Variation Of Wind Speed With Attitude In The Dispersion Of Gasseous Pollutants

Project and Seminar Material for Physics

Variation Of Wind Speed With Attitude In The Dispersion Of Gasseous Pollutants


Abstract


In this research, the variation of wind speed with altitude was studied using Mini Digital Anemometer, the result shows that wind speed and temperature increase with increase in height. This shows that at high altitude pollutants are best dispersed.


Table of Contents


  • Tittle Page
  • Declaration Page
  • Certification
  • Acknowledgements
  • Table of Contents
  • List of Tables
  • List of Plates
  • Abstract

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Statement of the Research Problem
  • 1.2 Aims and Objectives
  • 1.3 Significant of the Study
  • 1.4 Scope and Limitation of the Study

Chapter Two

2.0 Literature Review

  • 2.1 Air Pollution
  • 2.2 Pollutants
  • 2.2.1 Sulphur Dioxides (SO2)
  • 2.2.2 Nitrogen Oxides (NOx)
  • 2.2.3 Ozone (O3)
  • 2.3 Past and Present Trends of Air Pollutants
  • 2.4 Plant Responses to Air Pollution
  • 2.4.1 Visible Symptoms
  • 2.4.2 Uptake of Pollutants
  • 2.4.3 Mechanism of Action
  • 2.5 Economic Assessment of Crop Loss Due to Air Pollution
  • 2.6 Wind Speed in Nigeria
  • 2.7 Factors Affecting Wind Speed in Nigeria
  • 2.8 Instrument Used for Measuring Wind Speed
  • 2.9 Dispersion of Pollutants
  • 2.10 Air Pollution Dispersion Model
  • 2.10.1 Gaussian Dispersion Models
  • 2.10.2 Puff Models
  • 2.11 Factor Affecting Air Pollution Dispersion
  • 2.12 Methods of Data Analysis

Chapter Three

3.0 Materials and Method

  • 3.1 Materials
  • 3.2 Method
  • 3.2.1 Graph
  • 3.2.2 Application of Software

Chapter Four

4.0 Result and Discussion

  • 4.1 Results
  • 4.2 Discussion

Chapter Five

5.0 Conclusion and Recommendations

  • 5.1 Conclusion
  • 5.2 Recommendations
  • References

Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

Natural resources have been exploited by the man for meeting his needs from the dawn of civilization (Richa et al., 2011). However, the acceleration of exploitation has been increasing at a high rate and in non-judicious manner during past few decades especially with the advent of industrial revolution. Industrialization has provided humanity with materials and social benefits. It has also brought in its wake up many unwanted substances and social problems. One of these problems is the degradation of the environment. These environmental problems are becoming threats to the existence of living beings. The environment upon which our life is most dependent, has fallen victim of pollution brought by man himself through unplanned and unscientific urbanization, industrialization and mineral exploitation (Richa et al., 2011).

Literally environment means surrounding. Environment influences all aspects of life. Until the conference on Human Environment held at Stockholm in 1972, the importance of environmental protection for improving the standard of living of human being was not realized. In 1991 at the World Commission on Environment held at Rio de Janeiro, the Heads of different countries met and decided to take immediate action to improve the Global Environment.

Air pollution has become an extremely serious problem for the modern industrialized world. Air pollution may be defined as any atmospheric condition in which certain substances are present in such concentrations that may produce undesirable effects on man and ecosystem. These substances include gases (sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxides, hydrocarbons, etc.), particulate matters (smoke, dust, fumes, aerosols, etc.), radioactive materials and many others. Air pollution may or will have harmful effects on living things and materials. It may interfere with biochemical and physiological processes of plants to an extent, which ultimately leads to yield losses (Heck et al., 1988).

Air pollution was earlier considered as a local problem around large point sources. But due to use of tall stacks and long range transport of pollutants, it has become a regional problem. The trans-boundary nature of pollutants was clearly evident when areas remote from sources of air pollution also showed higher concentrations of air pollutants. Uncontrolled use of fossil fuels in industries and transport sectors has led to the increase in concentrations of gaseous pollutants such as SO2, NOx, etc.

Contaminate gases, liquid and particulate matter discharges into the air are transported over a long distance by large-scale air-flows and dispersed by small-scale air-flows or turbulence, which mix contaminates with clean air. This dispersion by the wind is a very complex process due to the presence of different sized eddies in atmospheric flow (National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research, 2004).

The major portion of the recognized gaseous pollutants are gases such as carbon monoxide (CO), the oxides of nitrogen (NOx), the oxides of sulfur (SO2), unburned hydrocarbons and particulate matter (dusts, smokes, mists, aerosol). These pollutants are emitted by different sources, such as: transportation, electric power generation, refuses burning, industrial and domestic fuel burning) (Smith, 2004). Increasing air pollution levels due to rapid urbanization and growth in industrial emissions are now causes of major concern in many large cities of the world (Abdul-Kareem, 2005). When strategies to protect public health are under consideration, establishing ambient air quality standards and regulations have been introduced in order to set limits on the emissions of pollutant (US EPA, 1999). To achieve these limits, consideration was given to the variation of wind speed in the dispersion of gaseous pollutants. Therefore, air quality models are indispensable tools for assessing the impact of gaseous pollutants on human health and the urban environment (Gokhale and Khare, 2004)

The necessity for such models has increased tremendously especially with the rising interest in the early warning systems in order to have the opportunity to take emergent and preventive action to reduce gaseous pollutants when conditions that encourage high concentrations are predicted.

