Transparency Accountability And Corruption In Public Place (A Case Of Obasanjo’s Administration (1999-2006))

Project and Seminar material for Public Administration

Project and Seminar material for Public Administration


This issue of corruption has remained ever present and continues to grow deep into the vitals of the Nigeria society, most especially as accountability has been relegated to the background. Corruption which has been ingrained into the fabrics of the Nigeria society cannot be solved overnight because the leaders as well as the followers are corrupt.

In light of the above and in recognition of the damage done by the scourge, this work aims at instituting a critical enquiring into the issue of corruption and the nature of accountability in Obasanjo’s administration. This research is divided into five chapters, which will be examined one after the other.

Chapter one deals with the introduction of the study. Chapter two x-rays the boarder line of the comment, views, opinions and perception of eminent scholars and meaningful thinkers. Chapter three treated historical background of the case study. Corruption and the dearth of accountability and transparency in Nigerian public service.

Methodology and Research design. Chapter four deals with presentation and analysis of data. Chapter five concentrated on summary, conclusion and recommendation on the work.

Table Of Contents

Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title
  • Declaration
  • Approval
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of Content

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the study
  • 1.2 Statement of the problem
  • 1.3 Objectives of the study
  • 1.4 Research questions
  • 1.5 Significance of the study
  • 1.6 Scope of the study
  • 1.7 Limitation of the study
  • 1.8 Definition of terms

Chapter Two

2.0 Literature Review

  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 Corruption in public service

Chapter Three

3.0 Research Design and Methodology

  • 3.1 Introduction
  • 3.2 Research design
  • 3.3 Source /methods of data collection
  • 3.4 Population and sample size
  • 3.5 Sample techniques
  • 3.6 Validity and reliability of measuring instrument
  • 3.7 Method of data analysis

Chapter Four

4.0 Presentation and Analysis of Data

  • 4.1 Introduction
  • 4.2 Presentation of data
  • 4.3 Analysis of data
  • 4.4 Interpretation of results

Chapter Five

5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

  • 5.1 Introduction
  • 5.2 Summary of findings
  • 5.3 Conclusions
  • 5.4 Recommendation
  • References

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background Of Study

Transparency and accountability have become common parlance within the Nigerian political economy. These twin concepts are expected behavior pattern by people serving in public and private organizations. This is irrespective or their ranks and files. But in the Nigeria public sector, transparency and accountability has unfortunately eluded the Nigerian leadership in the socio-economic and political system, creating room for corruption to become part of Nigerian governance.

Corruption has been the scourge in the developmental process in Nigeria compared to other nations that are developing. The transparency international has said in 2002 that Nigeria was the second most corrupt country in the world. The get rich quick syndrome has led to the installation of corruption as the norms and values of public practices without any rethink of the resultant effect on the nation. It has reduced to a considerable rate the efficiency and speed of development which revolves around honesty probity and accountability. The upsurge of corrupt practices in the nation’s public service has helped relegate accountability, and transparency to its infinitesimal.

Corrupt practices in high places is not a new phenomenon in the history of Nigeria as a country and has been on the increase since independence. During the second republic of the civilian government of Alhaji Shehu Shagari, may top officers were found guilty of various dimension of corruption, ranging from embezzlement and misappropriation of public fund without caring for any form of accountability consequently, other rank and file of staff senior and junior had to follow suit in the corruption jamboree. The perverseness of these phenomenon has affects Nigeria in the international community, even more worrisome as its becoming insidious.

When democracy returned to Africa most populous country in 1999, the obasanjo’s administration though had good-will for the country but after three years the country still fare badly even if there exist some few sack and arrest of top officials. That is unfortunately not addressing the situation, hence the need of these study. This work aims at examining the incidence of corruption in the fourth republic and how it has helped in stagnating and making the public service ineffective. It will also examine the activities of the anti-corruption commission that was set up to fight corruption in the country and to know how sincere they were.

