Types, Causes And Management Of Indiscipline Acts Among Secondary School Students
This study was carried out on the types, causes and management of indiscipline acts among secondary school students in Lafia, Nasarawa State. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of teachers of some selected secondary schools in Lafia, Nasarawa State. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 63 respondents and all were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using mean score tables. While the hypotheses were tested using Chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that there is high prevalence of indiscipline act among secondary school students in Lafia, Nasarawa State. The study also revealed that the types of indiscipline act among secondary school students includes; assault and insult on teachers and non-teachers, assault on school prefects, vandalism, cultism, examination malpractice, fighting, and drug abuse and alcoholism. Therefore, it is recommended that the process of managing students’ acts of indiscipline in schools should start with the identification of the type of student enrolled in schools. Because it is only when the personal psychological makeup of the students is known that one can device the appropriate methods of managing them to the desirable standard. To mention but a few.
Table of Content
- 1.1 Background of the Study
- 1.2 Statement of the Problem
- 1.3 Objective of the Study
- 1.4 Research Questions
- 1.5 Research Hypothesis
- 1.6 Significance of the Study
- 1.7 Scope of the Study
- 1.8 Limitation of the Study
- 1.9 Definition of Terms
- 1.10 Organization of the Study
Review of Literature
- 2.1 Conceptual Framework
- 2.2 Theoretical Framework
- 2.3 Empirical Review
- 3.1 Research Design
- 3.2 Population of the Study
- 3.3 Sample Size Determination
- 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
- 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
- 3.6 Method of Data Collection
- 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
- 3.8 Validity of the Study
- 3.9 Reliability of the Study
- 3.10 Ethical Consideration
Data Presentation and Analysis
- 4.1 Data Presentation
- 4.2 Analysis of Data
- 4.3 Answering Research Questions
- 4.4 Test of Hypotheses
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
- 5.1 Summary
- 5.2 Conclusion
- 5.3 Recommendation
1.1 Background of the Study
The critical tool used in the transformation of individual in particular and the society in general. Secondary education in Nigeria is meant at preparing the learners for valuable living conditions within the society and training for further education. In order to live a valuable life within any given community and contribute towards the social, economic, and political development of the nation, the appropriate skills, values, attitudes, knowledge, and competencies must be impacted into the individual. Stakeholders have experienced magnificent increase in students’ indiscipline in secondary schools in Nigeria. In developing nations, indiscipline has been a major and continuous administrative problem among secondary schools in developing countries. Denga (1999) in his study identified indiscipline problems such as stealing, truancy, sexual offence, vandalism and cheating as destructive practices. The percentage of students who drop out of school in most urban and rural areas of Nigeria, is on an increase. These students cultivate and demonstrate deviant behaviours and may never fulfill their potentials. They become burdens to the society. There is an outcry of Nigeria educators, administrators and parents about the increasing rate of indiscipline in Nigeria secondary schools. This observation unsettles the mind of patriotic Nigerians since children are considered the future leaders of the country. As a result, any attempt to curb students’ indiscipline in school would be highly welcomed by the government, educators, parents, teachers and school administrators. The principal push of this study is to examine students’ indiscipline in secondary schools in Nigeria and discover the frequent and familiar types, the causes and suggest possible solutions to curb this deviant behaviour. Different authors have defined discipline in various terms. Adesina (2011), says that discipline is to teach the students manners on how show respect to school authorities, to observe the school laws and regulations and to maintain an established standard of behaviour. From this definition the school has a primordial role to play in instilling discipline into their students. Therefore school administrators and teachers should enforce acceptable behaviour in their students. Egwunyenga (2014) defined discipline as the training that enables an individual to develop an orderly conduct and self-control as well as direction. Peretomode (1995) maintains that discipline involves the ability to have self-control, restraint, respect for self and respect for others. Discipline according to Abubakar (2000) is the ability and willingness to do what one ought to do without external control. Hence one can say discipline is internally motivated within the individual and depends on the state of mind of an individual. It is voluntary and an individual deliberately makes efforts to conform to an established code of conduct. However, Aguba (2009) while emphasizing Douglas McGregor’s theory x, maintained that discipline is externally induced in individuals who do not succumb to established rules and regulations out of personal volition but out of fear of punishment or sanction. Rosen (2017) sees discipline as a branch of knowledge, training that develops self-control, character, orderliness or efficiency, strict control to enforce obedience and treatment that controls or punishes and as a system of rules. According to Slee (1995), discipline involves teaching and self-control. The United States department of Education 1993 in Rosen (1997) acknowledges that maintaining a disciplined environment conducive for learning requires an ethics of caring that shapes staff student’s relations. The public presumes that schools are the preferred environment to transform productive and useful citizens of any nations. Agbenyega (2006) retains that decent discipline is one of the key attributes of effective schools and most school which experienced frequent deviant students’ behaviour have been blamed on lack of effective implementation of school rules and regulations for discipline to reign in school. One can say that discipline comes through effective management of an organisation. Indiscipline