Training Manpower Development And Employee Performance In Akwa Ibom State

Project and Seminar Material for Business Administration and Management BAM

Training Manpower Development And Employee Performance In Akwa Ibom State


This study examined training manpower development and employee performance in Akwa Ibom state Data were collected from both primary and secondary sources presented in tables and analyzed using percentages and frequent tables. Hypotheses were formulated and tested using Chi square method. It was discovered among other things that, staff training will improve employee’s performance in Akwa Ibom staste. It was observed that management makes effort towards ensuring adequate staff training, and that Staff training will have a significant effect on the output and service delivery in the state. In view of these findings, among other recommendations are; that training needs should be considered on the basis of overall organizational objectives.

Chapter One


1.1 Background of the Study

Th The purpose for this study was to determine the training Manpower Development and Employee Performance in an organization. Training of Manpower has been one of the pressing problems that have greatly affected the economy of any nation. Since the problem of training manpower development and employee performance among organizations is not new in the field of educational research, many studies have been carried out, but considerable numbers of literatures and papers have been reviewed. Hence, related literature on this subject therefore has been profound and vast. Some of the studies were quite intriguing. Some were particularly concerned with sporting factors that aided poor employee performance. Such studies have however been helpful in a way that they point to why some employee could not perform or achieve their goals positively thereby opting out as a result.
In the reviewing the related literature for this study, the following areas have been mapped out for review; organization background and employee’s performance, organization income (socio-economic status) and training Manpower development; Organization changes in labour market and Manpower needs in manufacturing and marketing, and summary. The organization structure or background could influence the employee performance and training. If the management (managers) of any firms or organization did not attend training, workshops or seminars, they would find it difficult to send their employees to training and also to provide them with some necessary incentive and motivation, and these will affect manpower needs or employee’s performance. Major banks (1979) in his study found out that the organizational structure cum background ha s a unique relationship with training manpower development in an organization. In the same vein, Morris (1972) shows that organization with poor attitude to training of manpower development have their employee as lacking technical know-how.

Jegede (1984) also explains that lack of manpower needs in any of the organization can be attributed to organization background and socio-economic status. Musgrave (1979) is of the opinion that companies or organization that fall under the upper and middle classes is of high socio-economic status and are well solidified, they tend to realize the importance of training manpower needs. Moreso, Iniodu (1991), Akpan (1993), and Udofia (1993) are of the view that organization of good standard find it necessary and rewarding to identify, determine and trained their employee with the view to organize workshop, seminars and symposium where technocrats will be involved to show expertise. These will enable the employee to put in maximum performance in the service oriented organization.

Henry (1993) opined that employee from a rich organizations find it easy to adjust to training life for effective performance and greater achievement. Eket (1986) observed that employee from poor organizations do not attend the same level of training manpower development as those form wealthy organizations. The differences, according to him, may be due to the availability and provision of training materials in different organizations. Esien (1979) noted that low financial position of any organization have a strong influence on the employee performance in an organization.

Manpower can be said as the total knowledge, skill, creative abilities, talents and attitude of an organization to work force as well as the values, attitude and benefits of the individuals involved in it. The needs for Manpower in an Organization include: To maximize utilization of human resources. To reduce excessive labour turnover and high absenteeism. To meet the challenges of new and changing technology and also new techniques of productionThere are a number of factors that contribute to the success of any organization, these factors include: capital, equipment, manpower, etc. All these factors are important but the most significant factor is the human factor. Since it is the people that will put the other resources to work, it should be viewed as such by management by giving it due attention in order to achieve its organizational goals and objectives.

Manpower planning aimed at ensuring that the right person is available for the right job at the right time. This involves formulating a forward looking plan to ensure that the necessary human effort to make it possible for the survival and growth of the organization, it becomes imperative to develop the employee.Manpower development is a process of intellectual and emotional achievement through providing the means by which people can grow on their jobs. It relates to series of activities, which an enterprise would embark upon to improve its managerial capacity. Manpower development is important in any discussion of strategic human resources management.These emphasis on manpower and development is influenced by the belief that it is now desirable to focus more attention on areas which in the past has been relatively neglected because every organization regardless of its size must provide for the needs, interest and desire of its employee within the work environment if it is to earn loyalty, dedication, involvement and commitment necessary to compete effectively.

