Violent Relationships: Acute And Long Term Implications

Project and Seminar Material for Psychology

Violent Relationships: Acute And Long Term Implications


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background Of The Study

Human development occurs as a result of reciprocal interactions between individuals and their contexts and cultures, with relationships serving as the primary motivators. Their impact can be seen across generations and can result in intra- and intergenerational assets and risks. Healthy relationships can act as a protective factor in the face of adversity and provide a framework for healing (Frontiersin.org).

Although relationships are an essential foundation for good mental health, they have undergone a series of changes, particularly among intimate partners.

Relationships, which are supposed to be important in our lives as humans, have turned sour in recent years, especially among intimate partners in an intimate relationship marked by all forms of abuse. The term “intimate relationships” is used here to be maximally inclusive of any romantic and/or sexual relationship between two non-biologically-related people, including dating or courtship relationships, relationships in which the romantic partners live together in the same household (cohabiting), relationships in which two people have children in common but are no longer formally romantically or sexually involved with one another, and marital relationships(encyclopedia 2021). Ideally such relationships are loving and supportive, protective of and safe for each member of the couple. Unfortunately, some people, while fulfilling these nurturing, positive needs of their partners at least some of the time and at least early in their relationship’s development, also behave abusively, causing their partners (and often others as well) substantial emotional and/or physical pain and injury. In extreme cases, abusive behavior ends in the death of one or both partners, and, sometimes, other people as well. Non-lethal abuse may end when a relationship ends. Frequently, however, abuse continues or worsens once a relationship is over. This can happen whether the relationship is ended by just one of the partners or, seemingly, by mutual consent.

Intimate partner violence (IPV) however has become a global concern with a significant public health impact.The World Health Organization (WHO) defines Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) as any behavior within an intimate relationship by an intimate partner that causes physical, psychological, or sexual harm to those in the relationship.(WHO 2018). There are several types of abuse that occur in intimate romantic relationships. It is frequently the case that two or more types of abuse are present in the same relationship. Emotional abuse often precedes, occurs with, and/or follows physical or sexual abuse in relationships. Sexual and non-sexual physical abuse also co-occur in many abusive relationships. it may be somewhat artificial to separate emotional abuse from physical forms of abuse because physical forms of abuse also inflict emotional and psychological harm to victims, and both forms of abuse serve to establish dominance and control over another person.

People who are involved in abusive relationships can experience fear, anxiety, difficulty sleeping, difficulty concentrating, loss of confidence, and feelings of isolation. In addition to physical injuries, people in abusive relationships are at risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Domestic abuse may increase the likelihood of developing mental health conditions such as depression, intentional self-harm, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Thus, this research is based on the assumption that violent relationships have both immediate and long-term consequences.


1.2 Statement Of The Problem

Violent relationship specially among young people, married couples and partner has received attention globally. In Nigeria, it is gradually increasing manifesting in the loss of lives of the victims, psychological breakdown where on the adverse those involved fall into depression or get withdrawn from those around them. Besides physical injuries, people in an abusive relationship are also at risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Violent relationship manifest among married people as Domestic Violence but WHO termed all forms of violence in a romantic relationship as Intimate Partner Violence (WHO 2013 recited in WHO 2019).

.According to statistics, there is a high level of violence in relationships in Nigeria, and it is often directed at women. According to Amnesty International (2007), as cited by Frontiers (2015), one-third (and in some cases two-thirds) of women are assumed to have been subjected to physical, sexual, and psychological abuse perpetrated predominantly by husbands, spouses, and fathers, while girls are often coerced into early marriage and face punishment if they attempt to flee their husbands.

In a study on violence against women undertaken in Lagos state, Nigeria, Project warning (2001) cited in Ose A. (2019) conducted interviews with women employed in markets and other places of employment, as well as girls and young women in high schools and universities. 64.4 percent of 45 women polled at work said they had been battered by a spouse (boyfriend or husband), while 56.6 percent of 48 women polled at the market said they had been beaten. The findings of related interviews conducted in Oyo State and other areas of Nigeria were similar. Domestic abuse is a common occurrence. In a survey on the factors correlated with Intimate Relationship Violence in South East Nigeria conducted by Obi and Ozumba (2007), cited in Ose A. (2019), 70 percent of respondents recorded harassment in their household, with 92 percent of the victims being female spouses and the remaining 8% being male. Another case is Ambrose Ali, a university student who, during a heated confrontation, brutally unleashed his rage and killed his girlfriend, with whom he had a romantic relationship (Premuim Times 2021). Therefore it is against these backdrops that this study is focused on examine Violent Relationships: Acute and Long Term Implications.


1.3 Objective Of The Study

The main focus of this study is to examine Violent Relationships: Acute and Long Term Implications. Specifically it is set

  1. To examine the different forms in which violent relationship occurs
  2. To determine the effect of violent relationship on the victim partners
  3. To investigate the extent at which violence in relationships occurs among young unmarried intimate partners
  4. To investigate if violence relationship has a significant acute and long term implication on the victim partner.

1.4 Research Questions

The following research questions guide the study

  1. What are the different forms in which violent relationship occurs?
  2. What are the effect of violent relationship on the victim partners?
  3. What is the extent at which violence in relationships occurs among young unmarried intimate partners?
  4. Do you think violent relationship has a significant acute and long term implication on the victim partner.

1.5 Significance Of The Study

This study will be relevant to counselors, government, religious groups and institution at all level including the reading public. it will equip counselors on developing strategies of helping clients who have been victims of violent relationships. it will enable religious groups and stakeholders of institutions on the need to envisage against intimate partner violence such regarding it from the psychological perspective rather than a sociocultural perspective. It will enable civil-societies and Non-Governemental organizations on the need to continuously launch a campaign against -domestic and intimate partner violence. More so this study will contribute to existing literature, serving as a reference materials to both student and academia in related study.


1.6 Scope Of The Study

The scope of of this study covers Violent Relationships: Acute and Long Term Implications. It will examine the different forms in which violent relationship occurs. It will determine the effect of violent relationship on the victim partner. It will investigate the extent at which violence in relationships occurs among young unmarried intimate partners. However the study is delimited to selected local government in Edo State.


1.7 Limitation Of The Study

The following factors poses to be a limitation during the course of this research

Financial constraint– Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint– The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.

Unwillingness of Respondent: Owing to the fact that this study is a very sensitive matter, most oth respondent were unwilling to respond accept the instrument while only few educated and enlightened person accepted the questionaire and responded accordingly


1.8 Definition Of Terms

Violence:

Violence is the use of physical force so as to injure, abuse, damage, or destroy

Relationship:

Relationship is the way in which two or more people or things are connected, or the state of being connected. An intimate relationship is an interpersonal relationship that involves physical or emotional intimacy. Although an intimate relationship is commonly a sexual relationship, it may also be a non-sexual relationship involving family, friends, or acquaintances

Intimate Partner Violence:

Intimate partner violence is domestic violence by a current or former spouse or partner in an intimate relationship against the other spouse or partner. IPV can take a number of forms, including physical, verbal, emotional, economic and sexual abuse.

Domestic Violence:

Domestic violence is violence or other abuse in a domestic setting, such as in marriage or cohabitation.


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