Unemployment And Security Challenges In Africa
This study was carried out on unemployment and security challenges in Africa. Nigeria as a country gained her independence on October 1st 1960 and after a temporary civilian government and a long reign of military power, which experienced a series of coup d’état it was restored to a democratic federation in 1999. A country with a population of over 168 million and rich in both human and natural resources faces some concerns such as corruption and security challenges. These challenges are on the increase because of lack of solutions to the issues and as such posed several threats to its inhabitants as well as create economic implications. There are some contentions as to whether the current systems handling security issues are effective. This paper will provide an in-depth analysis at the level of insecurity in Nigeria using past and current events. It will also examine existing domestic and external policies channelled towards managing the security concerns. This dissertation addresses these questions: Firstly, what is the highest form of security concern in the country? Secondly, what role do the leaders play in ensuring security? Thirdly, what can be done to counter the security challenges? And lastly, what are the possible causes of insecurity in Nigeria? This dissertation uses a mixed method approach which combines the collective use of qualitative and quantitative data methodology. From these findings, the study identifies evidence linking different group causes of the security issues and also loophole in the available policies. Such awareness can help the Nigerian Government, NGOs, International Organisations and other interested bodies improve policies for security challenges especially in developing diverse nationals. Although, previous studies restrict findings to, identifying one cause of security challenges. This comprehensive study identifies both direct and indirect causes of the issues and as such allows for collective understanding. This bundling of the causes of security challenges in Nigeria will allow other researchers focus on providing possible solution to the issues.
1.1 Background of the Study
Unemployment is a serious macroeconomic problem which poses great danger to the peace, security and even the existence of this African continent particularly in Nigeria. Because some people are of the views that even the crisis Sect Boko Haram in North East and Niger-delta militant has connection with unemployment. This is because in every negotiation between government and leaders of the militants in the area, the first demand of the militants is provision of jobs to their people. Besides Niger-delta militants there are other similar unemployed youth in western Nigeria called area boys and in the north they are called ‘Yanndaba’ as in Kano, Kaduna, Katsina and Yankalare in Gombe etc. These unemployed youth cause a lot of troubles in this country.
Unemployed people get demoralized and suffer from lose of income and self esteem as period of unemployment get duly prolonged a significantly high rate of unemployment lead to all sort of social vises such as arm robbery social and political instability, drug abuse, human trafficking, drug trafficking, fundamentally political thuggery, etc. this is particularly more terrible in less developed countries where there is no system of social security.
The deterioration of unemployment situation in Nigeria should be a source of worry to every sensible person. Large number of university graduate who have finished their national youth service corps (NYSC) program me, diploma and NCE certificate holders and secondary school leavers who roaming about for jobs pose serious danger to the peace and security this country (Douglas and et al,2006).
High and persistent unemployment has presented a major challenge for the economy in two areas, one such area, it has eroded the funding base and secondly, it has increased the demands on government through the use of welfare programs because of the consequences for poverty and inequality resulting from high unemployment. the effect of unemployment is social costs, these include increasing poverty, personal hardships, depression, decay of unused skills, increase in crime (mostly among the youth) political thuggery as well as family dispute and broken of marriages all of which threats to national security. Unemployed individuals become more and more dissatisfied and resort to riots and demonstrations (Aminu, 2012).
In recent time, the problem of poor infrastructures like electricity supply, roads, water, etc. which are essential in the survival of industries, excessive importation of finished goods similar to the ones produced by local industries, monetization exercise of the federal governments and current global financial and economic crises have caused thousands of people to lose their jobs. Now, the phenomenon of unemployment in Nigeria has been deep and widespread, cutting across all age-groups, educational strata and geo-political zones of these country El-rufa’I, (2012).
Security challenge is any threat or anything that is threat to the national stability ranging from rampant armed robbery, political thuggery, drug abuse, and drug trafficking, tribal and religious crisis, to other effects like prostitution that is women trafficking and duping.
