unemployment in Nigeria
  • 2.6 Unemployment Challenges in Nigeria: A Way Forward
  • 2.7 Theoretical Framework

Chapter Three

3.0 Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Target Population
  • 3.3 Sampling
  • 3.4 Instruments for Data Collection
  • 3.5 Validity of Instrument
  • 3.6 Reliability of Instrument
  • 3.7 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.8 Method of Data Analysis

Chapter Four

4.0 Results and Discussion

  • 4.1 Results
  • 4.2 Discussion

Chapter Five

5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • Appendix

Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

An organization uses many resources such as financial, natural or human resources. The most important of all, for an organization, is still human resources and this is because without it, it would be impossible to accomplish the mission or to attain a specific vision within an organization.

Human resource is the soul of every organization. All other resources though very vital fall under the management of human resource. Anyim et al (2011) described human resource as the life blood of organizations. They enthused that “despite the application of technology in modern business management, human resources are still relevant and most adaptive resources of the organization” (Anyim et al, 2011, p.1).

Waterman recognized that “the organization; people, culture, capacity, represents an important source of competitive advantages. People are the strategy (waterman, 1994, pp. 21-22). The increase in financial performances of a company is due to the good implementation of a human resource strategy. Equally, human resources are the most important capital of a company, a vital contact with the customers and the key for success (farmer, 2010).
Any activity in an organization from the beginning to the end stage depends on human resources. Therefore, any organization aiming at achieving some of their goals must ensure not only maintaining constant and adequate supply of human resources but also ensure that they were adequately motivated and effectively managed.

James stated in Chukwu (2008) that the effective management of people is still the key to productivity and the assignment of the management is to motivate people to put the best of their skills and abilities. He affirmed that organization will achieve high productivity more than ever before by effective management of their human resources, which can come in form of motivating their workers and sending them for training.

Moreover, Ubeku in Nwachukwu (2002) went further to say that although the task of motivating workers is vested on the management team but the managers have more roles to play by providing the organization with a continuous day-to-day coaching, appraisal and encouragement that the employee will need more than ever before.

According to Eze (2010, p. 3) man has built organizations to take care of all aspects of his needs and desires both in organizations and as well as in country. This requires that the resources which are available should be effectively managed and utilized. Effective management of human resources is the efficient and effective deployment and allocation of organizations human resources when and where they are needed. Human resource management includes planning, allocating and scheduling of human resources to tasks.

The consequences of ineffective management of human resources have been witnessed in the area of high rate of poverty which is a direct offshoot of unemployment. Unemployment has become a major problem bedeviling the lives of Nigerian youths causing frustration, dejection and dependency on family members and friends who also have their own problems to contend with.

A review on how effective Nigeria has managed their human resources reveals that the indicating factors to show effectiveness and efficiency lacking.

In this light, Ogundiya [2010,p.201] lamented that political instability, abject poverty, acute youth employment, heightened crime rate, poor heath prospects and widespread malnourishment have been the main features of Nigeria’s political economy”. Not even the rising Gross Domestic product [GDP] which is now about 522.6 billion [World Bank, 2014] has been able to dislodge poverty and decrease unemployment rate in Nigeria, Thus, Samsi [2010, p.3] noted that economic growth has risen substantially with animal average of 7.4 percent in the last decade. But the growth has not been inclusive, broad- based and transformational. The implication of this trend is that economic growth in Nigeria has not resulted in the desired structural changes that would make manufacturing the engine of growth, create employment and promote technological development and induce poverty alleviation.
Unemployment is one of the key indicators for measuring development of any country. A country is said to be achieving development if its unemployment rate is declining. And when jobs are created, employment increases while unemployment declines. The reverse is the case in Nigeria with high rate of unemployment (Jamo, 2013, p. 90). Nigeria has been experiencing exponential rise in unemployment. According to Eme [2014] betweens 2010 – 2013, unemployment rate increased from 21.1% to 28.5%. This means that Nigeria’s rising economic growth has not translated into higher employment rate. Thus, about 50 million Nigerian youths are estimated to be currently unemployed to World Bank, (2013).