Since the early 1960, the human factor of production of manpower as it is alternatively called, has increasable been recognized as the most critical resource of the factors without which an effective utilization of all other factors remain a dream. Although, it might to tempting to attach more importance to the availability of physical resource such as capital and equipment undermining that they are mere passive factors of production, which depend on human intellectual which is the active agent to exploit them in order to achieve the objective of the organization. Thus, the human factors (manpower) is the main stay of the organization.

In other words, the success of an organization depends on the ability and expertise of those who operate it both at the managerial and lower levels of operation, such abilities and expertise usually stems from the knowledge they possess and training received.According to Harbison, F.H. (1973), human being constitutes the ultimate basis of a nation’s wealth. This proposition applies to the organization, which implies that with daily increase and complexity in the organizational activities and the problem ensuring optimum productivity which is fast becoming a challenge as well as imperative for the management of organization, thus, training and development of staff on whom the huge responsibility of furthering these goals rest, must take top priority if the organization must continue to enjoy maximum performance from the staff.The main objective of setting up a company is to make profit and to achieve this organizational goal, adequate manpower planning and development programmes should be put in place to enhance performance.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

The human resources (manpower) is considered the most critical to any organizational survival of a truism that adequate supply of material and financial resources that utilizes these available resources to bring about the desired goals. However, most organizational plans meticulously for their investment in physical and capital resources and these plans are reviewed with utmost attention to detail while rarely do such organizations pay attention to human investment in which the capital and equipment will be in vain. Not many organizations consider the necessity for a well-defined and sustained training and development for staff in order to upgrade their performance or they are not able to cope financially with training and development programmes. The very few organizations that give thought to this very important aspect of staffing functions do so with lack of seriousness; all round attention and continuity.

The programmes are carried out not only once in a blue moon but are also lopsided in terms of content and staff participation. As a result of this, lackadaisical attitude of management towards training and manpower development. There had been a progressive decline in the ability of manpower to cope with the challenges that attend the over unfolding new dispensation in the industry, in the circumstance, what we find is that the rise in industrial output is inconsequential in spite of the enormous wave of modern technology that now exist in industrial activities.It is the opinion of industry observes that the poor performance of the organization-workers follows from their inability to keep abreast with the new technological current as a result of the absence of appropriate and sufficient staff training. It is against this background that the researcher considered the impact of performance training and development on organizational performance of this mission, however, the researcher used banks and Akwa Ibom state civil service as a reference.

1.3 Research Questions

  1. Are the employees of the Intercontinental Bank Plc satisfied with quality of the selection and interview procedure?
  2. Are the employees of the Intercontinental Bank Plc satisfied with the placement and promotion procedure?
  3. Are there training programmes for the employees?
  4. How adequate in terms of content and relevance, are these training progammes relevant?
  5. Has the promotion process in the bank improved employees’ performance?
  6. Are the employees of the bank utilized after their training?

1.4 The Objective of the Study

  1. To conduct an empirical investigation through a review of the manpower planning and development policy of the bank.
  2. To access the staff recruitment, selection and training programmes and from it, establish some relationship between these programmes and problems enumerated.
  3. To highlight the need for manpower planning and development in the company.
  4. To identify some techniques of manpower training and development in the company and their relevance to the company needs and the industry at large.
  5. To establish the relationship between personnel training and development and staff performance.
  6. To correct the belief that in this age of computerization and technological development, all that business units need to survive in the acquisition of up-to-date capital equipment to the neglects of the power management of its human resources.
  7. To proffer solutions to the identified problems.

1.5 Research Hypotheses

The testable hypotheses of this research study are the following:

  1. H0: There is no direct relationship between manpower training and productivity in the bank.
    H1: There is direct relationship between the manpower training and productivity.
  2. H0: Lack of adequate manpower training and development is not directly responsible for high labour turnover.
    H1: Adequate manpower and development is directly responsible for higher labour turnover.
  3. H0: Training does not the productivity of employees and the organization.
    H1: Training improves the productivity of employees and the organization.