1.2 Statement of Research Problem
The problem identified by this research is the existence of very large numbers of unemployed graduates from various tertiary institution in Kaduna north local government, whose skills are necessary for the growth and development of the political economy of Nigeria and the observed fact that the problem effects all fields specialization, age, sex, tribe and religion, and it increase without feasible solution as more labor force are produced.
Therefore It is interested in finding out and critically examining the structure, the impact of the problem of unemployment on the political economy of the local government, as well as the security challenges.
1.3 Research Question.
This research is therefore interested in finding out and critically examining and answering the following questions:
- What is the structure or characteristics of unemployed people of Kaduna north local government with special reference to age, sex, educational, qualification, tribe, and religion?.
- Is there any significant relationship between political thuggery and tribal and religious conflict as security challenges and unemployment in Kaduna north local government? To what extent does it affect the security of the local government?
- How effective is the effort of the local government with special reference to the national directorate of employment scheme on self employment?
1.4 Objective of the Study
The Objective of the study is to find out:
- To examine the structure or feature of unemployed people in Kaduna North Local Government with special reference to age, sex, educational qualification, tribe and religion.
- To necessary the significant relationship between political thuggery or tribal and religion conflict as security challenges as well as unemployment in Kaduna North Local Government.
- To assess effort of the local government with special references to the national directorate of employment schemes on self employment
1.5 Significant of the Study
This research is significant in various ways. It tries to determine the structure, consequence and the relationship between political thuggery and tribal and religious conflict as security challenge and unemployment in Kaduna north local government and suggest solutions. In doing so, I hope that:
Local government authorities and policy makers would be properly educated on the colossal waste as a result of unemployment of high level of man power required through various training, the authorities will know which age brackets among unemployed peoples are most affected and also where tribe or religion is significant, it may assist in answering many questions on issues of marginalization and consequent youth protests. Furthermore, the political elites will realize through the study that insecurity within the system may have been worsened as a result of unemployment, and how budget on security may be reduced and use in reducing unemployment, however, to the ordinary reader, it’s important to make him realize the grave situation of unemployment more especially the student or would be graduate whose mind needs to be prepared for the task ahead. Apart from the fact that he must study hard for good grade, he must ready to be self employed instead of being a job seeker on graduation, thus, on a much general assessment, this study is significant as it will bring to bare the economic and political consequences of failure of the system to utilize graduates to generate economic growth and development.
1.6 Scope and Limitation of the Study
The geographical area for the research is Kaduna north local government, it includes Doka which is the headquarters of the local government and 12 wards of the local government as follows: Kawo/Rafin-guza, Badarawa/Malali, Unguwar-sarki, Unguwar-rimi, Unguwan-dosa, Gaji Unguwar–shanu/Abakwa, Unguwan-kanawa/Hayin-banki, Shaba, Kabala, and Unguwan-Liman.
Involves the use of survey techniques which normally characterized by limitations from answers by respondents .one major limitation of this study is the paucity of data on relevant literature on the phrase “security challenges”, as a result of this, I decided to use two challenges which are political thuggery and tribal and religious conflict. It’s also difficult to establish the population of unemployed people in Kaduna north local government which cannot be realistically estimated. it’s an area which not much study has been done .there is also the problem of response and how to get the unemployed .though they are in the streets, it cannot just find them in the class room. It may go unconventional by appealing to employers of labor who are conducting interviews of employment to give the questionnaire to the applicants. it’s a costly research as data collection entails both travelling and sponsorship of research assistants.
1.7 Organization of the Study
Chapter one introduces the form in which the dissertation will take. It presents a brief study on the background of the study. The research problem, is grouped into the main problem and six sub problems. This chapter further outlines the hypothesis of the study, the research limitations, research questions and a synopsis of each chapter’s organisation.
Chapter two reviews existing literatures on the study of Nigeria’s security challenges, it discusses the genesis of the problem, it also identifies recent developments in the study, and furthermore, it discusses the flaws in the available policies and possible solutions. The chapter also makes clear the objectives, tactics, achievements and implications of the rebel groups’ activities. Lastly it gives a summary of the review.