on the other hand is any act that diverges from the acceptable societal norms and values. It is a violation of school rules and regulations which is capable of obstructing the smooth and orderly functioning of the school system (Edem, 1982). An undisciplined child is an uncontrollable child and can do any damage in school when he does not get what he wants (Asiyai, 2012). Principals as administrative head or chief executive of the institution who plan, control, command, organise and coordinate all the activities that take place in the school and the principal is the president or ex officio of the disciplinary council; to try students whose conduct is not satisfactory (Mbua, 2003). In this connection, principals have records of students’ indiscipline and are in better position to explain to other stakeholders, especially parents on the conduct of their children. Thus every school administrator requires a good measure of discipline in his school. Students’ indiscipline is instigating a menace in all parts of the world in relation to children’s affairs. In some parts of the United Kingdom, the rates of absenteeism, vandalism and delinquency are above average. Cases of high incidence of drug and drug related crimes in some parts of Britain are described as ‘no-go areas’ (Ken Reid, 2000). In Chicago, New York, Washington and Detroit pupil’s violence in high truancy schools is rife; for example school-based robberies, vandalism, extortion and insolence to staff (Ken Reid, 2000). In Ghana, Danso (2010) decried the high rates of indiscipline and lawlessness in educational institutions. He observed that not a single day passes without a report of an act of indiscipline perpetrated by teenagers of primary and secondary schools. He lamented over the causes of drug abuse, rape, armed robbery, abortion and even murder in the educational institutions. Meaningful teaching and learning geared towards the attainment of school goals is unattainable if the teachers and students are not disciplined. Aguba (2009) noted that discipline is needed to produce a breed of well cultivated youths who will develop not only respect for themselves but also for others in the school and society.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
It has been realised that students’ indiscipline in secondary schools in Nigeria has become a cankerworm that has eaten too deep into the students’ moral up bring. Students have become uncontrollable and highly disrespectful to: themselves, teachers, school administrators, parents and to the society at large. Students portray different types of indiscipline behaviour among which include the following acts: boycotting of lessons, watching and practicing pornography, lies telling, violence, dishonesty, disobedient to teachers, prefects, and school administration, rapping school/class mates, alcohol consumption, confronting and stabbing teachers in schools, vandalism, lateness to school, cultism, drug abuse, insulting/assaulting, stealing, rioting; among others. the extent to which students’ indiscipline behaviours in school are correlated with are not known whether these influences emanate from the perspectives of their peer group, their parents’ socioeconomic achievements, parent’s attitude, teacher’ attitude, school culture, climate and environment; and the magnitude of disorder ittriggers in school and what strategies should be put in place to curb this deviant behaviour. All of these are equally contributed to the fact that student come from different family backgrounds, economic status, cultures and values. Indiscipline in school greatly affects the quality of teaching and learning, uncovered/unfinished school curriculum (Mariene, 2012; Munyasya, 2008; Onyango, 2008; Kabiru, 2007); resulting to poor results, dropouts, and wastage of resources invested by stakeholders of education such as parents, and the government. It is evident that most students’ indiscipline and unrests are premeditated to cause maximum destruction. For instance, during the first term of the academic year 2005 and 2006, by then most secondary schools went on strike. The strike was prolonged in other schools than others. This proved that the years 2005 and 2006 saw a lot of students’ indiscipline and unrest in public secondary establishments in Nigeria. There was an outcry from the public regarding this persistent problem. The students had boycotted classes and wanted school administration to look into their grievances. This has enabled the researcher to pose the question: have parents, school counsellors and religious organisations in schools abandoned or neglected their duties in nurturing their children of becoming acceptable citizens of the community and the future? With this nonchalant attitude, teachers find it difficult to motivate their learners to learn because they equally lack peace and motivation within the school.
Achievement of the goals of secondary school education largely depends on the positive disposition of students in their academic work and the instructional performance of teachers. A major task facing educational administrators is the continuous existence of the problem of dropout, deviant behaviours, examination malpractice, lateness and poor academic performance among students. Records showed that most of the students involved in cultism in higher institutions started it in their secondary school days. The need has therefore arisen for school administrators, teachers, parents and the general public to eliminate indiscipline in schools. Nigerians cannot remain complacent when large human and material resources are wasted, indiscipline is rampant, an atmosphere of insecurity, frustration and instability are created in schools leading to ineffective learning. Student-student relationships (peer-group) influences students’ indiscipline as a result of unpleasant and unsustainable environment in which students’ needs are difficult to meet and school curriculum is seen useless because it was adopted from the needs of the colonial masters of Nigeria. Lack of self-discipline among students moved the researcher to find out the major causes and contributors of students’ indiscipline in secondary schools in Nigeria and the interest and anticipation of finding long lasting solutions.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The main objectives of this study is basically to examine the types, causes and management of indiscipline acts among secondary school students, specifically the study intends to:
- Assess the prevalence of indiscipline act among secondary school students.
