Use Of Visual Aid In The Teaching Of Social Studies In Junior Secondary School

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Use Of Visual Aid In The Teaching Of Social Studies In Junior Secondary School


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine the use of visual aid in the teaching of social studies in junior secondary school using some selected junior secondary schools in Bursari Local Government Area of Yobe State as a case study. The study was carried out to determine whether the use of visual aids facilitates effective teaching and learning of social studies in junior secondary school; find out the extent social studies teachers uses visual aids during the teaching of social studies; ascertain whether visual aids have a positive effect on students learning motivation in social studies; ascertain whether visual aids have a positive effect on students comprehension and retention of social studies in junior secondary school; find out whether there is a significant relationship between the use of visual learning aids and students academic achievement in social studies; and find out the factors affecting the use of visual aids in the teaching and learning of social studies in junior secondary school. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of social studies teachers and students of selected secondary schools in Enugu Education Zone.In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 200 respondents and 150 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables. While the hypotheses were tested using Pearson Correlation statistical tool, SPSS v23.The result of the findings reveals the use of visual aids facilitates effective teaching and learning of social studies in junior secondary school. The study also revealed that visual aids have a positive effect on students comprehension and retention of social studies in junior secondary school. Therefore, it is recommended that Heads of schools, academic masters/ mistresses and heads of subjects’ departments should ensure that the visual aids available at schools are effectively used by teachers in teaching and are well stored after use. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organization of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Educational instructional resources are the asset which facilitate the attainment of educational objectives and make the process of teaching and learning smooth and effective at the school level. These instructional resources include people, resources, finance, time and so on (Ndayelechi, 2013). Visual instructional resources are any-thing that helps the teacher to promote teaching and learning activities in social studies. They include printed resources, pictures, diagram, maps and charts, filmstrips and slides, pencils, pen, cartoons, model and anything other than can aid the teacher’s effectiveness (Fageyinbo, 2004). Visual instructional resources are educational input of vital importance to the teaching of any subject in the school curriculum. Appreciation of visual instructional resources would help the teacher and learner to achieve specific objectives. Okam, (2007) was of the opinion that educators must be prepared to display the function in terms of helping them to develop readiness for using these resources and encouraging appropriate learner participation in the use of these resources during classroom work.

Many teachers of Social Studies are not used to visual instructional resources in their teaching and learning. Jibrin, (2013) Associated this to poor method of teaching, improper use of visual instructional resources, rote learning and lack of proper knowledge and skills of classroom instruction. Visual aids will not be of much use in the classroom unless teachers take care to use them to teach the learners, because they help learners to promote greater understanding of the experience. Students poor academic performance may persist if appropriate measures, such as, integrating of visual instructional resources in junior secondary schools are not made.

Social Studies as a school subject has over the years occupied an important position in the school curriculum. The Federal Ministry of Education in Nigeria categorized Social Studies as one of the core subjects in Junior Secondary School curriculum (National; Policy on Education, 2004). The subject has been recognized as effective tool for citizenship education in Nigeria. It is also a subject that equips the learners with critical skills to attempt to tackle problems of man. The Federal Ministry of Education’s (2007) Nine Year Basis Education Curriculum for Social Studies has overall objectives of enabling students to develop a sense of solidarity and sharing based on a sense of security in one’s own identity; inculcate the right type of values and develop the capability to recognize the many dimensions of being human in different cultural and social contexts. Social Studies education is very important in transforming the teachers and the students to acquire desirable attitude, wider experience, and unique methodology, to be useful member in the society.

One of the methods of teaching Social Studies is lecture technique where the teacher talks while students listen and take notes. Lecture is usually a formal talk prepared and organized by the teacher (Harry, 2004). Lecture techniques are used in presenting information and facts to students. The procedure is simple, the teacher does most of the talking and students listen. The students are passive listeners. It is agreed, however, that in order for lecturing to be effective, there must be communication between the teacher and students. The teacher should organize his/her lecture in such a way that students take an active role in the learning process. In lecture technique students are not given opportunity to participate and demonstrate what they have learnt.

Visual instructional resources can be seen as the resources necessary to aid the teacher using lecture method and help students to learn effectively. Visual resources are all teaching and learning resources that appeal mainly to the sense of sight or vision, which are known as visual instructional resources (N.T.I, 2000). Visual instructional resources in the teaching and learning process are anything that can serve as an object of stimulus for students. Visual resources form a very important part of the method of teaching in our junior secondary schools. studies have been carried out on the relevance of visual resources for teaching and learning situation; it has been accepted that where it has been applied, learning has become greatly stimulated and students appear to have developed keen interest in teaching learning process.

