Users’ Assessment Of Facilities Management Service Delivery In Private High Rise Buildings

Project and Seminar Material for Estate Management

Users’ Assessment Of Facilities Management Service Delivery In Private High Rise Buildings


The study assessed and compared the delivery of Facilities Management (FM) services in private High rise buildings in Lagos, Nigeria. The objectives set for the study include identification of the facilities available, comparing the perception of the state of facilities management services provided, ascertaining the level of satisfaction derived from the Facilities Management services provided in both estates and comparing the level of satisfaction derived from facilities management services provided in both estates and make recommendations. the study population comprise of residents of 1004 Estate, Victoria Island and Eric Moore Towers, Surulere, Lagos State.

The sample of one hundred(100) respondents was randomly selected to represent the entire population of both estates. The descriptive statistics of frequency table and simple percentage was used to analyze the demographic data while mean score was used to analyse the objectives of the study with the aid of Statistical Package for Social Sciences(SPSS) version 16.0.

This study found that most of the FM services were available in both estates and they were outsourced under a standard Service Level Agreement. Residents of 1004 were more pleased with services such as Safety & Security, Lift maintenance and Water system while Eric Moore Towers residents were more satisfied with Lift Maintenance, Cleaning of grounds and premises and Safety and Security. The study recommends improved standardization of services, customized services and meeting customer’s expectation for improved service delivery.

Chapter One


1.1 Background to the Study

In the advent of increasing population, technology and limited supply of land for development, the idea of high rise residential block is being favoured to be able to accommodate a large number of people within a limited land space(unit) (Olanrele 2013)

Majority of the residential units are in multi storey developments which demand for provision of some facilities and services to make the properties functional, such facilities/services include Lift/elevator, adequate power supply, water provision, cleaning, waste disposal, horticulture, security, reception, laundry, recreation etc. These facilities and services need to be efficiently managed and maintained to meet the expectation of the residents (Olanrele, 2013)

High prices of land in urban centres make high rise/multi storey residential building inevitable and a more practical proposition from economic point of view. Population growth coupled with dwindling land stock make high rise living an alternative (Jamila 1994)

High rise serviced residential property has its characteristic of multiple owner/occupier and the involvement of specialist firm (company) for management of the properties and the accompanying facilities and services (Olanrele, 2013).

The main characteristics of this form of property are individual ownership of a unit, share ownership of common property and membership of a body corporation which is responsible for the management of development (Christudason 2004) therefore the management of multi-storey /serviced residential apartments will require expert knowledge.

Serviced residential apartments require provision of more, adequate and efficient facilities and services to make them liveable and attractive to potential occupiers. Owners of such apartments usually target the rich and expatriates and because of the social status of the potential occupiers there must be efficient and effective facilities services management delivery (Olanrele, 2013)

Facilities management in high-rise building is unique because the facilities are jointly maintained by all residents.

Facilities management is a fast growing profession across the world as it’s a cost cutting initiatives in the 1970s when outsourcing of service became to be popular(Noor & Pitt 2009)

The main concept of Facility Management is the reduction of cost while improving quality and minimizing risk. In other to achieve the above, a good Facility manager is usually hired who then comes up with a budget on the running cost.

Facility Management can be defined as a profession that encompasses multiple disciples’ example Real Estate, Engineering, Quantity Surveying, Mechanical Engineering, Structural Engineering, Law etc to ensure functionality of the built environment by integrating people, place, process and technology IFMA 1995.

Facilities Management involves guiding and managing the operations and maintenance of buildings and community infrastructure on behalf of the property owners. Facilities Management is an age – old practice which has existed out of necessity since buildings were first constructed to support human activities. As an increasing number of multi-unit residential buildings have been developed over recent decades, the demand for facilities management has grown accordingly. (Facility Management Association of Australia 2012).

The Facilities Manager organises, controls and coordinates the strategic and operational management of buildings and facilities in order to ensure the proper and efficient operation of all its physical aspects, creating and sustaining safe and productive environments for residents.

