Unemployment Rate And Its Impact On Terrorism And Security Threat In Nigeria

Project and Seminar Material for Criminology And Security Studies

Unemployment Rate And Its Impact On Terrorism And Security Threat In Nigeria


Abstract


This study was carried out on the impact of unemployment rate on terrorism and security threat in Nigeria using Owerri Imo State as a case study. The study was specifically carried out to ascertain the level of unemployment in Nigeria, find out whether unemployment rate contributes to the height of insecurity in Nigeria, ascertain whether unemployment rate significantly influence youth involvement in criminal acts, and determine whether unemployment rate contributes to the level of terrorism in Nigeria. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprised of residents in Owerri Imo State. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 160 respondents and 141 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables, while the hypotheses was tested using Pearson Correlation Statistical tool, SPSS v23. The result of the findings reveals that there is a significant relationship between youth unemployment rate and the rate of crime in Nigeria. The study further reveals that there is a significant relationship between youth unemployment rate and terrorism in Nigeria. Therefore, it is recommended that Nigeria’s government must include the formulation of policies and laws that could help improve the economic and social wellbeing of its citizens and deter criminality. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organization of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE 

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Nigeria is endowed with both abundant human and natural resources. Unfortunately, it is afflict by many political, social and economic problems, which have negatively contributed to the quality of life of her citizen. One of such problems is unemployment, which is a major global challenge though it is more being controlled in developing countries.

According to Adesina (2013) unemployment is both an economic and social issue affecting almost all countries and all people directly or indirectly. It causes social anxiety, and is caused by the wave of crimes, youth unrest, and unstable socio-economic structure common in some nations. The world and most particularly developing nations like Nigeria, are currently facing serious job challenges and widespread decent work loss. The unemployment rate in Nigeria increased from 33.30 % in the fourth quarter of 2020 from 27.10% in the second quarter; though it was 22.6% in 2018. Unemployment rate in Nigeria averaged 12.31% from 2006 until 2018, reaching an all-time high of 23.10 percent in the third quarter of 2018 from 5.10% in the fourth quarter of 2010 (NBS, 2019). In addition, unemployment rise from 6.4% in 1980 to 49.6% in 2000, and to 54.1% in 2017. Since the year 2000, the unemployment rate has grown at a compound yearly average of 4.8%, and has continued to act reciprocally and rise from year 2000 to 2016 (Ajakaiye, 2016; Golubski, 2016).

Another major affliction the country is the continuous round of insecurity across the nation. Although insecurity, conflicts, and terrorism have been witnessed in different degrees across the globe, the rate of insecurity in Nigeria is alarming. All these have been pronounced in Nigeria with the kidnappings in the northern part of the nation, the attacks by Boko Haram in the North; the killings by the Fulani herdsmen in some states in the North; and with ritual killings that possibly happens due to the high levels of insecurity and unemployment and the effort to survive at all cost in the face of hunger and starvation (Idike et al., 2015).

Terrorism is the most fundamental source of insecurity in Nigeria today, and its primary bases and sources of support have generally been located in religious discrimination and intolerance particularly in Islam dominated states of Nigeria. Terrorism which is a global circumstance where no one is safe was defined by Onuoha (2011) as “the deliberate use or threat of use of violence by an individual or group to cause fear, destruction or death, especially against unarmed targets, property or infrastructure in a state, intended to force those in authority to respond to the demands and expectations of the individual or group behind such violent acts”. Terrorism in Nigeria is an Islamic revolt with a political undertone by an unknown group based in the Northern region of the country, which called itself Boko Haram, which takes into account the legalized political, social and economic injury of the Northern population. Nigeria has lost up to 3000 lives in the North since 2009 to the insurgency of this unknown Islamic named Boko Haram. Many theories have explained the terrorism challenge in Nigeria both in terms of personal motives of the terrorists, the underlying causes of terrorism, and the values of the communities that host the terrorism and sustain it. The theories commonly linked terrorism in Nigeria to religious, socio-political, economic and cultural parameters while terrorism may arise in Islamic zeal, it is now driven as much by other factors such as inequalities within the country and lack among Nigerians, in terms of livelihood (economic) resources, education or access to education and good values. The current challenge of terrorism to physical security is threatening the Nigeria society on all fronts. Like acid on terrorism in the country discloses fine patterns of sensitive in a though design. Once clear, the boundaries between reasoned declaration of certain regional values and draining cultural/religious relativism, between democratic openness and intelligence community, have become less inevitable than before, and political management of the situation accordingly more problematic. Furthermore, the Boko Haram enemy is sufficiently diffuse that superior fire power of government cannot be fully effective, and to approach triumph too closely may be to everyone in the country. All of the factors above are succinctly summarized in the views expressed by foreign observers about the causes of insecurity in Nigeria.