The National Policy on Education (2004) enunciated that in accepting education as instrument of change, it has set up, among other things on education resource centre where emphasis is paid to visual aids. It is emphasized that, a teaching plan is incomplete without showing comprehensive form of visual aid to be used. Social Studies which is interested in everything about man in relation to all aspects of his environment relies on instructional resources. The subject incorporates all aspects of reforms and innovations geared towards the sustenance of man’s environment, which can be illustrated such visual instructional resources are to transmit information in the teaching and learning process, and Students learn more and retain better what they have been taught and saw with visual instructional resources.

There are several inherent advantages in the use of visual instructional resources in teaching and learning Social Studies. First, they help to promote and improve the effectiveness of communication of ideas by the teacher to the learners. Second, they enable the learners to learn through more than one sense thereby making learning more useful and permanent. Third, they also aids students with defectsand minimize teacher’s domination of the lesson.

Fourth, they serve as firsthand information to the learners (Abdullahi, 1997). They also encourage active participation among learners. Visual aids can also promote student – student interaction, teacher-student interaction. Visual aids also save teaching time as they require short time to present large students. They can be used to stimulate student questions.

Visual resources ensure the application of classroom oriented communication techniques.

In spite of the objectives and benefit of Social Studies in the school curriculum, the teaching of the subject is characterized with conventional method of teaching which always lead to ineffective learning and poor attitude of students toward the subject (Abdullahi, 1997). It was assumed by most teachersthat Social Studies pedagogy does not require any visual resources for illustration purposes.As long as many teachers are not utilizing teaching aids in classroom, surely students’ poor academic performance would persist and educational objectives will not be achieved. Visual instructional resources are essential at all levels of education. In the light of this, research intends to ascertain the use of visual aid in the teaching of social studies in junior secondary school in Yobe State. This is with the view to disclose and open up the relevance of visual resource in teaching and learning social studies.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Learning is more permanent when learners visualize resources in the teaching and learning process. Visual aids that is relevant to teaching and learning by a qualified Social Studies teacher. They are the starting point and a foundation for attaining effective interaction between teacher and students in Social Studies classroom. This is because the success or failure of Social Studies lesson depends on the choice and utilization of effective teaching technique by the social studies teacher.

There are complaints and accusation that teachers of Social Studies are still accustomed to traditional techniques of teaching especially the lecture techniques despite the visual instructional resources have been found to be effective in interaction between teacher and the students as revealed by some researchers like Obeka, (2013). These teachers – centered techniques of teaching Social Studies are characterized and largely criticized for shifting interest and creativity in students thereby limiting academic performance among Junior Secondary School students. Under this arrangement, the teacher is the disseminator of knowledge, the knower of the answers to all questions who less often than not allow students inputs in the teaching and learning. Also, it hardly encourages students to engage in practical and creative learning activities during the teaching and learning process. Therefore, there is the need to use visual instructional resource to see if there will be improvements in their academic performance in Social Studies.

The problem of this study hinges on effect of Visual Resources in teaching and learning of Social Studies among Junior Secondary Schools students. Moreover, the extent of the effect based on gender is another issue that concerns the study. This is with the effort to highlight the effectiveness of visual resources over other classroom technique such as lecture method as a contribution towards the development of knowledge and learning in the study area, and Nigeria at large.


1.3 Objective of the Study

Generally, this study examines the use of visual aid in the teaching of social studies in junior secondary school. The specific objectives of the study include;

  1. Determine whether the use of visual aids facilitates effective teaching and learning of social studies in junior secondary school.
  2. Find out the extent social studies teachers uses visual aids during the teaching of social studies.
  3. Ascertain whether visual aids have a positive effect on students learning motivation in social studies.
  4. Ascertain whether visual aids have a positive effect on students comprehension and retention of social studies in junior secondary school.
  5. Find out whether there is a significant relationship between the use of visual learning aids and students academic achievement in social studies.
  6. Find out the factors affecting the use of visual aids in the teaching and learning of social studies in junior secondary school.

1.4 Research Questions

The questions below will guide this study

  1. Does the use of visual aids facilitate effective teaching and learning of social studies in junior secondary school?
  2. What is the extent social studies teachers use visual aids during the teaching of social studies in junior secondary school?
  3. Does visual aids have a positive effect on students learning motivation in social studies?
  4. Does visual aids have a positive effect on students comprehension and retention of social studies in junior secondary school?
  5. Is there a significant relationship between the use of visual learning aids and students academic achievement in social studies?
  6. What are the factors affecting the use of visual aids in the teaching and learning of social studies in junior secondary school?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

Ho: There is no significant relationship between the use of visual learning aids and the effective teaching of social studies.

