Upper Basic School Teachers’ Attitude Towards The Use Of Information And Communication Technology In Teaching Islamic Religious Studies (I.R.S) In Ilorin East Local Government, Kwara State
Background to the Study
The advent of Information Communication Technology (ICT), computer systems have shown that they offer great opportunities for teachers and students in various disciplines. The use of computer system enable teachers to access the necessary information on learning instructional materials through the use of internet. Computer system can be defined as the combination of hardware and software used to store the needed information from external, internal sources for more accessible databases towards the accomplishment of organization goals. Through the use of computer system, necessary information is transmitted widely within the shortest possible time. Thus enabling researchers, scholars and professionals to meet, interact and exchange ideas in the field of education (Muhammed, 2013).
The role of computer studies in promoting education cannot be overestimated. Computer technology has gained recognition worldwide for being used for educational purpose in the school; that is why it is always said that computer education is a must since almost every activity is computer driven and cannot be able to make progress as far as his career options are concerned except it is matched with knowledge of computer and /or computing technology. There is a clear and wide spread agreement among the stakeholders in education that all teachers need to be proficient in information and communication technology as it is capable of enhancing their knowledge of teaching profession. Information and communication technology (I.C.T) is often used as an extended synonym for information technology (IT). It is specific term (i.e. more broad in scope) that stresses the role of unified communications (telephone lines and wireless signals), computer as well as necessary enterprise software, middle ware, storage and audio-visual systems which enable users to access, store, transmit and manipulate information (Muhammed, 2013).
Computer can be described as scientific machines that are used to perform tasks or calculating according to set instruction or programme. Etejere and Ogundele (2008) observed that computer system enables teachers, researchers, school administrators and students to acquire process store and disseminate vocal, pictorial, textual and numerical information through computer system. However, adequate use of computer system in the school demands effective computer system skills and acquisition.
Computers also work through the interaction of hardware and software. The hardware is part of computer that one can see and touch. The part of computer that helps to translate instructions and performs calculating is called the central processing unit. While software refers to the instructions and programmes that tell the computer hardware what to do through the operating system. Example of hardware are monitor, keyboard, mouse and printer etc. computers in education are used in the classroom teaching learning processes through computer aided instruction (CAL), computer assisted learning (CAL), and e-learning. The use of computer by the teachers however assists in the curriculum contact delivery. Computers in the schools system assist in the academic environment to store, display, transmit and analyze data by the educational researcher. Computer system is therefore, inevitable for both the teachers and principals, if schools are to be effective and if their academic goals are to be achieved.
Lawal (2012) noted that, the assumption of the public that students that study computer education, computer science, and computer technology in Nigeria tertiary institutions are usually adjusted or well acquainted to the use of computer system is not true. This is because there are various computer system resources that come on the market a new system in acquiring knowledge and information with ease. Computer system in education is generally used to introduce students and teachers to the use and working principles of computer system that enhance teacher’s job effectiveness in their records keeping and teaching learning process in the schools. Computer system in education aids the following; introduction of simulation and games pedagogical strategies, computer based instruction, administrative effectiveness, school discipline, research publications facilities and effective teaching learning processes. Also, of recent, teachers log into internet websites to access necessary information for research and assignment.
Hence, computer, as one of the major tools of I.C.T, since it serves great roles. The productivity side of computer use in the general content area curriculum is neglected or grossly underdeveloped (Moursund, 1995; Eisenberg and Johnson, 2006). Recent publications by educationist and related association advocate for a more meaningful use of computer-technology in schools. This suggest the integrating computer skills into the content areas, and that it should not be taught in isolation as separate “computer classes” as this do not really help students learn to apply computer skills in meaningful ways. Computer literacy do not only imply ability to operate computers, but also use it as a tool for organization, communication research, and problem solving. This suggests a quick shift from approach and emphasis on theory to practice.
