Urban Dynamics And Crime Control
This research is essentially a descriptive one bearing in mind that peevishly and work has gone in to issues of crime in urban areas. If often assumed that urban areas are synonyms with crime and that the more an area becomes urban the more the rate of crime increases. It is against this background that this research is premised. We should know that the dynamics of urbanization can cause rapid changes in the rate of crime in an area. Also its evaluation of the efficiency of the police as a major form of crime control (both in reporting and curbing crime) was carried out.
Our case study is Abeokuta South Local Government Area of Ogun State commonly which is experiencing rapid urbanization due to the presence of offices, shopping complex, presidential houses, school, Eateries and cafes. Since our research is descriptive in nature we made reference to a lot of secondary data we collected data in the form of crime statistics. An evaluation of crime cases document from 1997-2007 was carried out. Also we interviewed some residents of the community by asking their perception of policing in the area and also their view on alternative means of crime control (vigilante groups, night watchmen etc.).
1.1 Background of the Study
Urbanization dynamics with the physical power and forces of pulling a large number of people to become permanently concentrated in a relatively small area of forming cities as a result of large number of people migrating in search of greener pasture.
The advent of industrialization marks a great turn in human resistance, it being the acecendent that has brought tremendous in every aspect of human social life the dividend of industrialization is double faceted, one of which is being pivotal in the development or economics, attainment of political poer and general changes in social cultural life, industrial area are often view as the epitome of good living attrate a high inflow of people in search of green pasture. However industrialization is a major cause of the myriad of social problem that have been plug in human societies to this crime which is one of major social problem that pervate our society is quite pertinent to the study.
For the decades researchers have carried out studies on the incidence of crime. They have attempted to explain why crime is more prevalent in certain place that others. In concordance with this, studies have often speculated that crime is predominant in urban areas, however the features aligns with urban areas show that they have intendency to have more frequent occurrences of crime. Features such as the high population, the high level of inequalities, interogeneous natures of the resisdent. The social control mechanism among others. The field or sociology has been termed urban crime studies. It involve the scientific study of crime in urban-area and stretches across measuring the frequencies of crime cases in urban area using available data provided by statistics agencies or police report, the demographic features such as population size and density. The immigration/emigration and then the socio-economic and culture factors. The factors mentioned are instrumented in aiding researchers view the pattern of an area assuming status and the seemingly proportionate level of crime.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Urban life is usually depicted with negativity stemming from the words of red field urban sociology thus assumption cannot be regarded as far-fetched. The social relationship in urban areas can almost be set at zero tolerance. Individuals are too engrossed in securing there basic needs and any other activity is deemed as secondary. The problem of crime in urban sociologists as a discipline. Urban residents live with crime every day, from non violence oriented crimes like rape, arm robbery and murder. Also the indiscriminate use of hard drug is becoming quite habitual among the young people in the urban areas. With these mentioned, the question then arises that are there no way in which crime in urban araes can be checked? In rural systems social control mechanism are mainly informed in nature (though there are still formal mechanism present) since rural communities are very homogeneous individuals can be deterred from crime when they are aware that someone close to them might discover any acts of crime they commits. That is the closely lariat relationship such as immediate family members, the extended family and the other kinsmen acting as a third eye and at the same time serving as a check on their activities.
However in urban area the reverse is the case, the heterogeneous nature of the resident caused by a near obsessive drive to achieve the mainstream valves ( which is the acquisition of wealth was diminishes any aspect or this informal form of social control and even if there was it would be as it’s most minimal.
The control of crime is now left to the formal agents or social control, which is mainly the police. The primary priority of the police is to secure and protect the lives and property of the citizens. A rather rhetoric question can then proposed, “how far have the police gone in fighting and cubing crime to a considerable level?” this question can be regarded as rhetoric considering the fact that the police in some cases are the perpetrators of the problem in question crime. They have been know to carry out their justices in streaks of violence (refereed to as police brutality) extorting the populace and forming alliances with criminal gangs.
1.3 Research Question
The set of question will be the foundation on which this research will be build on. The question will serve as a guide in reaching the goal of the study urbanizes?