1.6 Significance of the Study

Banking services constitute the backbone of the economy of a great country like Nigeria; no wonder it is always the most active sector in stock exchange. It is upon this premise that government monitors the activities of the banks through the Central Bank of Nigeria and provides the necessary infrastructures for optimum services to the public.
In spite of all efforts geared towards improving the services of that banking industry, there are some doubts as to the quality of services rendered by the banks to its customers in particular and the nation in general. It is in light of this that the researcher through the work intend to look into the factors militating against Intercontinental Bank Plc in achieving its sets objectives, by this, the study will look into the manpower base and quality of staff of the Intercontinental Bank Plc and assess their suitability with the aim of developing training programmes to enhance their performance since the progress of an organization is a function of the quality of those directing its affairs. The importance of this cannot be overemphasized especially in these periods when most companies are international standard complaint. It therefore behooves a company to plan and train its workers for the best quality of work to be relevant in the scheme of globalization.This is particularly directed to establishment that are prone to think that the intractable problems of their organization is finance and not manpower planning and development it will also evaluate aspects of the recruitment, selection and training process, which bear strong relevance to corporate image, productivity efficiency and morals.

For the management of banks, the benefit of training and development is that quality of work, life of the employees will reciprocate with increase performance on the job. This will go a long way in providing job satisfaction and services as motivation towards the realization of individual aspiration, it will also be relevant to the human resource development department in the formulation of policies relating to training and development of personnel and for the government, to ensure adequate training and know-how to improve the economy as a whole.

1.7 Limitations and Delimitations of the Study

Banks and state civil service was selected for this study. The coverage may give time representation of selection practice in the government owned enterprises in the economy and the organized private sector.

The study was also limited to employees of the banks. The problems, the researcher encountered was that some officers were either too busy for interviews or cleverly avoided certain questions for the fear that the information given might put their jobs in jeopardy. Those who responding to questions tends to make their answers to reflect what ought to be rather that what is, this undoubtedly affected the quality and accuracy of information collected during the study.A large population of the staff falls among the junior staff and as such, it is difficult to really get their opinion as regards manpower development as they are shy to respond and do not really appreciate the importance of development. A lot of finance was also required in making this project a reality, thus, the researcher was faced with the problem of finance and time.These difficulties notwithstanding the researcher made concert efforts to ensure that the project was comprehensively carried out to meet the desired needs.

1.8 Definition of Terms

Effects were made at defining the following terminologies use din this study to avoid ambiguity and elicit proper understanding.


This is the process concerned with people’s capacity in a defined and over a period to manage and involve positive change, and reduce or eliminate unwanted change.


The human resource of a business concern. These include unskilled, skilled supervisory and management staff of a company.


Setting objectives and deciding on the best ways of achieving the objectives.


Of people or method guided only by practical experience rather than by scientific ideas.

Chapter Five

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Introduction

It is important to ascertain that the objective of this study was to ascertain the importance of training manpower development and employee performance in Akwa Ibom state.

In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations made which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefits in addressing the challenges of manpower training and development in the state.

5.2 Summary

The objective of manpower and training development is to help yield operational results that will bring about meaningful changes in the output of a company. The study of the input of manpower and training development in the achievement of organizational goals in Intercontinental Bank Plc has moved to be useful and reasonable insight into the ideas, views and feelings of the employees about the organization.

The organization should realize that training does end with the initial orientation limited to retaining for new jobs or altered work. job should be constantly planned and people also trained. Department is a management tool skillfully and systematically planned and executed to improve the performance of current and future employees.

The aim is to develop, sharpen and thus change the employees’ attitude as well as increasing their knowledge and skill. Intercontinental Bank Plc is one of the leading banks in the industry and has network of branches and over ten thousand members of staff. This is singular reason for the training and development of its staff to meet the challenges in the industry. Actually, the research work came up when banking industry has a technological change and experience a lot of competition. This informs the right choice of the research topic. In carrying out the research, various method were adopted to achieve the desired goals.