The Nigeria National policy on Education (2004) cited the importance of computer system in teacher education programmes exposure to changes in the methodologies, curriculum reform, and that innovation in the professions is very important. In addition, it is noted computer system skills enable teachers to implement effective report keeping strategies and computer assisted instruction and communication. The rationale for this study therefore, is to investigate the teacher’s attitude towards computer skills as it impact to teachers’ effectiveness is upper basic schools especially in Kwara State, Nigeria teaching and learning subjects whether in developed or developing countries requires the use of various teaching aids/apparatus. In most of science education, the use of technology is quite acceptable and highly recommended to enhance learning. Researchers have promoted out the capabilities of computers to improve students. Scientific knowledge and seated what “what based technology gives science teachers access to a rich vanity of textual materials and graphic information “yet, many teachers shy away from incorporating I.C.T (this computer) into their teaching and learning process despite the access to computers in the school. Clark (2000) pointed aver that few teachers used computer-based technologies for instructional purposes and observed that computer are not being integrated into most instructional curricula, Heinch, Captain, Vecta and Tidys (2000) noted that advancement in technology have now made it possible to integrate computer into the teaching of science. They stressed that the emphasis in teaching and learning should now be on providing learner with the opportunity for problem solving. These believe should include cooperative learning methods which may not necessarily require additional special training in the part of the user. He further stated that computer is more of natural tool to use in teaching and learning because a wide variety of software is available. This provides student with experience to work together to solve complex problem.
Heinch (2000) believed also that when computer is integrated into curriculum; students will be able to incorporate several different type of computer application to explore a problem in a particular field. The students will also learn to explore topics in science and create meaningful learning experiences for themselves through their exposure in the knowledge of I.C.T (Heinch, 2000). According to Opue (2003) the classroom teacher will never be replaced by programme of self-instruction. Rather, he will be freed to guide the learning of his students in ways that only a human being can. In using computer for instruction the teacher’s role is hypothesized as change basically from that of informal to learning facilitators. His duty of delivering lectures change to that of guide and problem solver. According to John, (1992), instructor is free from time consuming chore as compiling, administering and marking test has time to work individual with the subject. At the school, the instructor decides when the students use the terminal, read the book or work with laboratory equipment. This is to say that the teacher is relieved from pure informative task. He could dedicate himself to the processing of this information. Teachers’ attitude in using computer for instruction are further conceptualized as spending his time intending group discussion and in working with student individually and in small group using laboratory work where applicable. The teacher is not a spectator of in comprehension but guides the student in the multitude of diversified document to make relevant choice. He is a guarantor of assimilation as well as facilitator to learner’s use and access to knowledge of computer in education (Clive, 2006). Secondary school teachers’ attitude towards I.C.T (Computer) is not particular concern when new subjects or innovation are introduced into the school system. Therefore, this study attempts to investigate Upper Basic Islamic studies teachers’ attitude towards the use of I.C.T in teaching Islamic studies in Ilorin East Local Government Area Kwara State.
Definitions of attitude are based on the level of understanding of scholars. An attitude can be defined as a positive or negative evaluation of people, objects, activities, ideas or just about anything in your environment (Ozden, 2011). Egly and Chaiken (1998) defined attitude as psychological tendency that is expressed by evaluating a particular entity with some degree of favour or disfavor. Through it is sometimes common to defined an attitude as an effect towards an object, effect (i.e. discrete emotions or over all arousal) is generally understood to be district from attitude as a measure of favourability (Ajzen, 2001).
This definition of attitude allows for one’s evaluation of an attitude object to vary from extremely negative to an extremely positive, but also admits that people can also be conflicted or ambivalent towards on object meaning that they might at different times express both positive and negative attitude towards the same object (Wood, 2000) whether attitudes are explicit (i.e. deliberately formed) versus implicit (i.e. sub-conscious) has been a topic of considerable research. Research on implicit attitudes, which are generally unacknowledged or outside of awareness, uses sophisticated method involving of people’s response times to stimuli to show that implicit attitude exist (perhaps in tandem with explicit attitudes of the same object). Implicit and explicit attitudes seem to affect people’s behaviour, though in different ways. They tend not to be strongly associated with each other, although in some case they are. The relationship between then is poorly understood.
Barron, Schwartz, Vye, Moore, Petrosina, Zech and Bransford (1998) noted that attitudes can influence out thoughts, even if they are not always reflected in our overt behaviour. According to the researchers, while many attitudes are explicit (conscious and reportable). Others are implicit (uncontrollable and perhaps not consciously accessible). However; attitudes truly are essential building block of social thought. Attitudes are important because they affect our behaviour. According to Ajzen (1991), attitudes affect our behaviour when they are strong and accessible.