Chapter three reviews the research design, and the form in which the methodology will take. This was done by stating the approach, measurement, targeted participants, procedure, and data analysis. This chapter also identifies the research limitations and post-research ethics.
Chapter four presents a step by step interpretation of the response gotten from the questionnaires and interviews conducted. This chapter presents the findings of the study using tables, and the results of the research are analysed.
Chapter five merges the research problem, the literature review, the methodology and the findings. This is done, to systematically link the importance of each chapter to the development of the dissertation topic.
Lastly the references used are listed, followed by the interview questions, questionnaires and further tables and maps.
Conclusion and Recommendation
The results of the research show that Nigeria has a multitude of security challenges with which it must grapple. While the closed ended part of the questionnaire was limited to certain challenges including; Terrorism, Militancy, Lawlessness, Unemployment, Illiteracy, Unstructured systems, Politics, Natural resources, Ethnicity, Religion, Cybercrime and Corruption, there were other challenges that were mentioned to include; robbery, rape, and unexplainable killings. The findings of the study show a high prevalence of security challenges, because, no single crime out of those outlined, was outlined by the participants as being non-prevalent.
Some scholars have classified Nigeria as failed country. This is due to the high rate of insecurity challenges faced by the country, and the prevalence levels of insecurity incidence recorded in the country. According to (Onyishi, 2011), (Eme, 2009), and (Eme, 2004), Nigeria is insecure because there are increased kidnappings, increased political instability and, this has resulted in political-related deaths, increased robberies, poor economic statuses, and extrajudicial killings. (Adegbamibge, 2001) Also stated, that the police are known to engage in crimes, such as robbery. The statements made by these authors are practical to research, and their essence is captured in the results which show high prevalence levels of crime. The police are responsible for extrajudicial killings yet, they are meant to offer security.
The findings in this research also supported by (Okpaga, et al., 2012) who stated that a group such as Boko Haram is known for supporting religious fighting and other forms of violence.
Moreover, the group is used to start up violence on the basis of political issues. In fact, (Okpaga, et al., 2012) also stated that the insecurity challenges Nigeria was facing has steadily shifted so that they are assuming the face of terrorism to a greater extent. (Sola, 2007) Also, cited crisis in the Niger Delta region as a source of insecurity. The opinions shared by the participants are, therefore, indicative of overt security challenges that are not only captured in literature but which people can identify with.
Each of the security challenges captured in the literature review was cited by the participants as moderately, highly or extremely prevalent, and this is indicative of the need for comprehensive plans to overcome the stated challenges. Going by the discussion on different security challenges, by scholars and reports such as (OSIWA, 2012), (Sola, 2007), (Junger, 2007), (Agbiboa, 2013), (Treisman, 2000) among other scholars in the literature review including terrorism, poor structures, terrorism, corruption, and ethnicity among others, it is clear that security challenges in Nigeria are not being addressed optimally.
The management of policy and policy implementation is the root solution to security and many other problems in Nigeria. A significant role rests in the hands of three arms of government that is the legislature, executive and the Judiciary as well as other public office holders. The results and findings also show that people have lost hope in the system and, therefore, measures should be made to change the mindset of individuals on the importance of collective security and the role of policies.
Also, on the issue of corruption, since study shows that corruption especially in public offices is to a large extent a problem in the security system, the government needs to implement more rigid laws that allow the persecution of public office holders during their term in office, this will allow for the better management of greed and an improved execution of duties while in office. The judiciary and the executive tier of government should also rule out any form of double standards regarding mitigating and enforcing of corruption based offences.
Furthermore, regarding policy flaws, internal and external professional bodies, specialised in policy formulation can be employed to research on the available policies and then come up with amendment solutions.
Lastly, regarding diversity, the government need to invest on more projects that promote the coexistence of the different ethnic and religious groups.
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