In residential buildings this is typically conducted at all times of the day, every day of the year. The Facility Management team could either consist of a single individual or a team, with services able to be delivered by dedicated ‘in house professionals’ or ‘out-sourced’ in whole or part to external providers. An important role of the Facilities Manager is to provide services, meet varying expectations, support, information, be a good listener, and deal with conflict to create a community environment residents are willingly to call home. Their role includes dealing with various contractors and suppliers in carrying out maintenance and upgrades and providing services such as security, cleaning and property maintenance. (Facility Management Association of Australia 2012).

IFMA classification of FM roles and responsibilities include:

  • Maintenance Operations: Furniture maintenance, Finishes Maintenance, Preventive Maintenance, Breakdown maintenance, Exterior maintenance, Custodian Maintenance and Landscape maintenance.
  • Real Estate: Building leases, Site selection, Acquisition/disposal, Building purchases, Property appraisals and subleasing.
  • Health and Safety: Ergonomics, Energy Management, Indoor Air quality, Recycling program and emissions.
  • Facility Planning: Operational plans, Emergency plans, Strategic plans and Energy planning.
  • Financial Planning: Operational budgets, capital budgets and Major financing.
  • Administrative Services: Corporate artwork, Mail services, Shipping/receiving, Records retention, Security, Telecommunications and Copy services.
  • Space Management: Space inventory, Space policies, Space allocation, trash/solid waste, Hazardous materials, Furniture/asset inventory and major redesign.

(IFMA 1996).

Within Facilities management, each type of facility brings its own particular challenges and demands particular skill sets. In the case of multi-unit serviced residential facilities, the large volumes of people living in close proximity to one another dramatically increases the emphasis required on effective communication and relationship building skills.

Facilities Managers are stewards of the built environment. The day to day running of a building is fundamental to facilities professionals. The Facilities Manager needs to be aware of the market costs and benefits of all aspects of facilities and equipment (Booty 2009)

High rise building facilities operate on a full-time basis seven days a week and involve multiple individual user concerns and requirements, many of which are subjective. Consequently there is a need to respond and adapt to almost constantly changing conditions.

FM services in the past were confined to building operations only, however today the activities undertaken by Facilities Managers can extend throughout an entire buildings life cycle. With the increasing trend toward the development of higher density residential buildings, Facilities Managers have an important role to play in ensuring the assets are well managed and the property’s value is maintained. This in turn requires Facilities Managers to have access to ongoing external training and support and resources in order to continually enhance their skill set and knowledge base (Facilities Management Association of Australia, 2012)

Once the properties have been occupied, facilities must be jointly managed by residents. A maintenance fee, dues or charge are usually imposed on all residents that is used to maintain the facilities and it’s usually charged based on the size of the apartment.

Kim et al 2005 and Faloye and Odusami 2009 suggested that one of the ways to improve the overall performance of buildings is to explore and understand occupants needs, expectations and aspirations through regular performance evaluation. Therefore, building performance evaluation (BPE) is used to constantly examine the extent to which buildings are effective and efficient in meeting the needs and expectations of users

Facility Management is now accepted and recognised by many in Nigeria as a new role required as an urgent need for a strategy to introduce Nigeria into the world of FM to rescue our facilities from decay and deterioration and keep her efficient and beautiful.

FM Services was launched into the organisational structure under a funfair at Muson Centre (IFMA 1995). Moreover, the growing demand for FM Services in industries cannot be over-emphasised as most residential apartments are taking the courageous leadership to admit that the quality of services must be improved. It is within this content that companies are being set up with the improvement of the quality of services as the main goal aimed at bringing the International Standard of FM to bear on the residential environment in Nigeria

Nigeria as a developing country blessed with different class of intellects and is now at the threshold of globalisation; therefore development of FM will provide the necessary impetus for the growth.

LSDPC (Lagos State Development and Property Corporation) which was created out of Edict 1 of 1972 is a actually a merger of Ikeja Area planning Authority(IAPA), Epe Town Planning Authority(ETPA) and Lagos Executive Development Board). Their sole purpose is the eradication of ghettos and slum areas in the state by the creation of modern building.