The teaching of Islamic students in the school system aims at affecting significant positive changes in the behaviour of learners and their personality. Consequently, the quality of one’s education depends mainly on the nature of knowledge being disseminated and acquired. Islamic studies is a unique world view, which is all encompassing, through it man gains information otherwise beyond his comprehensive and such could be used to uplift society (Adedeji, 2003).
The characteristics of Islamic studies education is such that it impacts to the learner/students a true knowledge of his responsibility to the individual, to the family and the society at large. Islamic studies are essential for moral intellectual and spiritual development of the child. Recognizing these need: the curriculum for Islamic studies was designed at different levels of education particularly, junior and senior secondary school with the objective of inculcating true and balance intellectual and religious in the learner at a reformative age (Ajidagba, 2005).
The following are the Information and Communication Technology tools that can be used to teach different subjects including Islamic studies: computer, internet, satellite, phones, radio, television, cellular, network, hardware and software, Microsoft, power point, you tube website, Microsoft excel, and so on. Microsoft power-point can be used in teaching Islamic studies because, its programme has been used to modify the contents of the materials and help teachers to transfer text to the slides and insert some graphics related to the topic in order to make students understand them better. Sometime other torching slides of device with shooting background music which would be liked to certain topic slides. Wan and Kamarauzana (2009). Similarly, Jamaliudin and Zaidatun (2005) added that by putting an image that relates to the days concepts, playing music or having a short video clip to draw student’s attention or stimulate discussion. The impact is very effective when the students give their fullest attention in the classroom.
Microsoft power point is a relevant tool to the teaching of Islamic studies when dealing with fundamental aspect of Islam. Such as prayer (salat), a complete rakah as a topic in salat has various steps and each of the steps can be taught through the use of related graphic, soothing background and text of the Microsoft power point. This will enable students to concentrate fully on the lesson and understanding it better, because three tools are used to teach a particular step Muhammad, 2013).
Statement of the Problem
Over the years, efforts have been made by the government to make computer training accessible to both public and private schools’ teachers through organizing workshops and seminars in order to improve their skills and knowledge of computer application to better their productivity, competency and efficiency in the course of their lessons delivery in the classrooms but this has not been materialized due to the attitude of some teachers towards the use of computer during the course of their teaching (Osborne and Hennessy, 2003).
However it has been observed that teaching and learning of Islamic studies in secondary schools was embedded with multidimensional problems which hampered successful implementation of the curriculum. The most obvious learning problem are the teachers who are ill-equipped for the task ahead, unqualified, complexity of the curriculum, inadequacy of instructional facilities for example, computer lap-top etc. (Arikewuyo, 1999). In Nigeria today, Islamic studies teachers have been requested to shift from conventional method of teaching Islamic studies and embark on the application and utilization of I.C.T equipment. This will help to enhance the interest of the students and improve their academic performance in the subject. Many researches have been done relating to the use of I.C.T to teach in secondary schools and colleges. But there is need to determine the extent to which Islamic studies teachers are ready to embrace this new teaching strategy. Therefore, the focus of this project work is to determine the attitude of Islamic studies teachers towards the use of ICT in teaching Islamic Religious studies in Upper Basic Schools in Ilorin East Local Government Area.
Purpose of the Study
The general purpose of this study was to investigate the Upper Basic school Islamic studies teachers’ attitude towards the use of ICT (Computer) in teaching Islamic Religious Studies (I.R.S) in Ilorin East Local Government, Kwara State.
Specially, the study examined:
- The Upper Basic School Islamic Studies teachers’ attitude towards the use of ICT for teaching Islamic Studies in Ilorin East Local Government, Kwara State.
- The Upper Basic School Islamic Studies teachers’ attitude towards the use of ICT for teaching Islamic Studies in Ilorin East Local Government, Kwara State on the basis of gender.
- The Upper Basic School Islamic Studies teachers’ attitude towards the use of ICT for teaching Islamic Studies in Ilorin East Local Government, Kwara State on the basis of teachers’ qualification.
- The Upper Basic School Islamic Studies teachers’ attitude towards the use of ICT for teaching Islamic Studies in Ilorin East Local Government, Kwara State on the basis of teachers’ years of teaching experience.
Answers were sought to the following research questions:
- What is the Upper Basic School Islamic Studies teachers’ attitude towards the use of ICT for teaching Islamic Studies in Ilorin East Local Government, Kwara State?