Ha: There is a significant relationship between the use of visual learning aids and the effective teaching of social studies.


1.5 Significance of the Study

It is obvious that, visual materials cut across all the spheres of teaching. The findings of the study have some implications for all the processes of acquiring knowledge as it will give insight into the importance and procedures for selecting and use of visual materials in the teaching-learning process of any subject at all. The integrity of teaching and learning would be rekindled as meaningful learning will be achieved as prospective teachers both in the field of social studies and any other discipline would also have a strong background as how to manipulate and integrate instructional materials with teaching. This will help in showing the effectiveness and the usefulness of visual materials for teaching social studies to the teachers and all other classroom teaching and learning activities.

It would help student teachers under training develop required skills, knowledge and rudiments about how instructional materials can help teacher to make the delivery of their instructions successfully to the learners.

It would equally aid the teachers about the principles, guidance and procedures for the manufacturing, maintenance, selection and uses of instructional materials.

It would help the educational supervisors on the basic instructional designers to emphasize the use visual materials in social studies teaching in secondary schools particularly.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This study is structured to generally examine the use of visual aid in the teaching of social studies in junior secondary school. However, the study will further determine whether the use of visual aids facilitates effective teaching and learning of social studies in junior secondary school; find out the extent social studies teachers uses visual aids during the teaching of social studies; ascertain whether visual aids have a positive effect on students learning motivation in social studies; ascertain whether visual aids have a positive effect on students comprehension and retention of social studies in junior secondary school; find out whether there is a significant relationship between the use of visual learning aids and students academic achievement in social studies; and find out the factors affecting the use of visual aids in the teaching and learning of social studies in junior secondary school. The respondents for this study will be generally from selected secondary schools in Bursari Local Government Area of Yobe State.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents. However, the researcher were able to manage these just to ensure the success of this study.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Instructional Materials:

These are objects utilized by the teacher to complement teaching and learning process.

Facilitate:

Process of promoting or improving teaching and learning.

Utilize:

Making use of instructional materials.

Apparatus:

These are basic equipment use for the purpose learning activities.

Audios:

These are teaching aids which appeal to the sense of hearing.

Audio-visual:

These are instructional materials that can be used to aid teaching and learning via the sense of sight and of hearing at the same time.

Visual:

These are instructional materials which appeal to the sense of sight.


1.10 Organization of the Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows.

  • Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
  • Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
  • Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
  • Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
  • Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.

Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the use of visual aid in the teaching of social studies in junior secondary school using some selected junior secondary schools in Bursari Local Government Area of Yobe State as a case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was on the use of visual aid in the teaching of social studies in junior secondary school using some selected junior secondary schools in Bursari Local Government Area of Yobe State as a case study. The study was specifically carried out to determine whether the use of visual aids facilitates effective teaching and learning of social studies in junior secondary school; find out the extent social studies teachers uses visual aids during the teaching of social studies; ascertain whether visual aids have a positive effect on students learning motivation in social studies; ascertain whether visual aids have a positive effect on students comprehension and retention of social studies in junior secondary school; find out whether there is a significant relationship between the use of visual learning aids and students academic achievement in social studies; and find out the factors affecting the use of visual aids in the teaching and learning of social studies in junior secondary school.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 50 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent were social studies teachers and students of some selected junior secondary schools in Bursari Local Government Area of Yobe State as a case study..


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher concluded that;

  1. The use of visual aids facilitates effective teaching and learning of social studies in junior secondary school.
  2. The extent social studies teachers uses visual aids during the teaching of social studies in junior secondary school is low.
  3. Visual aids have a positive effect on students learning motivation in social studies.
  4. Visual aids have a positive effect on students comprehension and retention of social studies in junior secondary school.
  5. There is a significant relationship between the use of visual learning aids and students academic achievement in social studies.
  6. The factors affecting the use of visual aids in the teaching and learning of social studies in junior secondary school includes: absence of adequate visual aids at schools, lack of enough fund to purchase visual aids, lack of skills in preparation and use of visual aids, scarcity of time to prepare visual aids.

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.

  1. Heads of schools, academic masters/ mistresses and heads of subjects’ departments should ensure that the visual aids available at schools are effectively used by teachers in teaching and are well stored after use.
  2. Heads of schools should make sure that the budget allocated for the purchase of teaching materials such as visual aids is fully spent on purchasing those items.
  3. Schools authorities should work together to establish seminars and training for teachers on the preparation and use of visual aids.
  4. There is need for teachers in the field to have a forum for meeting periodically to assess the effectiveness of their teaching using the methods of instructional and educational technology as applicable to the organization of the content of the school syllabuses at high schools, colleges and university.

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