Kufour (2012) located the sources of insecurity in Nigeria in four factors: political conflicts; unbalanced development that involves horizontal inequalities; religious/ethnic distrust; and leadership failure. While Eunice Reddick associated the situation with low level of economic development as a result of poor governance and high level corruption.

At the most proximate and least disputable level, terrorism is the most fundamental source of insecurity in Nigeria today, and its primary bases and sources of support have generally been located in religious
Terrorism in Nigeria is an Islamic insurgence with a political undertone by a faceless group based in the Northern region of the country, which called itself Boko Haram, which takes into account the legitimate political, social and economic grievances of the Northern population. Nigeria has lost up to 1000 lives in the North since 2009 to the insurgency of this infamous Islamic sect, Boko Haram. Many theories have explained the terrorism challenge in Nigeria both in terms of personal motives of the terrorists, the underlying causes of terrorism, and the values of the communities that host the terrorism and sustain it.

The theories commonly linked terrorism in Nigeria to religious, socio-political, economic and cultural parameters. Impliedly, while terrorism may originate in Islamic fanaticism, it is now driven as much by other factors such as inequalities within the country and lack among Nigerians, in terms of livelihood (economic) resources, education or access to education and good values. The current challenge of terrorism to physical security is threatening the Nigeria society on all fronts.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Anthony De Mello, in his famous book titled, Awareness‟ stated that, “Life is a banquet. And the tragedy is that most people are starving to death”. This situation is prevalent in the Nigerian economy. Nigeria is richly blessed with abundant human and natural resources, but still finds itself fighting with high unemployment and insecurity rates, due to years of neglect of the social infrastructures and general mismanagement of the economy. Previous governments in their own capacities have been embarking on various policies to control insecurity and reduce the level of unemployment in the country.

Unemployment has become domestic in the Nigerian economic system with most of its youths between the ages of 18-35 being less productive or engaged in any form of creative or gainful employment. The level of unemployment in Nigeria has grown large that it cannot be communicate by mere word of mouth. The problems of low productivity, crime, lack of innovation, high public disorder and the most dangerous aspect of it is characterized by the various forms of insecurity within the Nigerian society. The growth in internet fraud popularly known as yahoo yahoo and some other cybercrime known as internet wire has become a bone of argument within the system where individuals who are involved comprises of youths who do not engage in any form of legitimate work due to various factors. As a result of the increasing rate of unemployment, many youths are subjected to being used as machines of destruction during election most especially in the northern part of the state; some are involved in ritual killings and other forms of wicked acts which have negative effects on the development of Nigeria and which also brought about enormous terrorist in the state. This issues and more are required to be addressed and solution tender to promote Nigeria’s image in the best interest of all and also help to make possible improvement in productivity with the availability of human and material resources readily available but not fully integrated into the production process.

In addition, unemployment has become a current and a concurrent universal problem in Nigeria. The effect presently has been affected by 80% of Nigerian’s families. The efforts of our government to stop it are not efficient or misdirected, so positive results are not yet in sight and which it is mostly believe by so many people that terrorism is one of the major problem. Unemployment has brought sorrow and object poverty to many families. The level of adult dependency has increased i.e youth are not dependent so the rate of saving in our economy is depreciating. The problem has also led to increase in crime waves and rates. All these could cause problem for the nation. It is consider fit to embark on this study as a contribution towards the eradication of the problems of unemployment and its accompanying problems and hardship to the individual and in general. My primary motive of carrying out this study were born of the desire to contribute in any meaningful way the idea of how the glowing rate of unemployment in Nigeria can be dealt and also get possible solution to the eradication of terrorist and cybercrime with in order to reduce its social and other consequences especially on our leaders of tomorrow to at least a minimum. The roles of government to assist people see the need of solving their numerous problems of which unemployment is an integral part.