Adrinfo (1980) in his contribution attributed the shortage of desired manpower in the banking industries to lack of appropriate and adequate training and education and insufficiency of training institutions and facilitation. In a paper titled “Manpower Development and Utilization in the Nigerian Banking Industry”, he identifies the role of manpower development as it affects the service being performed by the banks. He identified manpower shortage which he found out to partly due to the increasing manpower requirement resulting from rapid expansion of banking facilities and inadequate supply of trained personnel due to lack of institutions to turn out good graduates.In recognition of this fact, the Intercontinental Bank Plc set a Training and Manpower Development Unit in the Personnel/Human Resources Department to constantly train its staff and develop a welfare packaged for the overall development of its staff. From the research, it was discovered that Intercontinental Bank Plc adopted various methods of manpower and t raining development. Among these are in-house training, seminars, conferences, orientation programmes and overseas training

5.3 Conclusion

When workers are properly managed, trained and developed on the job, it reduces the amount of foreign exchange that is used in paying expatriates.

Changes in technologies and automation and the consequent effect they have on the existing skills and jobs have necessitated the need for the continuous training of the employees. The effective management of human resources is very important to any organization which can only be achieved by effecting a good manpower planning policies and training programmes. The essence of this is to achieve the broader aims of the organization as well as satisfying the individual aim of developing oneself. Training and manpower development is an important aspect of organization, management because it is a function that seeks to make available for the organization skills that are necessary for its functioning effectively and efficiently. Knowledge of the future requirement supply of labour is important especially where labour is reactively scarce, costly and skillful manpower development does not and with the initial orientation and induction of employee, nor is it to be limited to retaining few new job or attend work methods. Employees are constantly being training and retrained by the company.

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the analysis of data collected in the course of this research work, the researcher has the following recommendations with the view to reducing the problem of training and manpower development of the civil servant:

As a result of importance of manpower planning and development, the training and development in the bank and civil service should not be for selected employees to the neglect of others. This is because it is possible for those regarded as high potential employees not to meet the predicted standard, while those initially neglected improves overtime. For example, the receptionists need to be trained on how to relate effectively with the large public and colleagues. The drivers represent the image of the bank while on the road, they should keep traffic laws and regulations. The security men must be alert to their duties and responsibility(ies) and should not embarrass or intimidate visitors and customers, etc.

The researcher observed that customer services is a key area of interest, therefore, attention should be focus on this area during training to keep and maintain the (N25 billion) Central Bank of Nigeria requirement as paid-up capital base.

As a result of importance of manpower planning and development, organizations should continue to encourage its staff to participate in training and development programmes.

Based on the established positive relationship between training and organization’s performance vis-à-vis profit after tax, the civil service should vote a reasonable proportion of its revenue to training and development of its employees.

The bank should expand, upgrade and equip all its satellites training centres for maximum benefit and utilization.
Though the bank provides external training for their trainers, it is necessary to bring in external training consultants to the training centres occasionally to improve the quality of the programme.

Another area that needs attention is the promotion policy of the bank. It was observed that there are no clear criteria for promotion to higher posts especially in relation to junior staff cadre even after their training programme. It is necessary to prevent prejudices in recommendations for promotion and enable the staff to know requirement for advancement, there should be uniform promotion in all branches and departments as the same criteria will be used.

The bank should make efforts to evaluate its training at the end of each course. The present evaluation is not comprehensive enough. And on the job follow up programmes should be developed to enable the staff of training section of human resource department monitor, assess and quantify the effectiveness of those courses.

Course related jobs should be assigned to the employees after training as the bank cannot deploy a trained staff to area that will not enable the staff to use his required skills.

It is my candid belief that if all above recommendations are properly implemented to latter, the problems of training and development in the banking industry would be solved and its attainment benefit would be realized. This will continue to make the organization to be “Happy Customers, Happy People”.

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