Unemployment has been and still is a major problem in Agwu Local Government Area in spite of abundance of both human and material resources. At the heart of the problem is the management of those resources. In that regard, this study seeks to unveil the issues surrounding unemployment in Nigeria with particular reference to Agwu in Enugu state and how possible to solve such problems through effective management of human resources, thereby reducing the rate of unemployment in Nigeria.


1.2 Statement of Problem

Effective management of resources is at the heart of every organization. The challenge for organizations is how to maximize the full capabilities of resources especially the human resource in a most effective and efficient manner. No matter how organizations try to achieve these full capacities, there are still issues to contend with. The primary issue according to Gopalahrishnan [2019, p.65] is lack of continuous training and education. He opines that organization fall disparately behind the learning culture because training and development are perceived as auxiliary activities, rather than as pragmatic catalyst to results.

There is massive unemployment especially in developing world like Nigeria because employees lacked the necessary skills required to maximize output and create further openings. In that regards, Goldstein [1993] notes that there are skills deficiencies of the workforce that make staff perform below the minimum acceptable performance level. He maintained that such workers are unproductive, wasting organizations finance and time and that it costs the management more to keep them than to be without them. The problem however lies in the facts that management does not ensure their skill acquisition and should not have hired them in the first place.

It is a truism that productivity at work setting enhances employment and lack of it brings unemployment. Anyim et al (2011) wrote on their basis that “poor productivity is likely to create unemployment and inflation, decline in standard of living of the masses, hence all hands must be on desk in search of ways to improve productivity” low productivity on a high extent is the function of ineffective management. Quota system in employment in Nigeria is a key problem affecting effective management especially in public organizations. Again Anyim et al [2011] opines that quota system in employment is very common in public Organizations where employment in government establishments is expected to reflect the federal character principle. Usually, they noted that employment is not carried out in line with global standard thereby compromising merits, standard and quality. In the long run, this brings productivity issues that with negatively affect employment and warrant unemployment of the already engaged.

All these challenges affect management in its bid to ensure effective management of human resources that will boast the productive and employment chances of organizations. The impact of lack of effective management of human resources in organizations is numerous including unemployment which is our focus. This study therefore seeks to investigate the state of unemployment in Nigeria and how to tackle it.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The main purpose of this study is to investigate the state of unemployment in Nigeria and how to tackle it.

Specifically, the following objectives will guide the study;

  1. To determine the state of unemployment in Nigeria
  2. To ascertain the possibility of curbing the unemployment problem in Nigeria through effective management of resources
  3. To determine the extent to which different strategies canbe adopted to lessen the unemployment problem in Nigeria

1.4 Research Questions

The following questions were formulated to guide the study based on the research objectives;

  1. What is the state of unemployment in Nigeria?
  2. What is the possibility of curbing the unemployment problem in Nigeria through Effective management of resources?
  3. What is the extent to which different strategies have been able to lessen the unemployment problem in Nigeria?

1.5 Hypothesis

  • HO1: Unemployment problem in Nigeria cannot be solved through effective management of resources.
  • HAI: Unemployment problem in Nigeria can be solved through effective management of resources.

1.6 Significance of the Study

Generally speaking, the effectiveness of any Organization irrespective of its native is measured by one significant and objective criterion, namely the quality of its product and services is to large extent a function of the caliber of human resources or man power component of the organizations production resources.

Secondly a close look at the work carried out will reveal a significant effect on human resources development on the organizational growth. More so, the research work will serve the role of shaping the organizational politics on human resource [personnel] for the overall attainment of the set objectives. It is only when the human resources is adequately qualified for the job to be performed that we can be effectively allocated and usefully utilized in the most optimum manner.

The practical relevance of the study lives in the fact that no organization can achieve its set objectives without competent employees. Other significance of the study shows that it will enable the management of both public and private organizations to know the major problems facing human resource management and their possible solutions.