- Is there difference in Upper Basic School Islamic Studies teachers’ attitude towards the use of ICT for teaching Islamic Studies in Ilorin East Local Government, Kwara State on the basis of gender?
- Is there difference in Upper Basic School Islamic Studies teachers’ attitude towards the use of ICT for teaching Islamic Studies in Ilorin East Local Government, Kwara State on the basis of teachers’ qualification?
- Is there difference in Upper Basic School Islamic Studies teachers’ attitude towards the use of ICT for teaching Islamic Studies in Ilorin East Local Government, Kwara State on the basis of teachers’ years of teaching experience?
The following null hypotheses were tested in this study:
H01: There is no significant difference in Upper Basic School Islamic Studies teachers’ attitude towards the use of ICT for teaching Islamic Studies in Ilorin East Local Government, Kwara State on the basis of gender.
H02: There is no significant difference in Upper Basic School Islamic Studies teachers’ attitude towards the use of ICT for teaching Islamic Studies in Ilorin East Local Government, Kwara State on the basis of teachers’ qualification.
H03: There is no significant difference in Upper Basic School Islamic Studies teachers’ attitude towards the use of ICT for teaching Islamic Studies in Ilorin East Local Government, Kwara State on the basis of teachers’ years of teaching experience.
Scope of the Study
This studies was carried out to assess the attitude of Upper Basic Islamic studies teachers toward the use of ICT in teaching Islamic studies in Ilorin East Local Government, Kwara State. The population of the study comprised all Upper Basic Islamic studies teachers in Ilorin East Local Government. 100 teachers were sampled form ten (10) schools in Ilorin East Local Government. An adapted questionnaire was used to carry out the research work and T-test statistical tool was used to test all hypotheses formulated at 0.05 significance difference.
Operational Definition of Terms
The following terms and variables were operationally defined:
It is the systematic collection, analysis and interpretation of information related to a particular out come and it is a long-term process. (Suskie, 2004).
It represent a general feeling either positive or negative about ICT.
Information and Communication Technology (ICT):
It refers to as computer and laptop.
It is a subject taught in schools to development of a balanced personality that is socially accommodating intellectually alert, morally sound and spiritually upright (Adebayo, 2005).
Experienced teacher in this study, refers to Islamic studies teachers who have been teaching Islamic studies for at least, five (5) years at Upper Basic School Level.
Less Experienced Teacher:
Less experienced teacher in this study, refers to Islamic studies teachers with less than five year teaching experience in teaching Islamic studies.
Qualified teachers in this study, refers to Islamic studies teachers with any of the following degree certificated B.A (Ed), M.A. (Ed), or PGDE in Islamic studies.
Unqualified teacher, in this study refers Islamic studies teachers without B.A. (Ed), M.A.(Ed) or PGDE in Islamic studies.
Significance of the Study
The findings of this study would benefit computer teachers, I.R.S teachers, school administrators, curriculum planners and researchers to be equipped with relevant materials that can enhance teachers’ improvement on the use of Information and Communication Technology (Computer System) in Upper Basic School in Nigeria.
The findings of this work would assist teachers of computer by information them of the importance of information and communication technology, while teaching.
The finding of this study would provide the needed in sight for Islamic studies teachers so as to know the degree of utilization of information and Communication Technology tools in teaching, enhancing and militating factors in the use of Information and Communication Technology tools and possible strategies for effective use of tools.
This study is significant for curriculum planners in order to create awareness between public and private sector on the use of Information and Communication Technology tools. The finding of this study would also engender the need for Information and Communication Technology (I.C.T) tools developers to develop tools which are relevant to learners.
Discussion, Conclusion and Recommendations
This chapter presents the discussion of results in the previous chapter. Conclusion was drawn based on the results and recommendations were made. Also, suggestions were raised to encourage further studies.
Discussion of Findings
Findings of the study revealed that Upper Basic School Islamic Studies teachers have positive attitude towards the use of ICT for teaching Islamic Studies. This could be as a result of the usefulness of the ICT resources. This finding is in line with the finding of Ozigi (2007) that teachers have positive attitude towards the use of ICT for teaching Islamic Studies for teaching.
