Causes Of Urinary Tract Infections Among Youths Of Takai Community In Bokkos LGA

Project and Seminar Material for Nursing (Science)

Causes Of Urinary Tract Infections Among Youths Of Takai Community In Bokkos LGA


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine the causes of urinary tract infections among youths of Takai Community In Bokkos LGA. Specifically the study was set to find out the prevalence of urinary tract infection among youths of Takai Community in Bokkos LGA, ascertain the knowledge of the cause of urinary tract infection among youths of Takai Community In Bokkos LGA, ascertain the factors associated with urinary tract infection among youths of Takai Community In Bokkos LGA, and ascertain the knowledge of the management and preventive measure of urinary tract infection among youths of Takai Community In Bokkos LGA. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprised of youths of Takai Community In Bokkos LGA. In determining the sample size, the researcher purposefully selected 80 respondents and 77 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables, while the hypotheses was tested Chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that there is high prevalence of urinary tract infection among youths of Takai Community In Bokkos LGA. Furthermore, the study revealed that the factors associated with the risk of urinary tract infection among youths of Takai Community In Bokkos LGA include; poor personal hygiene, penetrative sex, oral sex, use of contraceptives, menopause, and the close proximity of the female urethra to the anus. However the respondents do not have adequate knowledge of the factors associated with the risk of urinary tract infection. Therefore, it is recommended that it is important to know the predisposing factors responsible for this infection as this will serve as a guide to individuals, care givers and health planners to guide and managed the expected interventions as the management involves drug therapy and patients education. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 The Urinary System
  • 2.2 Overview on Urinary Tract Infection
  • 2.3 Classification of UTI
  • 2.4 Frequently Isolated Causative Organisms
  • 2.5 Risk factors associated with UTI
  • 2.6 Antibiotic Resistance pattern.
  • 2.8 Diagnosis
  • 2.9 Sexually Transmitted Infections compared to Urinary Tract Infections.
  • 2.10 Complications associated with urinary tract infections
  • 2.11 Treatment and management of urinary tract infections
  • 2.12 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses
  • 4.5 Discussion of Findings

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Urinary tract infection is an ancient infection that was first described and documented in the Bears Papyrus dated to circa 1550 B.C. (Al-Achi,2008). It was described by the Egyptians as sending forth heat from the bladder ( Wilson ,1990) Then there was no effective treatment until the development and availability of antibiotic in the1930s before which time herbs and bloodletting were the only treatment in use,(AlAchi,2008). Infection of the urinary tract system however, occurs when too much bacteria especially those that inhabit the gastrointestinal tract and the skin enter the vagina through the anus and thrive inside the urinary system (kidney ,ureter, bladder and urethras) and consequently reproduce rapidly due to available nutrients(BrettWhite,2011; Stever,2002; Takhar, 2011). Infection of the urinary tract could manifest differently depending on the site of the infection and length of time involved, those that affect the lower urinary tract are called the cystitis involving the bladder alone with symptoms including painful urination, burning sensation, either frequent or urge to urinate (or both) while those that affect upper urinary tract are the pyelonephritis involving the kidney and other organs. The symptoms of the upper urinary tract include; fever and flank pain during urination in addition to those of the lower urinary tract (Sarah, 2010).

It is second most common type of infection accounting for about 8.1million visits to health care providers each year being the commonest cause of morbidity (especially renal disorder) and mortality in children specifically among those of lowest socio economic status,(Bervocal et al., 2002; Chukwu et al., 2011 and Eket et al.,1994).

Girls and women are more prone to UTIs than their male counterpart younger than 50 years of age, the reason although not well established but anatomical positions and differences might be responsible. The high risk of UTI in women is mostly due to shortness of the urethra which is about 1.5inches compared to 8inches in men. Hence bacteria from fecal matter at the anal opening can be easily transferred to the opening of the urethra. It is estimated that about 20- 30% of adult women experience UTIs at least once during their life time,(Nakhajani,etal.,2007; Kunin,1994). Many girls who wear diapers training pants, tight pants and those who wet themselves or retain their urine long after having the urge to urinate stand greater risk of suffering UTIS. Consequently keeping fomites soaked with urine against the body tissue allows uropathogenic organisms to enter the system and cause infections,(Sarah,2010). Although, many uropathogenic organisms are associated with UTIS, Escherichia coli is the most predominant bacteria and most often the sole cause most infections .Other bacteria that are occasionally encountered include: Klebsilla species, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter species Proteus sp., Staphylococcus species etc. (Bonadio et al., 2001; Uwaezoke and Ogbulie,2006).

Several diagnostic methods that identify the presence of nitrite, white blood cell and urine culture for establishment of specific causative organisms are available paving ways for accurate and timely diagnosis of the infection which is paramount in the shortening of the diseases and preventing the ascent of the infection from the lower tract to the upper tracts (International Supplement, 2005). Most UTIs are caused by bacteria which are treated with bacteria fighting medications called antibiotic or antimicrobials. The choice of medication and length of treatment depend on the patient’s history and the type of bacteria causing the infection.

Indiscriminate and extensive use of antibiotics, however, results in the development of resistant strains which in recent years have become major health problem to medical practitioners and to the public at large(Sirro et al.,1992). Hence it becomes necessary that to effectively treat and control infections such as UTIs by health care provider, a good knowledge of the antibiotic sensitivity pattern of the causative organisms should be ascertained before drug administration,(Nsofor, et al.,2011; Woodford and George,2011;Uwaezuoke and Ogbulie,2006).


