Trend In The Use Of Human Models In The Nigerian Advertising Industry

Project and Seminar Material for Marketing

Trend In The Use Of Human Models In The Nigerian Advertising Industry


This research focused on Trends in the use of Human Model in the Nigeria Advertising Industry. This study consists five chapters, the first chapter cover and introduction of study. The research problem, objectives of the study, formulation of hypotheses, the significance, the limitations and the scope of the study was also tested in this chapter.

Chapter two described the theoretical framework and related literature review. In chapter three, Research methodology was covered while chapter four dealt with Analysis and presentation of Data Besides Hypothesis Testing. The summary, conclusion and Recommendations for further study were made in chapter five.

The research is carried out through the method of survey research. The empirical aspect of the work is carried out using information obtained from both sample of consumers age groups and five advertising agencies in Enugu and Lagos they use model in advertising products or services.

The core of this study is to analyse the effectiveness of using models in advertising and its ethical implications.

Based on these, three hypotheses were formulated.

  1. H: Modeling is a very effective advertising strategy in Nigeria
    NH: Modeling is not an effective advertising strategy in Nigeria.
  2. H: Models used in advertising is seen as ethical by Nigerians.
    NH: Models used in advertising is seen as unethical by Nigerians.
  3. H: Models influence prospective buyers on the purchase of products.
  4. H: Television and bill-boards are the best among the models.
  5. H: Television is the best vehicle to use models in advertising.

Based on the above findings, some recommendations made are

  1. Advertising agencies should incorporate modeling service on their organization so that such models used could be specifically, and efficiently trained for the specific product to suit the marketing objection
  2. Greater emphasis should be made on the use of local models in advertising product especially cigarette.
  3. Since modeling has been found to be effective as advertising strategy, efforts should be made to increase the rate paid to models in order to encourage people to go into professional modeling schools to train the young ones is recommended.
  4. It has been found that use of models in cigarette advert significantly affect consumers below twenty years, therefore, efforts should be made to restrict cigarette advert to such programmes which will not attract the ago groups below twenty, since they are more influenced by the models used in cigarette advertisement.

Chapter One


1.1 Background of the Study

Advertising is any paid form of non-personal presentation and promotion of persons, institutions, ideas, goods or services, by an identified sponsor using appropriate medium or media of communication. According to the Cable news network (CNN), advertising gives us the right to choose, in the market place. It induces immediate sales and builds sustainable image for a product.

Advertising also informs buyers about products that ate new in the market as well as remind them about old ones almost forgotten due to lack of publicity on them. It tells about names of such new products and where to get them. Using well know models to advertise products or services creates arousal of interest if viewers identify such products or services with the models.

Advertising practitioners/advertisers hold the view that when celebrity models are used for promotion of goods or services, the loyalty of the garget audience is won. The use of models in advertising stem, from the marketing concept and also emanates from the fact that advertisers and advertising agencies realized the power influence and importance of associating notable personalities or even good looking people with product identity in order to achieve the following reasons:

  1. To attract the attention of prospective buyers.
  2. Improve the sales of the products by associating it with such models.
  3. To get buyers to be favourably disposed to the products.
  4. To propagate the brand
  5. To improve on the brand image
  6. To add value to advertising and communications industry.

World wide use of model in advertising has remind a remarkable instrument of increasing business activities because the appeals drawn will be very effective in advertising and will attract much concern where attitude change is involved. As a result, some developments have been with eased in the advertising industry within the least twenty years in the area of supportive services as radio and television production, research and out door services. These are activities and ventures where modeling services are required.

To day, advertising industry use models in several ways either on television or advertisement on the pages and covers of various magazines, newspapers, journals calendars, bill-boards, and posters.

Hogarth (1968) asserts that there are many different ways in which models are used in advertising and further stated how complex the world of advertising can be if one stops to think about models used in advertising. The models could be trained, untrained, celebrities, seductive and non-deductive. But of all the models used. Celebrity models seem to be the most effective in advertising.

White Hooper (1946) sees celebrity endorsements as finding either an authority star personality, or entertainer, who will associate himself/herself with your product, in some positive fashion, that will enhance its popularity with the television audience”. This study which was conceived out of a sense of strong interest in models used in advertising, coupled with the fact that too little was known about models used in advertisements by the modeling agencies or advertising agencies is intended to find out the influence of these models in advertisements. Most of the advertising firms operate through modeling agencies and majority of the models are represented by these agencies with their contracts being established by their representatives. But no rule exists that model must be represented by an agent, as some companies have been incorporated to provide and train models for modeling.

The purpose of a modeling agency is to avail advertisers/advertising agencies the services of trained and experienced models required for advertising of goods or services, since modeling seems to play important roles in the advertising industry, especially in accelerating appeal for goods and services as well as improving sales of influence models now have no the audience in promoting of goods and services .