In Nigeria, high rise apartment buildings are not uncommon occurrence. The development of 1004 Estate in Victoria Island and Eric Moore Towers in Surulere both in Lagos State by The Federal government of Nigeria through the LSDPC(formerly LEDP,IAPA & ETPA) Edict 1 of 1978. Both estates were borne of the need one of the major functions of the Government which is the creation modern buildings to house more people on a particular land.

1.2 Statement of Research Problem

High-rise apartment developments are small communities, which are dynamic and constantly changing as a result of internal and external factors. As the facilities management industry has evolved and adapted over time, there is a need to adopt an adaptive management approach to the management of high rise apartments.

The world of facilities management has changed dramatically over the past 20 years. From relatively humble beginnings, the role of Facilities management now encompasses a wide range of complex and challenging roles, often across entire estates (Booty 2009)

Olanrele 2013 in his study Facilities Management Service Delivery in Public and Private High Rise Residential Buildings in Nigeria, had a case study of Eko Complex and Niger Towers where It assessed and compared the delivery of Facilities Management services in public and private high rise residential buildings in Lagos, Nigeria.

However, this study will be having another approach to the Facilities Management Service delivery in High rise Buildings by looking at two private high rise buildings owned by private companies at different locations which were built at the time by the same Federal Government Corporation and were sold to private individuals. We are aware of the services provided in 1004 Estate Victoria Island and Eric Moore Towers Surulere, and this study will look at Facilities management service delivery in both Estates and the user satisfaction of occupants in both estates.

1.3 Aim and Objectives of the Study

The aim of this study is to ascertain and assess the Facilities Management Service Delivery in Private High Rise Buildings with a view to improving on the service delivery in the study area

In other to achieve the above stated aim, the following objectives will be considered:

  1. To Identify the Facilities Management services provided in 1004 Estate and Eric Moore Towers.
  2. To compare the perception of the state of facilities management services provided in 1004 Estate and Eric Moore Towers.
  3. To ascertain the level of satisfaction derived from the services provided in 1004 Estate and Eric Moore Towers.
  4. To compare the level of satisfaction derived from Facilities Management services provided in 1004 Estate and Eric Moore Towers.
  5. To make recommendations of facilities management service delivery in 1004 Estate and Eric Moore Tower.

1.4 Research Questions

Based on the objective of this research above, the following research questions will be put into consideration during the course of this study

  1. What are the facilities management services provided in 1004 Estate and Eric Moore Towers.
  2. Which of the 1004 Estate and Eric Moore Towers has more provision of Facilities Management services.
  3. Which level of satisfaction is derived from the services provided in 1004 Estate and Eric Moore Towers.
  4. Which of the 1004 Estate and Eric Moore Towers occupants derive more satisfaction from the facilities management Services delivery?
  5. How Facilities Management services can improved upon in 1004 Estate and Eric Moore Towers.

1.5 Significance of the study

Cotts (1999) stated that Facility management is a big business. After payroll, facilities are normally the second largest budget expense. They represent greatest single source of cost savings. FM handles company’s major asset or facilities found in a residential apartment so as to ensure far-reaching effects on future profitability.

Facilities management is an important aspect towards achieving customers satisfaction, the management of facilities in multi unit building involve different services management such as cleaning, security, maintenance and safety to achieve customer’s needs. The effective management of facilities in high rise building will ensure good working condition for both occupants and visitors. This study provides guideline on managing facilities management service delivery in high rise residential building, so as occupants can recognize the importance of facilities management services and for the Facilities Managers to recognize the importance of user satisfaction of their services.

Managing the facilities function can be like running a business in itself, setting and meeting budget targets, cutting costs and making savings have been challenging tasks for facilities managers for some time (Booty 2009)

It has become increasingly important to evaluate customer satisfaction in apartment for various reasons; evaluating customer satisfaction provides the necessary information required for feed-back into current housing stock and feed forward into future projects as it provides the basis for taking decisions about improvements in current housing stock and about the design and development of future housing. The idea that an evaluation of the performance of housing may be conducted makes housing managers, designers and policy makers more accountable and adequate housing is so much an integral part of the needs of every society that its value for individuals, families, communities and society at large is ever questioned. Housing dissatisfaction can have direct impacts on physical and psychological health.