1.7 Scope of Study

The study was carried out to investigate the state of unemployment in Nigeria and how to tackle it. The scope of the study was limited to Agwu Local Government Area of Enugu state.


1.8 Limitations of the Study

This study was limited in the scope, as it only focused on Agwu Local Government Area of Enugu state. This implies that the findings and conclusions drawn from this study cannot be generalized to other areas. Also, the researcher faced time constraints, financial constraints as well as issues related to access to relevant materials for this research.


1.9 Operational Definition of Terms

Visualization:

Is any technique for creating images, diagrams, or animations to communicate a message. Visualization through visual imagery has been an effective way to communicate both abstract and concrete ideas since the dawn of humanity.

Unemployment:

Is persons above a specified age not being in paid employment or self-employment but currently available for work during the reference period. Unemployment is measured by the unemployment rate, which is the number of people who are unemployed as a percentage of the labour force.

Resource Management:

Is the practice of planning, scheduling, and allocating people, money, and technology to a project or program. In essence, it is the process of allocating resources to achieve the greatest organizational value. In organizational studies, resource management is the efficient and effective development of an organization’s resources when they are needed. Such resources may include the financial resources, inventory, human skills, production resources, or information technology and natural resources.


1.10 Organisation of the Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding it is broken down as follows:

  • Chapter one kicks off with the introduction, which consists of the background of the study, statement of the problem, objectives of the study, research hypothesis, scope and significance of the study.
  • Chapter two begins with the conceptual framework on which the study is based, the theoretical literatures and also the empirical literature and thus the review of related literature.
  • Chapter three deals on the research design, the population of the state used as a case study, the sample size and the sampling techniques used, the data collected, data analysis and the limitations of the method used.
  • Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis, interpretation and presentation of finding.
  • Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.

Chapter Five


5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Summary

This study was carried out to investigate the state of unemployment in Nigeria and how to tackle it usingAgwu L.G.A Enugu, Nigeria as the case study. Unemployment problem like corruption in Nigeria is a hydra-headed phenomenon and cannot be effectively tackled through a mono-methodology. Our study looked at the way the unemployment problems in Nigeria can be solved through effective management of resources. Our findings revealed that though unemployment problem in Nigeria can be curbed through effective entrepreneurial development the unemployment rate is still alarmingly high in Nigeria. This is in spite of government efforts aimed at reducing the unemployment menace in Nigeria.


5.2 Conclusion

From the study, government effort alone is not sufficient when compared with the magnitude of the unemployed in Nigeria. The prospects for small enterprise development in Nigeria are quite bright. It is just a matter of time; Nigeria will attain the golden height in the development of effective management of resources. That can be achieved if the government does not relent in its current efforts. It is in the wake of the above that we make the following recommendations.


5.3 Recommendation

Our results of findings show that government efforts aimed at effective management of resources cannot solve the multidimensional nature of the Nigerian unemployment problem. As such, it will require the collective efforts of both the public and private enterprises to mitigate the unemployment problem in Nigeria. i.e. a public private partnership in curbing the unemployment problem in Nigeria through effective management of resources.

Secondly, as it is currently being practiced in some Nigeria institutions of higher learning entrepreneurial schemes and curricula should be designed to meet with the current trends. Its content should be properly designed towards making a graduate in Nigeria skilful in a particular trade or enterprise of interest before he or she leaves the school, such that the long years of waiting for the elusive supposed dream or plum job will be greatly cut-down through practicing the trade or enterprise learnt about in school.

Finally, adequate fund should be set aside by both the public and private enterprises and channeled towards assisting graduates with entrepreneurial skills to set up their own privately owned enterprises in the area of their skill. This also comes with the possibility of becoming an employer of labour as against the usual after school long waiting for the never forthcoming dream job.

Efforts should be intensified by government, business education practitioners, and management of educational institutions as well as captains of business and industrial sectors to jointly develop vibrant and worthy business education schemes that will help in reducing the problem of unemployment and youth restiveness through effective management of resources education.


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