The findings of the study also revealed that there was no significant difference in Upper Basic School Islamic Studies teachers’ attitude towards the use of ICT for teaching Islamic Studies on the basis of gender. This could be as a result of general use of ICT resources by both male and female teachers for personal purpose. None of the previous studies available to the researcher had investigated the influence of gender on Upper Basic School Islamic Studies teachers’ attitude towards the use of ICT for teaching Islamic Studies.
Another finding revealed that there was no significant difference in Upper Basic School Islamic Studies teachers’ attitude towards the use of ICT for teaching Islamic Studies on the basis of teachers’ qualification. This could be as a result of popularity and personal use of the ICT resources by both the qualified and unqualified teachers. This implies that if ICT resources are made available for Islamic Studies teachers’ use, they are likely to use them for teaching Islamic Studies in schools. None of the previous studies available to the researcher had investigated the influence of teachers’ qualification on Upper Basic School Islamic Studies teachers’ attitude towards the use of ICT for teaching Islamic Studies.
Finally, results that there was no significant difference in Upper Basic School Islamic Studies teachers’ attitude towards the use of ICT for teaching Islamic Studies on the basis of teachers’ years of teaching experience. This could be attributed to benefits derived from personal usage of the ICT resources by both the experienced and less-experienced teachers. This finding is in line with the report of Palak and Walls (2013) and Awoyemi (1985) that there was no significant difference in teachers’ attitude towards the use of ICT for teaching Islamic Studies on the basis of teachers’ years of teaching experience.
The study concluded that Upper Basic School Islamic Studies teachers have positive attitude towards the use of ICT for teaching Islamic Studies. There was no significant difference in Upper Basic School Islamic Studies teachers’ attitude towards the use of ICT for teaching Islamic Studies on the basis of gender. It was also concluded in the study that there was no significant difference in Upper Basic School Islamic Studies teachers’ attitude towards the use of ICT for teaching Islamic Studies on the basis of teachers’ qualification. The study further concluded that there was no significant difference in Upper Basic School Islamic Studies teachers’ attitude towards the use of ICT for teaching Islamic Studies on the basis of teachers’ years of teaching experience.
Based on the major findings and conclusion of this study, the following recommendations are considered relevant:
- There should be adequate manpower and ICT resources supply to Upper Basic Schools by the government so as to enable Islamic Studies teachers to judiciously make use of ICT for teaching Islamic Studies resources for Islamic Studies teaching.
- Workshops, Conferences and Seminars should be organized by the government at all levels of education in order to enable the male and female Islamic Studies teachers realize that ICT resources are easy to use for effective teaching and meaningful learning of Islamic Studies in Upper Basic Schools.
- Capacity Building Workshops should be organized for the Islamic Studies teachers (qualified and unqualified) in order to expose the teachers to ICT application in Islamic Studies teaching and learning.
- Islamic Studies teachers’ years of experience should not be a major determinant in recruiting good and competent teachers on the field.
Suggestions for Further Studies
The following suggestions have been made for further studies:
- The study was specifically carried out on Islamic Studies teachers only; further researches can be conducted on other subject teachers.
- The study geographical scope was limited to Kwara State; the study could be carried out in other state of the country and outside the country.
- The present study was carried out sampling Upper Basic School Islamic Studies teachers; the study could be carried out sampling senior school teachers or tertiary institution Islamic Studies lecturers.
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Frequently Asked Questions
Do teachers in Egypt have positive attitudes towards technology?
Findings showed that the “Egyptian public school teachers’ attitudes towards computers were positive” (Bakr, 2011). Current studies have demonstrated that teachers have embraced positive attitudes towards technology usages in learning and teaching.
How have teachers’ attitudes towards technology changed over time?
Current studies have consistently shown that teachers’ attitudes towards technology have become positive. Moreover, many teachers have changed their beliefs in order to adopt and use ICT infrastructure in teaching and learning.
How can Teachers’ attitude bring the process of learning beyond the classroom?
It is Teachers’ Attitude possible to bring the process of learning beyond the boundaries of classroom by exploring Towards new possibilities of ICT. One of the basic requirements for education in this era of Information and information explosion is to prepare learners for participation in a networked information Communication society.
Are teachers’ practices and use of Technology tied to their beliefs?
They claim that teachers’ practices and use of technology are “inextricably tied to other contextual and organizational factors” (Palak and Walls, 2009, p. 418). On the issue of teachers’ belief, other scholars noted that it is ‘messy’. Such studies claim that belief is not a fixed concept with a single definition.