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common bacterial infection known to affect the different part of the urinary tract. It affects all age groups ranging from neonates to the geriatrics population and about 150 million people worldwide were diagnosed with urinary tract infection (Das, A., & Banerjee, T. 2015). This class of infection can be classified as complicated or uncomplicated. Uncomplicated UTI is the most common type of functional or anatomical abnormalities with the urinary tract. The complicated one occurs in the presence of an abnormal urinary tract that increases susceptibility to infection. The uropathogenic bacteria express fimbrial adhesion that they attach to the glycolipids and glycoprotein on the epithelial surface. In this way bacteria can overcome the flow of urine and maintain in the urinary tract. The bacteria also produce other subtances such as toxins, hemolysis and colony necrotizing factors.

These agent disrupt epithelial integrity, permit bacteria invation and therefore enhance the risk of infection (Behzadi, P. 2019). Uropathogen also can internalize into host epithelial cells and divide inside there, so that it provides a reservoir for recurrent infection (Sheerin, N.S., & Glover, E.K. 2019). The symptoms of UTIs such as fever, burning sensation while urinating, lower abdominal pains and pyunia, itching, formation of blisters and ulcers in the genital area, genital and suprapubic pain and pyunia generally depend on the age of the person infected and the location of the urinary tract infections (Amali, O. et al., 2009). Urinary tract infection affects both sexes. It is common in women especially during reproductive sexually active period. This is because of their short urethra, trauma during intercourse and the absence of bactericidal secretions (Ronald, A. 2003; & Biswas, R. et al., 2014). This study in view of the aforementioned seek to analyze the causes of urinary tract infections among youths of Takai Community In Bokkos LGA.


1.3 Objective of the Study

The main objective of this study is to investigate the causes of urinary tract infections among youths of Takai Community In Bokkos LGA, specifically the study intends to:

  1. Find out the prevalence of urinary tract infection among youths of Takai Community in Bokkos LGA.
  2. Ascertain the knowledge of the cause of urinary tract infection among youths of Takai Community In Bokkos LGA.
  3. Ascertain the factors associated with urinary tract infection among youths of Takai Community In Bokkos LGA.
  4. Ascertain the knowledge of the management and preventive measure of urinary tract infection among youths of Takai Community In Bokkos LGA.

1.4 Research Question

  1. Whats is the prevalence of urinary tract infection among youths of Takai Community in Bokkos LGA?
  2. Is urinary tract infection among youths mostly caused by bacteria infection?
  3. What are the factors associated with the risk of urinary tract infection among youths of Takai Community In Bokkos LGA?
  4. Does improved and adequate personal hygiene contribute to the management and preventive measure of urinary tract infection among youths of Takai Community In Bokkos LGA?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  • Ho: Urinary tract infection is not prevalent among youths of Takai Community In Bokkos LGA.
  • Ha: Urinary tract infection is prevalent among youths of Takai Community In Bokkos LGA.

1.6 Significance of the Study

This study will provide information about pathogens that cause UTI among youths and how these microorganisms can be treated. It will be a bold step towards the fight against UTI.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This research work is centered on an assessment of the causes of urinary tract infections among youths of Takai Community In Bokkos LGA.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

Like in every human endeavour, the researcher encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. More so, the researcher simultaneously engaged in this study with other academic work. As a result, the amount of time spent on research will be reduced.

Moreover, the case study method utilized in the study posed some challenges to the investigator including the possibility of biases and poor judgment of issues. However, the investigator relied on respect for the general principles of procedures, justice, fairness, objectivity in observation and recording, and weighing of evidence to overcome the challenges.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Urinary Tract Infections

The presence of microbial pathogens in the urinary tract is known as urinary tract infection. Depending on the site of infection, UTI can be classified as cystitis when the bladder is infected, pyelonephritis when the kidney is infected and bacteriuria when the bacteria are in urine (Foxman, 2002).


1.10 Organizations of the Study

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the causes of urinary tract infections among youths of Takai Community In Bokkos LGA. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine the causes of urinary tract infections among youths of Takai Community In Bokkos LGA. The study specifically was aimed to find out the prevalence of urinary tract infection among youths of Takai Community in Bokkos LGA, ascertain the knowledge of the cause of urinary tract infection among youths of Takai Community In Bokkos LGA, ascertain the factors associated with urinary tract infection among youths of Takai Community In Bokkos LGA, and ascertain the knowledge of the management and preventive measure of urinary tract infection among youths of Takai Community In Bokkos LGA.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 77 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondents are among youths of Takai Community In Bokkos LGA.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher made the following conclusion.

  1. There is high prevalence of urinary tract infection among youths of Takai Community in Bokkos LGA.
  2. Urinary tract infections among youths of Takai Community in Bokkos LGA is mostly caused by bacteria infection.
  3. The factors associated with the risk of urinary tract infection among youths of Takai Community in Bokkos LGA include; poor personal hygiene, penetrative sex, oral sex, use of contraceptives, menopause, and the close proximity of the female urethra to the anus. However the respondents do not have adequate knowledge of the factors associated with the risk of urinary tract infection.
  4. Improved and adequate personal hygiene contribute to the management and preventive measure of urinary tract infection among youths of Takai Community in Bokkos LGA.

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.

  1. It is important to know the predisposing factors responsible for this infection as this will serve as a guide to individuals, care givers and health planners to guide and managed the expected interventions as the management involves drug therapy and patients education.
  2. Women should be mindful of their sexual behaviors that contributes to their vulnerability to urinary track infections, this will go a long way in preventing them from being victims of this deadly infection.
  3. Health authorizes are hereby encouraged to ensure greater emphasis on the need for effective personal sanitation among youths.
  4. Creation of awareness on the infection and adequate enlightenment protocols be established for the populace. Policy makers are also urged to improve on the provision of facilities and services rendered to efficiently prevent and treat victims.

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