1.2 Problem Statement

In Nigeria today, use of models in advertising has become one of the sophiscated marketing strategies employed in advertising operations. Watching the televisions, one sees and listen to an innumerable number of advertisements of products and services like peps, cola, Elephant blue detergent, lux toilet soap, star lager beer, jik bleach etc. Each of these products were advertised by models, mostly celebrities, it is important to remember that modeling has now reached a highly competitive stage, and huge efforts and finance are being invested yearly by the industry. Whether these efforts are justifiable or not depends on the effectiveness and the ethical implication of modeling.

The problem, however, is that in Nigeria there s a poverty of studies on the effectiveness and ethical dimensions of modeling in advertising. This study is geared towards helping to solve this problem in the Nigerian context.

1.3 Objective of the Study

The objectives of this study are as follow

  1. To provide an indepth understanding of meaning of models and modeling in advertising
  2. To examine the ways models are being used
  3. To find out people that are required to be models
  4. To find out whether models have any influence on prospective buyers
  5. To find out if the use of models in adverting is very effective
  6. To find out if the use of models is considered ethical or unethical.

1.4 Hypotheses

Hypotheses are tentative supposition put forward to determine facts and give solution to problems. Based on the problem definition and the objectives of the study previously stated, the following hypotheses are to be tested or investigated to find out whether models help in the advertising industry or not.

  1. H Modeling is a very effective advertising strategy in Nigeria.
    HO Modeling is not an effective advertising strategy in Nigeria.
  2. H2 Use of models in advertising is seen as ethical by Nigerians.
    HO Use of models in advertising is seen as unethical by Nigerians.
  3. H3 Models influence prospective buyers on the purchase of products.
    Ho Models do not influence prospective buyer on the purchase or products.

1.5 Research Question

The research question of this study is as follow

  1. Do human models have effects on the advertising industry?
  2. Do Human model tend to prompt the Advertising industry in Nigeria?
  3. Which class of the Human models is most preferred?
  4. Do Human models Advertising have negative or positive effect on them?

1.6 Significance of the Study

The significance of this study depends largely on the set of objectives of the research. Based on this, it will help to bring out the influence and effect of models on the prospective buyers and their influence could be anything ranging from negative to positive or neutral. It will also aid in deciding whether model enhance the creditability of the advertisement, and the product or service advertised or worse still, whether it detracts from the creditability of the advert.

There is need for modeling services (support personnel) in the promotion of goods or services. Given that some of the advertising problems that plague the industry are being models and modeling agencies used, it is hope that the study will no doubt help the advertiser and advertising agency to adopt improved modeling services as a strategy which would enhance the overall advertising performance in the industry.

1.7 Limitations of the Study

A research effort of this nature is usually thought with some problems and limitations the framework of this study would have been based on models used in various advertising media but its scope will be limited to advertisement on television, radio, magazines, bill boards and poster, in Enugu and Lagos metropolis.

Advertising research involves cost in terms of survey, collection of data, preparation of questionnaire and production of concluded research work. meanwhile, some respondents never completed the questionnaires administered on them as they continued to shift attention from them. And even the one completed were not returned.

Dearth of relevant literature on the models and modeling agencies used in advertising became a problem because there was lack of accurate data on th models used in advertising. Even when approached they refused giving details on how they use models in advertising for fear of the competitors.

1.8 Scope of the Study

The study will cover selected Advertising agencies in Enugu and Lagos, especially Lagos because Lagos is a commercial center in Nigeria that has a large population. It will have a good representations of the consumers that will be surveyed to find out how effective and how ethical modeling is in Nigerians, Advertising industry .

1.9 Operational Definitions


Is any past form of non presentation and promotion of ideas, goods and services by an identified sponsor. Advertising can be run both in the print or electronic media using the basic visual audio communication materials e.g. In the newspaper using photographs, etc. or radio/TV using voicing or sound effect.


Is an organization that creates communication messages and they gets them exposed via the various media, to the audience with the objective of receiving its commission.


A person called upon or employed to be photographed, or to display or demonstrate certain products or services to possible buyers in order to compel action. An acclaimed model must operate within the known standards, rules, regulations, or procedures of the profession.


It is an art of making models working as a model, take up a career in modeling agency.


Making a strong impression or influence on the intended result.


It describes ethic which is a system of moral principles or rule that govern or influence a person’s behaviour.


They are star or role used in adverting products or services, it could be television stars, actors actresses, sport figures or entertainers whose appearance in the advertisement of such goods or services sustains the interest of his /her audience on the goods or services so advertised.

1.10 Conceptual Definitions

1. Advertising:

Making generally or publicly known persuade publicly in order to encourage people to buy or use it.

2. Agency:

The means fore or substance that produces an effect or changes.

3. Model:

A person use to display or demonstrate certain produces or services to possible buyers in order to compel action.

4. Modeling:

The act of making a model.

5. Effective:

Producing the result that was wasted or intended.

6. Ethical:

Connected with principles of what is right and wrong.

7. Celebrity:

A famous person specially some one in the entertainment business.

