Urbanization And Industrialization In Nigeria

Project and Seminar Material for History

Urbanization And Industrialization In Nigeria


The focus of this study is on how the manufacturing industries in Kaduna metropolis have impacted on the development of the area during the period 1957-2007. And, the main areas it has impacted the city include: migration, urban economy, urban development, spatial patterns, class-formation, effects of Kaduna’s growth on its immediate hinterland. Thus, we attempt to answer the question: In what ways did the manufacturing industry contribute to the development of the Kaduna metropolis?

This is significant because of the shift in economic importance from agriculture to manufacturing that has led to the transformation of Kaduna metropolis especially in spatial terms; values, attitudes and population increase of the residents. For example, within a decade Kaduna almost had a fourfold growth from 39,000 in 1952 to 149,000 in 1963. The demand for a workforce in the industries and the consequent boom in the commercial and service sectors account for this rapid growth in the area. Equally important, is the emergence and rapid growth of satellite villages around the urban core of Kaduna. Of these villages, Makera and Kakuri, were transformed from rural communities into cosmopolitan sub-urban areas due to the concentration of the textile factories in the area. Therefore, Kaduna during this period grew from a military garrison and administrative town into an industrial city, which was commonly known as the ‘Manchester of Nigeria’.

Chapter One


1.1 Background of the Study

The aim of this chapter is to introduce the study, Urbanization and Industrialization in Nigeria: A Case Study of Kaduna Metropolis, 1957-2007.To achieve this objective the chapter will be organized as follows: Introduction; the aims and objectives of the study; the statement of the Research problem; Scope of the study; Justification of the study; Literature Review; Theoretical Framework; Methodology of the Study; Limitation of the study; and Notes on Source.

Industrialization can be defined as the extensive introduction of the latest scientific and technological achievements in production in the comprehensive technical re-equipment of the natural economy5. Specifically, in Kaduna this process of introducing scientific and technological achievements in production led to the establishment of a factory equipped with 14,000 spindles and 300 automatic looms, costing the Northern Regional Government £1,250,000 in 1957. Thus, the Kaduna Textiles Limited (KTL) was established6. This was the first large scale manufacturing industry in Kaduna. Subsequently, other large scale establishment that employed many people in the mass production of industrial or consumer goods were also established. These factories include Paper products, printing and publishing, brewery, car assembly plant, Asbestos-Cements Products, Fertilizers and Petroleum Refinery Plant..

1.2 Statement of the Problem

This study concerns itself with the relationship between two phenomenon. It focuses on the relationship between Urbanization and Industrialization. Therefore efforts were made to explain how the manufacturing industry contributed to the growth and development of Kaduna metropolis. Hence, the thrust of the argument would be: Problem Statement: In what ways did the manufacturing industry impact on the development of Kaduna metropolis? Research Questions: A number of questions are addressed in this research including (although not limited to) the following: What influenced the location of industries in Kaduna metropolis? How did industrialization impact on urbanization? What has led to the high rate of urbanization in Kaduna metropolis? How was the city administered over time? What is the nature of inter-group relation in Kaduna metropolis? Which settlements developed as a result of the industrialization process in Kaduna metropolis? What caused the industries to decline? The answers to these questions would help us understand the importance of the manufacturing industry to the growth of our urban area. This is significant because it would unfold the nature of rural migration and urban poverty to Kaduna metropolis today.

1.3 Objective of the Study

The primary objective of the study is as follows:

  1. To examine the unparallel relationship between the rapid urban growth of the city and its retrogressive industrialization process.
  2. To examine circumstance that has led to low income, urban poverty, slums, ghettos and social disorder experienced by residents in the city.
  3. The objective is to show that a city is not static; rather it is dynamic with effect from diverse sources such as regional, inter-regional, national and international economic forces.
  4. Also, it aims at developing a framework that would enhance a mutually sustainable development for our urban centers.
  5. It aims at contributing to the existing researches that have been done in Kaduna metropolis of which other works would lay the foundation basis for the research It aims at using the interdisciplinary approach, techniques and methods in understanding the relationship between urbanization and economic development in Nigeria.

1.4 Research Question

  1. What influenced the location of industries in Kaduna metropolis?
  2. How did industrialization impact on urbanization?
  3. What has led to the high rate of urbanization in Kaduna metropolis?
  4. How was the city administered over time?
  5. What is the nature of inter-group relation in Kaduna metropolis?
  6. Which settlements developed as a result of the industrialization process in Kaduna metropolis?
  7. What caused the industries to decline?

1.5 Research Methodology

This study rests on research and theory developed within many disciplines. It draws together the work of historians, sociologists, political scientists, economists, geographers, urban ecologists, social psychologists, anthropologists, architects as well as city planners. This implies that in studying the city, one must not merely ask: „what is it?‟ (facts of urban life, such as concrete buildings, bureaucracies and unemployment rate), but, one must probe beyond the descriptions and the statistics to the broader and deeper reality of urban life. Another aspects of the methodology used is interview. The interviews were conducted in English language and recorded in notebooks. For the various factories visited, the approach was to present a Letter of Introduction to the authorities concerned

Thereafter, permission was granted to interact with officials who provided the relevant information to the study. Besides, the industrial establishment, there were series of discussions with several individuals from diverse backgrounds. Some them were ex-factory workers and others are still working in factories, while some never worked in the factories, but have information of interest on the contribution of industry to the growth and development of Kaduna metropolis