1.2 Statement Of Problem

The upsurge of corruption has posed a serious threat on the political and socio-economic system; no doubt it has succeeded in impinging the growth and development of these nations. It has underlined and intercepted worthy attempts and efforts from all quarter ensuring that transparency and accountability reigns in public sector

With so many years of petrol-dollars experience in Nigeria, the insidious effect of corruption has led to the absence of infrastructure in critical area, road are death traps, hospitals are dysfunctional, education has collapsed with over twenty million unemployed. D

As soon as Obasanjo’ entered into office he inaugurated different agencies to fight corruption and some of these were, independent corrupt practices commission Acts(ICPC) and the economic and financial crimes commission Act, these agencies are to push corruption to its minimal. This agency has recorded some successful attempts, but it became obvious that these facts were meant to deceive the public in believing that it was a genuine effect. It was also charge for prosecuting lower level officials; counterparts such as governors who are immune against prosecution have their case treated with levity.

1.3 Objectives Of The Study

In this study, the specific objectives are:-

  1. To know why corruption in pervasive and becoming a way of life in the contemporary Nigerian public sector
  2. To determine if accountability exists in the Nigerian public service.
  3. To ascertain the reason why all the various effort and attempts by successive government to curb corruption in public service has proved abortive. And also to proffer the way forward to instill disciplines, accountability, in the Nigeria public service.

1.4 Research Questions

  1. why are corrupt practices prevalent in the Nigerian public Service?
  2. What has happened to accountability in the Nigeria public service?
  3. CWhat are the effort of the Obasanjo’s administration towards eradicating corrupt practices in the public

It is believer that the above research question will help give a concrete insight to the deplorable political condition in the socio-economic and political realities of the Nigerian state.

1.5 Significance Of The Study

The important of this study cannot be over emphasized especially at this time Nigeria is desperately searching for ways for improving the lot of her teeming population. President Obasanjo’s during a presidential media chat in August 2002 was asked to marshal the significance of anti-corruption and he quickly replies that the mere mention of the tragedy of corruption in our country is enough to concertize our people to have a rethink on their bad ways of life which have adverse effect on the progress of the entire nations.

President Olusegun Obasanjo taking the oath of office painted vivid picture of the ugly state that the nation was. Also expatiating that placing the military in government has been a disaster. And promised to fight corruption head-on.

This research being a systematic academic discourse on the question of transparency, accountability and corruption in public service, would certainly go beyond the more mentioning of this fact and get into proper evaluation of methods of fighting against corruption in public places and foster transparency and accountability.

The consequence of corruption include over expenditure on development progammes, inefficient execution of project that are very poor quality, and these project deteriorate quickly needing high maintenance and repair cost. It has also brought about the installation of project that is not of any importance to the citizens.

Lack of transparency results after in a perversion of economic choice with all its concomitant cost and loss to society. There is over all loss of growth and development, with decreasing quality of life, widespread poverty and misery for majority. Countries with the reputation of corruption do not often attract foreign investment because of the high unofficially rents that are often demanded in such countries and the very high cost of doing business. It has been noticed that citizens have began devising extra leg and informal ways to survive.

This work ensure to be a vital document in the hands of opinion leaders, the people and government of the country so that they will have a more critical look at the problems affecting the country and also proffer solution that are long lasting. This research will prove beneficial to both citizens of Nigeria, teachers, leaders, by assisting in setting most priority straight and also showing discipline in any course of action.

Besides, the research will prove useful to those in public service by at least awakening then to take much into consideration and also making sure that they instill transparency and accountability in the public service. It will also help to know the effect of corruption and its damage to the Nigeria society.

1.6 Scope Of The Study

This paper concerns itself with the study of corruption and accountability in public service in the fourth republic that ranges from 1999-2006 (the Obasanjo administration).

1.7 Limitation Of The Study

In any research work, there are bound to be problem just like it is in other field of academic pursuit especially in the present Nigeria society. Such problems limit the level of accuracy and reliability that the researcher can achieve in conducting his research work, the weaknesses or imperfection occasioned by limited time and resources are the actual limitations as the unavailability and access to current textbooks which will be helpful for effective execution of this project were not easily accessed.

1.8 Definition Of The Study

Parlance: It has to do with the style of speech used by people in a particular context or profession.


To escape from something


something that is perceived as or moving


something that has affected or interfere and calling some from of restriction.

Petro Dollar:

Any of the dollars that is paid to global oil producers.