Chapter Five

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

5.1 Summary of Findings

This study was conducted with the aim of determining the use of model in Nigeria advertising industry. Attempts have been made by the researcher to X-ray the models used in advertising products with special interest to cigarette advert in order to determine if models used has been effective and considered ethical important observations made by testing the hypothesis is summarily dealt with here. It is from these observations that recommendation will be made. In the first hypothesis which states “modeling is a very effective advertising strategy in Nigeria”.

Two sets of questionnaire were designed, one set for the consumer while the second set went to advertising agencies in Lagos and Enugu that operate through modeling agencies of which 100% respectively were returned and analyzed.

Advertising agencies in Lagos and Enugu metropolis were studied with regard to ascertain whether modeling in advertising is very important as an effective advertising strategy, and if it has any attendant implications. The researcher in an interview and questionnaires administered on advertising agencies, got responses on how the services of modeling agencies were utilized in order to accomplish marketing objectives . it is therefore discovered that it is very effective from the table (table viii) it is observed that the effectiveness in using models is great since 100% of the advertising agencies hold this view. It is very vital that more attention be paid on the type of model used in advertising because the Caliber of the modeling services, in terms of providing models for advert, effect the quality and delivery of the advert. Therefore the null hypothesis is accepted.

The second hypothesis which states use of models in advertising is seen as ethical by Nigerians. The data collected and analyzed disclosed that this hypothesis is true with regard to or in the view of some consumers especially those that were influence to change their buying hibits despite the fact that some consumers considered it as unethical. This is proved in the test win which to expected is greater then the observes. The result is that the null hypothesis is accepted. A critical look at the table xii, revealed the various age group below 10, 11-15, 16-20 and analysis of the finding based on the sample selected from the above consumers age groups, is showed that they were highly influenced by the models used in cigarette advert which represent 28% and 19. of the total respondent. Hence it influenced them to take to smoking. Advertising to these age groups was effective and considered ethical while other age groups 21-25 and above years considered the advert as unethical because it adversely affect children.
The third hypothesis states that “ modes influence prospective buyers on the purchase of products. The data in table V and Vi supported the fact that models used in advertising influence then to increase their buying habit but some made no opinion.

This is made clear when 120 out of 100 were influenced to increase their buying habits, 30 respondents were silent on any salient issues by giving an undecided response. It is found that for the fact that consumer increase his buying habit on a product may not be necessarily from the models used in advert but depended on other factors like, interest on the product advertised, physiological and psychological needs of the consumers. Based on this finding, the null hypothesis is rejected.

5.2 Conclusion

From this study, it is evident that age is the predictor of advertising effectiveness. Research findings have also shown that consumer differ in the way they respond to advertising messages and this is in turn, determined by educational levels, sex and lot of other experiences.

The variables such as sex, age and level of education have so much influence on the effectiveness of the models used in advertising. From this study, it is evident that those from this study, it is evident that those without education, with primary education or secondary education were easily influenced the models.

Also, the sex of the respondent contributed to the effectiveness of the models used in advertisement. This is because if the product advertise were meant for males, then advertising the product to their female counterparts would be in effective and considered unethical.

The type of models used, the products and the media used to determine the effectiveness of the advertisement, and these represent 53.9% 29.5% and 17.6% on table ix. There are models used in advertising plays a crucial role in influencing consumers buying behaviour. In terms of ethical implications, it is often difficult to define some boundaries of ethicality in advertising, because some actions that may be legal and ethical may be considered as unethical by some consumers and vice versa.

The short coming inherent in the response not withstanding, it would be agreed that the media used is indeed the “see” and “hear” media. The implications of this is that through this medium, consumers have the opportunity to assess the advertisement hence- these would be favourable perception and disposition towards the consumers.
In this regard, one shares the view of Okigbo that “TV commercial can be very fulfilling because in many countries of he world TV commercials are often the best things on TV. The best among them are more informative then few programmes. More entertaining than “soap operas” and “more persuasive than church sermons”

5.3 Recommendation

Although modeling in Nigeria is not professionally organized, it showed most of the advertising agencies still operate through some modeling agencies in order to provide the caliber of models desired for the accomplishment of the advertising objectives

Modeling as an advertising strategy is very complex hence the caliber of modeling services available certainly affect the equality of television adverts, and the quality of delivery on radio advert but modeling has been found to an effective advertising strategy. At 95% confidence interval the use of models was found to be significantly effective in the consumers choice of product. Among various recommendations based on the findings of this research work.
Advertising agencies should incorporate modeling services on their organization so that such models used could be specifically, and efficiently trained for the specific products to suit the marketing objective. Also greater emphasis should be made on the use of local models against the use of foreign models in advertising products especially cigarette and other product that enjoy the loyalty of rural dwellers.

Since modeling has been found to be effective as advertising strategy, efforts should be made to increase the rate paid to models in order to encourage people to go into professional modeling as a career. Moreover, the establishment of accredited modeling schools (say Nigeria modeling academy) to train the young ones is recommended. It has been found that the use of models in cigarette advert significantly should be made to restrict cigarette advert to such programmes which will not attract the age groups below twenty, since they are more influenced by the models used in the cigarette advertisement.

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