- Ascertain the types of indiscipline act among secondary school students.
- Identify the causes of indiscipline act among secondary school students.
- Ascertain the ways through which indiscipline act among secondary school students can be managed.
1.4 Research Questions
The study will be guided by the following questions;
- What is the prevalence of indiscipline act among secondary school students?
- What are the types of indiscipline act among secondary school students?
- What are the causes of indiscipline act among secondary school students?
- What are the ways through which indiscipline act among secondary school students can be managed?
1.5 Research Hypothesis
H0: There are no implications attached to the prevalence of indiscipline act among secondary school students in Lafia, Nasarawa State.
Ha: There are implications attached to the prevalence of indiscipline act among secondary school students in Lafia, Nasarawa State.
1.6 Significance of the Study
As a developing nation, if Nigeria is to achieve fame and progress in all field of human endeavour, proper attention should be given to the instilling of the act of discipline in our present school system. Any nation invariably depends on the type of youths she is able to produce. Thus, if the causal factors are identified, we would be able to know what measure that could be applied in order to solve the problem; or reduce it to a minimum. Since indiscipline has similar causes it is certain that other institutions of learning will adopt some of the proposal embodied in this study.
Thus the outcome of this research may equally be of benefit to both the parents, teachers and government. Consequently, if the standard of education of our youth were improved as a result of the eradication of indiscipline in our primary and post primary schools, the yearnings and aspirations of Nigerians in socio-political as well as scientific and technological field may be realized.
1.7 Scope of the Study
This study is structured to generally examine the types, causes and management of indiscipline acts among secondary school students. However, the study will further assess the prevalence of indiscipline act among secondary school students, ascertain the types of indiscipline act among secondary school students, identify the causes of indiscipline act among secondary school students, and ascertain the ways through which indiscipline act among secondary school students can be managed. The respondents for this study will be obtained from some selected secondary school in Lafia, Nasarawa State.
1.7 Limitation of the Study
Like in every human endeavour, the researcher encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. More so, the researcher simultaneously engaged in this study with other academic work. As a result, the amount of time spent on research will be reduced.
Moreover, the case study method utilized in the study posed some challenges to the investigator including the possibility of biases and poor judgment of issues. However, the investigator relied on respect for the general principles of procedures, justice, fairness, objectivity in observation and recording, and weighing of evidence to overcome the challenges.
1.9 Definition of Terms
Indiscipline means lack of discipline, lack of control, lack of proper training; it means unruly behavior, disobedient, disorder.
Senior Secondary School:
A secondary school is both an organization that provides secondary education and the building where this takes place. Some secondary schools can provide both lower secondary education and upper secondary education. The upper secondary education is referred to as senior secondary school in Nigeria.
1.10 Organization of the Study
The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.
Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:
This chapter summarizes the findings on the types, causes and management of indiscipline acts among secondary school students in Lafia, Nasarawa State. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.
5.2 Summary of the Study
In this study, our focus was on types, causes and management of indiscipline acts among secondary school students in Lafia, Nasarawa State.The study is was specifically set toassess the prevalence of indiscipline act among secondary school students, ascertain the types of indiscipline act among secondary school students, identify the causes of indiscipline act among secondary school students, and ascertain the ways through which indiscipline act among secondary school students can be managed.
The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 63 responses were validated from the enrolled participants, where all respondent areteachers of some selected secondary schools in Lafia, Nasarawa State.
Based on the findings of this study, the researcher made the following conclusion.
- There is high prevalence of indiscipline act among secondary school students in Lafia, Nasarawa State.
- The types of indiscipline act among secondary school students includes; assault and insult on teachers and non-teachers, assault on school prefects, vandalism, cultism, examination malpractice, fighting, and drug abuse and alcoholism.
- The causes of indiscipline act among secondary school students encompasses; poor parenting style, peer group influence, lack of guidance and counseling services, poor leadership of some school administrators, overcrowded classroom, and poor study habits.
- The ways through which indiscipline act among secondary school students can be managed include; reduction of class size, value re-orientation, positive teacher/students relationship, enforceable rules & regulation, and high parental and school supervision and counseling.
Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.
- The process of managing students’ acts of indiscipline in schools should start with the identification of the type of student enrolled in schools. Because it is only when the personal psychological makeup of the students is known that one can device the appropriate methods of managing them to the desirable standard.
- Corporal punishment and expulsion should be discouraged among the teachers because of their negative psychological effects on the students as established by the scholars.
- Behaviour modification techniques should be employed to manage unruly behaviours of the students as alternative to expulsion and corporal punishments of different kind.
- Each school should have a functioning disciplinary committee that sees to every cases of acts of indiscipline of the students and which should be headed by a trained guidance counsellor.
- A wholesome approach to manage students discipline should be adopted by all the school administrators and managers.
- Each school should have a set of rules and regulations that will guide all actions and in –actions of the students during school hours and should be constantly read to the hearing of all students.
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