Reduced to be very small in degree


Remarks or behaviours intended those amusing, especially when they are out of keeping with a serious extremely large amount of people in a place.


To arrange things in an appropriate order so that they else.

Chapter Five

5.0 Summary, Conclusion And Recommendations

5.1 Introduction

The chapter includes the findings, conclusion and recommendation on Transparency Accountability and corruption in public places (A study of Obasanjo’s Administration 1999-2006).

5.2 Summary Of Findings

Sadly, corruption is now a high-profile issue in Nigeria and those in political power are the main culprits. The culture of transparency and accountability are not longer encouraged by the government. It has been confirmed that people detest from corruption only when they cannot or have the opportunity to share from it. Through the socio-economic condition to a great encourage corruption.

In addendum (Sen200) maintains that there is the temptation to be corrupt when the officer who have a lot of power are themselves poor. The Obasanjo’s administration introduced very strong machinery towards intensifying the fight against corruption practices in high place. The question remains the authenticity and genuineness of the programme because corruption refused to decline in public service during his administration.

The anti-corruption pane of the Obasanjo administration is just a mere security network used in fighting opposition from the work it has been confirmed the fight against corruption has not been a just course, since the EFCC and ICPC has been hijacked for purposed other than the fight against corruption. It was also perceived that Nigerian leaders as well as the followers are corrupt.

5.3 Conclusion

It is a clear fact that corruption essentially caused by socio-cultural factors. Corruption in all its ramification in the symptom of moral indiscipline and moral decadence. Corruption is multi- faceted and multi-dimensional, it takes different form that is giving or accepting bribe, favor, succumbing to under influence yielding to intimidation, capricious use of power.

Various laws have been made and commission of inquiry has been instituted to look into corrupt practices e.g ICPC and EFCC. The law against corruption in Nigeria society is rendered impotent and unproductive of any positive result. Such laws are not obeyed. Sometimes it is established as a tool for oppression. The hall mark of good governance rest on transparency and accountability. To sincerely check and curb corruption, the institution that pilot the affairs of the state should concentrate on solving the menace of corruption and not fighting with them. If it is not done corruption will continue to eat deep into the fabrics of this great nation.

5.4 Recommendation

  1. Any society face with challenges of corruption will continue to find ways to break the circle. The issue of corruption in Nigeria requires all the necessary measures to effectively control it. In other words no single and simple remedies will do it and problem cannot be solved overnight because as we have seen, corruption has been ingrained into the fabrics of the society the perverseness of the nature of the of corruption is yet to disappear day instead new forms of appear every day nothing seem to do done about it.
  2. To fame the surge of corruption in Nigeria, the general population should be re- oriented to a better value system. This is because Nigerians have for long been living on the survival of the fittest and grabs what ever comes their way mentally (Dike October 6, 1999, Dike February 5, 2002).
  3. Preaching the gospel and practices or virtue is the ultimate solution to behavioral change and reduction of corruption. Government should put into practice by prosecuting all the known corruption political heavy weights in the society, as the nations inchoate laws inoperable.
  4. The nation has to make sure that those entrusted to execute the war on corruption are men and women of virtue. Those who recognize and always do what are right virtuous leaders are persons of honesty, integrity and trust.
  5. The citizens have a role to play in the war against corruption. They should always try to resist the temptation to offer bribes to corrupt government officials, as it takes two to tango. The Nigeria police need to be upgraded in status, and be well trained well equipped and paid. The police should become an elite profession which would be open to those with good moral character.
  6. Bideh Williams (2001) states that there are ways and areas from which Nigeria can properly fight corruption they include the bar and the bench, accountants and mass media. Thy day these area could boast of a clean slate, Nigeria would be clean because they are supposed to be the vanguard of the Nigerian society the mass media has a crucial rile to play in the campaign to educate the people of their right as citizens and in exposing the rogues that are caught.
  7. Lastly, the Nigeria government should encourage payment of corruption-preventive allowances as incentives to remain clean and law abiding. according to anatyam Sen, a payment system of this kind can help reduce corruption as the officer who gets this payment may be less in need to making a quick back, also the officer receiving the payment would know that corrupt behavior may involve serious loss of a high salary employment if things were to go bad.

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