Olanrele in his study Facilities Management Service Delivery in Public and Private High rise Residential Buildings in Nigeria(a case study of Eko Court Complex and Niger Towers) based

This study is very significant to FM practitioners as it will pin-point areas where FM organisations can improve on their management strategies for total organisational effectiveness. It will also expose the blue-print for planning effective FM organisations policy that can be adopted by Facilities Management concern in their operations. The study is also significant to pin-point areas where FM services can be improved upon.

This study is also very significant to occupants in the former LSDPC high rise apartments in 1004 Estate Victoria Island and Eric Moore Towers Surulere as it will show the very positive contribution of FM services in the overall management and maintenance of facilities in the apartments.

1.6 Scope of the Research

The scope of this study is limited to the high rise buildings built by the LSDPC in the 1970s. The delivery of the facilities services in both estates. It should have been ideal to cover all the High rise buildings built by the LSDPC estate which have been sold to private corporations or individuals but the study opted to confine the scope to 1004 Estate and Eric Moore Towers because a study of the entire high rise buildings built by LSDPC would have made conclusions unnecessarily wide & incapable of clear interpretations. Finally, this study will look at how the facilities management service delivery affects user satisfaction and perception

1.7 Definition of Terms

For the purpose of this study, the following terms are defined:

FM-Facilities Management

Is a profession that encompasses multidisciplinary disciplines like real estate, quantity surveying, electrical engineering, civil engineering etc

Facility Managers:

These are people in charge of the running and maintenance of the facilities

FM Services:

These are those services which are being rendered in a serviced residential apartment to ensure the comfort of the occupants. It could be cleaning, waste disposal, lift maintenance, Generator maintenance etc. Most of the services are usually outsourced to other service providers.


Life Cycle Cost is the cost of buying the equipment/facilities, maintenance and running cost


These are the people who are living in the serviced High rise apartment who are benefitting from the services.


Conscious understanding of something


An act of providing assistance

Service Charge:

Service charge is a fee paid by the users of a facility for the maintenance of such facility.

Chapter Five

Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Conclusion

Clearly, the measurement of service quality in the facilities management services should take into account customer expectations of service as well as their perceptions of service. This agrees with Fatoye and Odusami (2009) that to different criterion is attached different level of satisfaction by occupiers of residential houses. Therefore the customers expectation of each criterion or indicator of satisfaction be identified and facility managers are to strive to meet such expectation. By addressing the important questions, the facilities management company can understand what service areas it should concentrate on to improve its service quality and customer satisfaction effectively, while avoiding the investment of fund in providing service quality dimensions that may not pay off. Improving dissatisfying factors should generally be a high priority for the facilities management company to pay most attention, and have to implement the service recovery to reduce the customers’ feeling of service dissatisfied.

5.2 Recommendation

The findings from this research provide a number of managerial implications as well as a variety of directions for the future research. On the basis of the findings of the study, the following are recommended for quality service delivery.

1. Improve Standardization of Services

The diversity of services increased the difficulty of management control of the human factor in the service quality, which requires that the level of service standard is raised. It is hereby recommended that irrespective of the beneficiaries of facilities management services (public/private), standard quality services should be expected at all time.

2. Customized Services

Another important measure to improve the service quality is customized service. Companies must provide the customized service to their customers in order to improve customers’ perception of service quality. Customization here means tailoring the service and service quality towards the need and expectation of the users–residents.

3. Feedback

The facilities management services providers should always get feedback from the users to ensure improvement in service delivery that will improve the clients’ satisfaction.

4. Service Recovery

When system failure occurs, the prompt response to restore same usually leads to higher degree of satisfaction. Service providers should strive to provide customers with “zero defects” service.

5. Infrastructural Facilities

The government and all concerned public Agencies in Nigeria should deliver public infrastructures that will enhance livelihood like stable electricity, fuel, road network and security among others. A situation where a standby power generating set is devoted to power lift in high rise building with only six hours electricity supply to the residents (with constant public power outages) is not acceptable. For every tower apartment in Nigeria, the technology of solar panel installation and green building should be incorporated in the current wave of sustainability.

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