On the other hand, long-term forecasting and controlling of wind speed in dispersion are also needed in order to prevent the situation from becoming worse in the long run. Such forecasting is especially important to sensitive groups i.e. children, asthmatics, pregnant women and elderly people (Kolehmainen, 2004).

Kim et al. (2010) focused and discussed emission factor and sources profiles of gaseous pollutants particulate matter, PM2.5 and (CO, NOx, CO2) emitted from in-use diesel vehicles. Kim et al. (2006), Gupta & Kumar et al. (2006) and Marieq et al. (2007), showed diesel vehicles contribute significantly to the fine particulate and its chemical composition which they have important health, atmospheric and climate implications. Krewit et al. (1998) investigated that the particulate (less than 2.5μm diameter) has one of the highest health risks attributable to electricity generation and it can be treated as a conserved species in outdoor air on the time scale of transport within 100Km.

Thermal power generation is the largest source of SO2 and other gas pollutants in the city besides other industrial processes (Naik, 1992). It is commonly understood that SO2 reduces atmospheric visibility, damages various materials and agricultural crops and is detrimental to human health (Naik, 1992). When SO2 is oxidized and hydrolyzed it gives rise to acid rain. The quantitative estimation of the long-term average of SO2, NO2, CO and fly ash has been dealt with by many researchers (Patil and Patil, 1990).

Chih-Chung and Hui-Hsuan (2010) investigated how gaseous pollutants (PM10, SO2, NO, CO) and meteorological conditions (wind speed) affect atmospheric turbidity.

The relation between the concentration of gaseous pollutants SO2 in the air in the vicinity of Bratislava and the degree of injury to local was studied by Navara and Kaleta (1970) and from their results they concluded that vegetation visibility and is injured most seriously near the industrial complex of Bratislava, where the SO2 concentration in the air reach annual average in the range 20-100μg/m3 and SO2 of 10-70μg/m3 occurring in the region at the distance of 5-15Km from the pollution sources cause chronic damage to the vegetation.


1.1 Statement of the Research Problem

The concentration of gaseous pollutants at a given place is a function of a number of variables, including the emission rate, the distance of the receptor from the source, and the atmospheric conditions. The most important atmospheric conditions are wind speed, wind direction, and the vertical temperature structure of the local atmosphere. If the temperature decreases with height at a rate higher than the adiabatic lapse rate, the atmosphere is in unstable equilibrium and vertical motions are enhanced. This is to keep pollution concentrations moderate or weak at ground level. But, if the temperature decreases with height at a rate lower than the adiabatic lapse rate (stable atmosphere) or increases with height (inversion), vertical motions are reduced or damped. This will lead to potentially high pollution concentrations (APTI, 2005).


1.2 Aim of the Research Work

The aim of this research is to determine the variation of wind speed with attitude in the dispersion of gaseous pollutants.

The specific objectives of the research work are:

  1. To estimate the daily wind speed within Makurdi metropolis.
  2. To use the determined result to evaluate the rate of dispersion of gaseous pollutants based on the estimated values.
  3. To describe the trends of dispersion of gaseous pollutants

1.3 Significance of the Study

This research work will provide adequate information about wind speed, attitude in the dispersion of gaseous pollutants, hence providing vital information for planning on health. It will attempt to justify the importance of integrating air pollution climatology in spatial planning, to ensure that the desire for agricultural and environmental sustainability is achieved.


1.4 Scope and Limitation of the Study

This research work is limited to the daily mean maximum wind speed data over Makurdi metropolis sourced from Federal University of Agriculture Makurdi, Benue State for the period of thirty (30) days.


Chapter Five


5.0 Conclusion and Recommendations

5.1 Conclusion

The collated information based on field experiments concludes that air pollutants are dispersed at point sources in Makurdi, but depending on the meteorology, especially wind pattern may spread in suburban areas, affecting the crops. Air pollutants cause deleterious effects on physiology and metabolism of plants due to their oxidizing potential. Responses of plants vary between different species and their cultivars. Responses of plants to air pollutants also depend on type of pollutants, concentrations duration and its magnitude. There is a need to screen out sensitive and tolerant cultivars in Makurdi and establish the exposure indices of all the important crops to reduce the crop loss.


5.2 Recommendations

  1. Air quality problems and the establishment of independent monitoring stations to provide routine information on the true quality of air in the region is imperative.
  2. Wind and temperature maps should be integral part of spatial planning
  3. High ways with heavy traffic should be designed with green areas along them as a right of ways a distance from buildings. This regulation should be enshrined in all plans and steps taken for compliance.

Get Complete Project Material

5,000 5000

The Complete Material Will Be Sent to You in Just 2 Steps

Quick & Simple…


Step One Purchase

Make Payment (Through Transfer) of ₦5,000 to the Account Below

Zenith BankAcc No: 1225513212
Samphina Academy
Current Account

Or CLICK HERE To Pay With Debit Card


FOR STUDENTS OUTSIDE NIGERIA
CLICK HERE To Purchase Material ($15)

Step Two Purchase

Send the Following Details on WhatsApp ( 08143831497) After Payment

  1. Payment Details

  2. TOPIC: Variation Of Wind Speed With Attitude In The Dispersion Of Gasseous Pollutants

The Complete Material Will Be Sent To You On WhatsApp After Receiving Your Details
T & C Apply


  Contact Our Help Desk


Need a Different Topic? Perform a Quick Search



List of Related Works

Click on Any Topic to Preview the Content

samphina.academy

Samphina Academy

Samphina Academy is an Online Educational Resource Center that is aimed at providing students with quality information and materials to aid them in succeeding in their academic pursuit.