- Is there a proportion increase in crime rate as an area urbanizes?
- Why is crime more prevalent in urban area?
- What are the perception of the urban residents of the police on safe-guarding life and property?
- Are there any alternatives measures (a part from the police) for reducing crime in urban areas.
1.4 Objectives of the Study
This research is essentially a descriptive one, bearing in mind that previously a bit of extensive research has gone onto the issue of crime in urban areas. It is assumed that urban areas are synonymous with crime and that the more reason an area becomes the level of crime increases. We shall attempt to have a more lucid perspective of this, simulating with the “Ibara” community of abeokuta south local government as our study area. The following will be the objective of this work;
Our first objective will be aimed at showing a relationship between the rapids urbanization of an area an a relative increase in crime.
Secondly to ascertain the effectiveness of the police in reporting and controlling crime in Ibara.
Thirdly to find out of the resident of Ibara on crime control by the local police force.
Fourthly in the view of the deprecating standard in the control of crime by the police we intend to find out if the adoption of non-formal forms of crime control by the residents are effective.
Finally we shall be procuring solution to the stated problems.
1.5 Justification of the Study
Since there is endless rise in the rate in the rate of urbanizing areas which would invariably cause a rise in crime. This research will give us a better understanding on the intricacies surrounding crime as regards to urban growth. In essence as an area assumes urban status more measure will be put in place to cub the already anticipated increase in crime. It will help to redress the lukewarm nature through which the police reports and flight crime. It proper documentation of crime is more concentrated also the frequency of reported crime would help the police know how much manpower and time would be needed for more effective crime fighting.
Finally the research aims to shows the importance of alternative methods of cubing crime such as vigilante groups.
1.6 Scope of the Study
The study will investigate the causes of crime in urban areas. Hence, the study will be carried out in Ibara” community of abeokuta south local government in Ogun State.
1.7 Limitation of the Study
Like in every human endeavour, the researcher encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. More so, the researcher simultaneously engaged in this study with other academic work. As a result, the amount of time spent on research will be reduced.
Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:
This chapter summarizes the examination of urban dynamics and crime control using Ibara” community of abeokuta south local government in Ogun State as a case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.
5.2 Summary of the Study
In this study, our focus was on the examination of urban dynamics and crime control using Ibara” community of abeokuta south local government in Ogun State as a case study. The study is was specifically set to; examine the why crime is more prevalent in urban area, determine the perception of the urban residents of the police on safe-guarding life and property, and determine whether there are alternatives measures for reducing crime in urban areas.
The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 60 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent were residents of Ibara” community in abeokuta south local government in Ogun State.
Based on the findings of the study, the researcher recommended that;
- There is a proportion increase in crime rate in urban areas?
- Crime is more prevalent in urban area due to the increase in unemployment, poverty, unfavourable political policies, over population, and weaknesses of law enforcement or crime-control bodies,
- The urban residents laments that the police are not effective enough in safe-guarding of life and property.
- There are alternatives measures through which the police reduce crime in urban areas.
Based on the findings the researcher recommends that;
As mentioned earlier, managing urban crime has become a basis of concern and various controlling and preventive measures have to be applied to combat crimes. The best approach to crime management is primarily prevention strategy rather than waging war against criminal activities. Therefore, government, security and law enforcement agencies should be ‘proactive’ in crime prevention rather than to be ‘reactive’ to crimes. Among the strategies should also include the holistic strategy beyond police manpower and equipment, by eliminating the root causes of crimes such as reducing the aggregate level of unemployment and poverty among other things. When governments and other stake holders initiated and implement economic and developmental policies for building sound economy that will generate employments, no doubt, it naturally reduces poverty level to the barest minimum as well as crimes. Equally, if factors that created unemployment and poverty are addressed, youths will not engage in crimes. Governments should initiate and invigorate sound developmental economic policies that will create employment corridors and poverty eradication among the citizens along with improving law enforcement agencies vigorously in urban crimes prevention. Then Safer City Programme will be achieved and every individual will feel safe to live, work, shop and play in their cultural environment and the urban areas will no longer seen to be unsafe.
Urban Dynamics And Crime Control
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