Transmission Of Monkeypox Virus On Animal And Humans In Nigeria

Project and Seminar Material for Animal Science

Transmission Of Monkeypox Virus On Animal And Humans In Nigeria


Abstract


This is a research work on the transmission of monkeypox virus on animal and humans in Nigeria using Bayelsa State as case study. it is aimed at examining the symptoms of Monkey pox, ways through which monkey pox is transmitted and whether the use of smallpox vaccines reduces the risk of monkeypox. The area of study wasOkolobiri General Hospital, Bayelsa State. This study is divided into five chapters. Chapter one gives the general introduction. Chapter two reports the review of related literature to the theme of this research. Chapter three describes the actual process and method of their research, the research used. Chapter four gives the details of data analysis and presentation. Finally in chapter five, the researcher presented recommendation as well as the suggestion of further research.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Information

Monkeypox is an infectious disease caused by the monkeypox virus. CDC. (2015) Symptoms begin with fever, headache, muscle pains, swollen lymph nodes, and feeling tired.[1] This is then followed by a rash that forms blisters and crusts over.[1] The time from exposure to onset of symptoms is around 10 days.[1] The duration of symptoms is typically 2 to 5 weeks. CDC. (2015)

Monkeypox may be spread from handling bush meat, an animal bite or scratch, body fluids, contaminated objects, or close contact with an infected person. Hutin, Williams, Malfait P (2001). The virus is believed to normally circulate among certain rodents in Africa. Diagnosis can be confirmed by testing a lesion for the viruses DNA.[3] The disease can appear similar to chickenpox.

The smallpox vaccine is believed to prevent infection. McCollum, and Damon, (2003) Cidofovir may be useful as treatment.[4] The risk of death in those infected is up to 10%.

The virus can spread both from animal to human and from human to human. Infection from animal to human can occur via an animal bite or by direct contact with an infected animal’s bodily fluids. The virus can spread from human to human by both respiratory (airborne) contact and contact with infected person’s bodily fluids. Risk factors for transmission include sharing a bed, room, or using the same utensils as an infected patient. Increased transmission risk associated with factors involving introduction of virus to the oral mucosa. Kantele A, Chickering K, Vapalahti O, Rimoin AW (2016) Incubation period is 10–14 days. Prodromal symptoms include swelling of lymph nodes, muscle pain, headache, fever, prior to the emergence of the rash. The rash is usually only present on the trunk but has the capacity to spread to the palms and soles of the feet, occurring in a centrifugal distribution. The initial macular lesions exhibit a papular, then vesicular and pustular appearance. Kantele A, Chickering K, Vapalahti O, Rimoin AW (2016).


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Monkeypox is a zoonotic disease caused by monkeypox virus (MPXV), which is a member of orthopoxvirus genus. The reemergence of MPXV in 2017 (at Bayelsa state) after 39 years of no reported case in Nigeria, and the export of travelers’ monkeypox (MPX) from Nigeria to other parts of the world, in 2018 and 2019, respectively, have raised concern that MPXV may have emerged to occupy the ecological and immunological niche vacated by smallpox virus. This review X-rays the current state of knowledge pertaining the infection biology, epidemiology, evolution and transmission of MPXV in Nigeria, especially with regard to the human, cellular, and viral factors that modulate the virus transmission dynamics, infection, and its maintenance in nature. Hence this study examines the system of monkey pox transmission in Nigeria.


1.3 Purpose of the Study

The apex objective of this study is to examine the transmission of monkey pox virus in Nigeria. Specifically, the study is set to achieve the following goals;

  1. Examine the symptoms of Monkey pox in Nigeria.
  2. Examine ways through which monkey pox is transmitted.
  3. Examine whether the use of smallpox vaccines reduces the risk of monkeypox.

1.4 Research Questions

This study will be guided by the following questions

  1. What are the symptoms of Monkey pox in Nigeria?
  2. What are the ways in which monkey pox is transmitted?
  3. Does the use of smallpox vaccines reduce the risk of monkeypox?