1.6 Significance of the Study

The significance of this study cannot be underestimated as:

  1. This study will examine urbanization and industrialization in Nigeria
  2. The findings of this research work will undoubtedly provide the much needed information to government organizations, Kaduna state government and academia

1.7 Scope of the Study

The scope of this study was delineated along the dimensions of space and time. Kaduna metropolis was chosen for the study due to the large number of industries established in the Kaduna area, making it only second to Kano in terms of concentration of manufacturing industries in northern Nigeria. Also, the choice of Kaduna for the study is hinged on its position in the politics of Nigeria from its inception and after independence. This is because its position was enhanced by Northern bureaucrats who decided that Kaduna should remain the site of major federal departments and boards. For example, multi-millionaire naira industries like the fertilizers factory, Peugeot Automobile industry, the Kaduna oil refinery amongst others are located in Kaduna. Furthermore, the infrastructural demands of modern manufacturing activities have tended to be concentrated in the Kaduna metropolis. This explains why the thesis focused on Kaduna metropolis instead of Kaduna state as a whole. Actually a case can easily be made for the concentration of manufacturing in metropolitan Kaduna. When we talk of modern manufacturing activities, the industrialization of Kaduna state is synonymous with the industrialization of Kaduna South L.G.A., a densely populated area. Outside this area, there are very few modern manufacturing plants and even such are small-scale manufacturing plants in the state. The period 1957 is significant in the study of industrial growth and development in Kaduna. Prior to this time, the industries were small or medium sizes employing about 10-50 people, but the coming into operation of the Kaduna Textiles Limited in 1957 marked a turning point in the industrial development of Kaduna. Since then, the rate of industrial development in both Kaduna, and the northern region has been fairly rapid. Besides the textile industries, a wide range of other industries also exists. These include paper products, printing and publishing, brewery, a car assembly plant, asbestos-cement products, etc

1.8 Limitation of the Study

This study was constrained by a number of factors which are as follows:

Just like any other research, ranging from unavailability of needed accurate materials on the topic under study, inability to get data

Financial constraint , was faced by the researcher ,in getting relevant materials and in printing and collation of questionnaires

Time factor: time factor pose another constraint since having to shuttle between writing of the research and also engaging in other academic work making it uneasy for the researcher

Chapter Five

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Summary

In this study, we have attempted to analyze the role of industry in the growth of Kaduna metropolis. This is to help us understand the relationship between Urbanization and Economic Development. To achieve this objective Kaduna was conceived as a city whose economic base stood on a tripod, that include its role as follows: government capital, military garrison and an industrial city243. Of these three, it‟s the role of Kaduna as an industrial city that forms the essence of the study. Therefore, the study focused on the manufacturing sub-sector of the industrial sector. In order to discuss how it has impacted and contributed to the development of Kaduna metropolis, we have discussed, the major areas which include: urban development, migration, spatial patterns, class formation, and the effects of Kaduna‟s growth on its immediate hinterland.

5.2 Conclusion

our findings agree with those of other scholars244that points out that the growth of Kaduna upto 1952, was gradual relative to the period after. Throughout the colonial period, Kaduna did not develop into a major center of commerce, especially for the export import trade as compared to Kano, Zaria and Jos. For instance, while as far back as 1919, there were over 21 European merchant firms in Zaria buying groundnuts, hides, cotton and sheanuts and selling consumer goods in return, Kaduna had only one, and four firms by 1912 and as late as the 1930‟s respectively
Specifically, in order to promote industrial commercial enterprises in Kaduna, government put in place several facilities. In Kaduna and Zaria up to seven and four industrial estates respectively have been laid out and provided with access roads, water and power. Other incentives include pioneer status scheme to survive the initial capital outlay and other related problems are granted tax holidays for the first 3 or 5 years of their operations. Approved user scheme provides for transfer of profit and dividends arising from investments in accordance with tax. Government also facilities promotional activities and the provision of the relevant investment investors on consultancy basis. It also facilitates project evaluation to determine viability. Government also assists applicants in their industrial plot-acquisition efforts.

5.3 Recommendation

  1. That urbanization of the rural areas should take place as this will stop the inflow of migration from rural to urban areas.
  2. Industries should be built as this will help develop rural areas faster, because people from the urban areas will move to the rural area in search of economic gains,

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Frequently Asked Questions

What are the causes and effect of urbanization in Nigeria?

There is no gainsaying that there are significant correlation between urbanization and unemployment in Nigeria though Urbanization is also a consequence of industrialization or economic specialization. It connotes the movement of people principally from agricultural productivity. The process involves changing relationship and interaction.

What are the major problems of urbanization in Nigeria?

Problems of Urbanization in Nigeria:. Increase in Crime Rate and Insecurity. Several studies point to a correlation between high crime rates and urbanization. Unlike rural populations, the population in urban areas is high and most of the urban dwellers do not know each other.

Is Nigeria increasing rapidly in population?

Well, Nigeria has an estimated total population of 190 million people, and this number keep increasing at a fast rate. At a public consultation with the media in 2017, the Minister of State for Budget and National Planning, Mrs. Zaina Ahmed, gave her position concerning the population growth of Nigeria.

Is Nigeria’s growing population really the problem?

Population growth isn’t , evenly spread economic growth is. Nigeria’s population is the 6 th largest in the world, however, in terms of population density, its 65 th with only 215 people per square kilometre. This signals that at least in terms of physical space, we have the capacity for the population. 


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