1.3 Objective of the Study

The main focus of this study is to examine the impact of unemployment rate on terrorism and security threat in Nigeria. Specifically it seeks:

  1. Ascertain the level of unemployment in Nigeria.
  2. Find out whether unemployment rate contributes to the height of insecurity in Nigeria.
  3. Ascertain whether unemployment rate significantly influence youth involvement in criminal acts.
  4. Determine whether unemployment rate contributes to the level of terrorism in Nigeria

1.4 Research Questions

This research study tends to ask the following questions in regards to the issues being addressed.

  1. What is the level of unemployment in Nigeria?
  2. Does unemployment rate contribute to the height of insecurity in Nigeria?
  3. Does unemployment rate significantly influence youth involvement in criminal acts?
  4. Does unemployment rate contribute to the level of terrorism in Nigeria?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

The following hypotheses are subjected to test in the course of this research study:

H01: There is no significant relationship between youth unemployment rate and the rate of crime in Nigeria.

H02: There is no significant relationship between youth unemployment rate and terrorism in Nigeria.


1.6 Significance of the Study

Why has unemployment and insecurities continued to rise despite the essential increase in the nations GDP? Is it that successive governments neglected the issue of unemployment and insecurities or has the twin problems defied all economic theories? These are questions that need immediate answers, because unemployment and insecurities are current issues that is affecting our country and which is being discussed by both experts and lay-men alike.

Therefore, this study will be of paramount importance to economic decision-makers, as it will equip them with the knowledge and skills needed to tackle the pressing issue of unemployment and insecurities in our country. Also, to those who would like to carry out further research on this topic, it would be of valuable help in the course of their research.


1.7 Scope of the Study

The scope of the study is focus on the various unemployment problems, insecurities and terrorism in the nation Nigeria. The respondents for this study will be obtained from Owerri Imo State.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

The following posed to be a constraint to the study.

Financial Constraint

Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).

Time Constraint

The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.

However in the midst above mentioned limitation the researcher devotedly ensured that the purpose of the study was actualized.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Unemployment:

According to the OECD, is people above a specified age not being in paid employment, or self _employment but currently available for work during the reference period. Unemployment is measured by the unemployment rate which is the number of people who are unemployed as a percentage of the labor force.

The basic four types of unemployment are, (1) demand deficient, (2) Frictional, (3) Structural and Voluntary unemployment.

Employment:

This is the act of paid work agreement between the employer and an employee or the act by which a person secure himself or herself a job in order to earn a living and which the person is among the working population.

Insecurities:

This is the situation where a state of anarchy is unleashed on a general population and the human life becomes something of grave concern to all well citizens in which most people continue to wonder.

Terrorism:

This is the use of violence and intimidation, especially against civilians, in the pursuit of political aims and it is also the use of threats to create fear not just to direct victims but among a wide audience.


1.10 Organization of the Studies

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the impact of unemployment rate on terrorism and security threat in Nigeria using Owerri Imo State as a case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was the impact of unemployment rate on terrorism and security threat in Nigeria using Owerri Imo State as a case study. The study is was specifically carried out to ascertain the level of unemployment in Nigeria, find out whether unemployment rate contributes to the height of insecurity in Nigeria, ascertain whether unemployment rate significantly influence youth involvement in criminal acts, and determine whether unemployment rate contributes to the level of terrorism in Nigeria.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 141 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent were journalist in residents in Owerri Imo State.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher concluded that;

  1. The level of unemployment in Nigeria is high
  2. Unemployment rate contributes to the height of insecurity in Nigeria.
  3. Unemployment rate significantly influences youth involvement in criminal acts.
  4. Unemployment rate contributes to the level of terrorism in Nigeria.

5.4 Recommendation

Based on the responses obtained, the researcher proffers the following recommendations:

  1. Nigeria’s government must include the formulation of policies and laws that could help improve the economic and social wellbeing of its citizens and deter criminality.
  2. There is a need to increase jobs through small enterprises and poverty alleviation schemes.
  3. Economic growth in Nigeria is not the only solution to curb unemployment as the official statistics illustrate that previous unemployment did not decline economic growth.
  4. Other solutions such as the provision of right skills to youth should be given an importance.
  5. The feeling of deprivation produce frustration and could be expressed through aggression. Therefore if factors that are responsible for youth unemployment in Nigeria are addressed, crimes rate will be reduced.

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