1.5 Significance of the Study

The findings of this study will educate adolescents, youths, parents and even enlighten all relevant authorities on the cases, effects, prevalence and symptoms of monkeypox in the Nigeria society. Furthermore, the findings of this study will added to the body of existing literature on the topic under investigation. And as a result will be useful to researchers, students and other academia who may want to carry out a research on related topics.


1.6 Delimitations of the Study

This study is focused on unveiling the causes of Monkey pox in Nigeria, the ways in which monkey pox is transmitted and if the use of smallpox vaccines reduce the risk of monkeypox. Hence, the study is delimited to Okolobiri General Hospital of Bayelsa State.


1.7 Limitation of the study

In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents.

In addition, there was the element of researcher bias. Here, the researcher possessed some biases that may have been reflected in the way the data was collected, the type of people interviewed or sampled, and how the data gathered was interpreted thereafter. The potential for all this to influence the findings and conclusions could not be downplayed.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.0 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings into the transmission of monkeypox virus on animal and humans in Nigeria using Bayelsa State as case study. Respondents for this study were obtained from the medical staff of Okolobiri General Hospital, Bayelsa State. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.1 Restatement of the Problem

Monkeypox is a zoonotic disease caused by monkeypox virus (MPXV), which is a member of orthopoxvirus genus. The reemergence of MPXV in 2017 (at Bayelsa state) after 39 years of no reported case in Nigeria, and the export of travelers’ monkeypox (MPX) from Nigeria to other parts of the world, in 2018 and 2019, respectively, have raised concern that MPXV may have emerged to occupy the ecological and immunological niche vacated by smallpox virus.

This review X-rays the current state of knowledge pertaining the infection biology, epidemiology, evolution and transmission of MPXV in Nigeria, especially with regard to the human, cellular, and viral factors that modulate the virus transmission dynamics, infection, and its maintenance in nature. Hence this study examines the system of monkey pox transmission in Nigeria.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine the transmission of monkeypox virus on animal and humans in Nigeria using Bayelsa State as case study. The study specifically was aimed at examining the symptoms of Monkey pox, ways through which monkey pox is transmitted and whether the use of smallpox vaccines reduces the risk of monkeypox.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 50 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are active medical staff of Okolobiri General Hospital, Bayelsa State.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of the study, the researcher concluded that;

  1. Fever, headache, muscle pains, swollen lymph nodes, feeling tired, rash that forms blisters and crusts are all symptoms of monkey pox.
  2. Monkey pox can be contaminated or transmitted through handling bush meat, an animal bite, an animal scratch, body fluids, contaminated objects, and close contact with an infected person.
  3. The use of smallpox vaccines reduce the risk of monkeypox as it; immunizes people against monkey pox, protects people from monkey pox, eradicates monkey from the human population, and is used to prevent the transmission of monkey pox.

5.3 Recommendations

Based on the responses obtained, the researcher recommended that;

  1. To prevent MPXV from occupying the ecological niche vacated by VARV and possibly evolve to a much deadlier pathogen than it is at present, national and global research efforts should be intensified in order to identify virulence markers of disease, host and viral factors that modulate MPXV evolution, human behaviors that support zoonotic spillover events, surrogates for asymptomatic infection, as well as virus and host determinants of immunity.
  2. In Nigeria in particular MPXV epidemiological surveillance in humans and potential host species should be pre-emptive, that is, it should be conducted on a routine basis and not just in response to an outbreak.
  3. The relevant authorities in Nigeria should educate the populace some measures which can be adopted to prevent to outbreak and transmission of monkey pox which include; avoiding contact with animals that could harbor the virus (including animals that are sick or that have been found dead in areas where monkeypox occurs), avoiding contact with any materials, such as bedding, that has been in contact with a sick animal, isolation of infected patients from others who could be at risk for infection, practicing good hand hygiene after contact with infected animals or humans. For example, washing your hands with soap and water or using an alcohol-based hand sanitizer, and using personal protective equipment (PPE) when caring for patients.

5.5 Suggestions For Further Research

This study is delimited the the transmission of monkey pox in Nigeria, further studies should be conducted to indicate the social economic effect of the outbreak of monkey pox in Nigeria,


Transmission Of Monkeypox Virus On Animal And Humans In Nigeria


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Transmission Of Monkeypox Virus On Animal And Humans In Nigeria


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