Training And Development As A Tool For Enhancing Employees Performance (A Study Of United Bank For Africa Nigeria Plc, Lagos)

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Training And Development As A Tool For Enhancing Employees Performance (A Study Of United Bank For Africa Nigeria Plc, Lagos)


Abstract


Training and Development as a tool for enhancing employees’ performance, was undertaken to find out if the Training and Development has a positive effect on the performance of employees. Many employees have failed in their organization because their needs for training and development were not identified and provided for as a dispensable part of the management function. The aim of this study is to ascertain if training and development is really serving as a tool for enhancing employees’ job performance in Nigeria thereby investigating the performance of the various employees of United Bank for Africa Plc and how employees training and development has gone as far as improving their operations. Four research questions were formulated from the objectives of the study and tested usingsimple percentage and two hypotheses were tested using Chi Square. The researcher made use of survey research design to determine whether there is a relationship between the dependent and independent variables. The research instrument used here is a questionnaire that was distributed to a sample size of one hundred and seventy (n=170) management and staff members of United Bank for Africa plc. Data were also source from the internet, economics textbooks and relevant newspapers and magazines. The major findings of this study states that the organization considers the training as a part of organization strategy and training program helped the organization to achieve its objectives. The findings also indicate that more training programs are provided to the new staff and also as per the requirement. Most of the time organization faces problems due to non-availability of the skilled trainer to train the employee.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

Training has been recognized as one of managerial tools that enhanced job satisfaction globally. Training is, basically, a practical education through ‘which knowledge and skills develop, experience and inefficiencies are overcome and closer approximation can be achieved (Atif, et al, 2011). Human resource specialists who realize the value of training and development have taken deliberate decisions to encourage management of organizations to give their employees significant autonomy to develop their skills and have made a wide range of training available across their organizations, tailored to meet the needs of employees.

Sajuyigbe and Amusat, (2012) reported that training .and development have enhanced personal employees’ performance. Grund, (2001) also agreed that training has improved employees performance in term of increased in productivity. Particularly in areas such as sales, customer services and IT, also improvement in retention rate, and higher levels of personal job satisfaction. Higher productivity and improved employee performance will rely on employees having the right skills.

Jones et al, (2008) also agreed that training deals with the efforts made to bring improvement in the performance of employees. Results of a 2000 survey of 271 network professionals conducted by Lucent Care showed that the most important factor in employees’ performance was the opportunity to learn new skills (Blum and Kaplan, 20(0). The importance of training has grown in last few years because of rapid growth in the management practices, and
increasing demands of the employee job. Thus training is the best solution to improve employee’s understanding and let them know how to use the specific skills (Muhammad, 2012). Training is managerial tool which enhances employees’ skills to cope with the problem of bank distressed syndrome that facing Nigerian bunking industry where many are thinking of merger and acquisitions.

1.1.1 Training and Development

Training can be defined as a learning process in which people acquire knowledge, skills, experience, and attitudes that ‘they need in order to perform their jobs well for the achievement of organizational goals (Mathis and Jackson, 1998), A survey of the literature shows that T&D are variously defined in a narrow as well as in a broad sense. For example Jackson and Schuler (2000) refers to training as the act of improving competencies neededtoday or in the future while development refers to improving competencies over the long term. Matthews, et. al., (2004) argues that training is concerned with providing an individual with the opportunity to learn what he/she needs in order to do their job more effectively. Also management training is considered to be a process of enhancing an employee’s capacity to handle greater responsibilities successfully (Singh and Vinnicoinbe, 2003).

Training has the distinct role in the achievement of an organizational goal by incorporating the interests of organization and the workforce (Stone, 2002). Nowadays training is the most important factor in the business world because training increases the efficiency and the effectiveness of both employees and the organization. The ultimate aim of every training and development program is to add value to human resource. Any training and development program that would not add value should be abandoned. Organization should therefore make training and development of their employees a continuous activity.

Development describes the growth of humans throughout the lifespan, from conception to death. The scientific study of human development seeks to understand and explain how and why people change throughout life. This includes all aspect. of human growth, including physical, emotional, intellectual, social, perceptual, and personality development. The scientific study of development is important not only to psychology, but also to sociology, education, and health care. Development does not just invoke the biological and physical aspects of growth, but also the cognitive and social aspects associated with development throughout life.

Training and development play an important role in the effectiveness of organizations and to the experiences of people in work. Training has implication; for productivity, health and safety at work and personal development. All organizations employing people need to train and develop their staff. Most organizations are cognizant of this requirement and invest effort and other resources in training and development. Such investment can take the form of employing specialist training and development staff and paying salaries to staff undergoing training and development. Investment in training and development entails obtaining and maintaining space and equipment. It also means that operational personnel, employed in the organization’s main business functions, such as production, maintenance, sales, marketing and management support, must also direct their attention and effort from time to time towards supporting training development and delivery. This means they are required to give less attention to activities that are obviously more productive in terms of the organization’s main business. However, investment in training and development is generally regarded as good management practice to maintain appropriate expertise now and in the future.

This research focuses on how training and development can add value to employee performance in United Bank for Africa Plc., Lagos, Nigeria: Training is concerned with imparting developing specific skills for a particular purpose. Training is the act of increasing the skills of an employee for doing a particular job. It is the process of learning a sequence of programmed behavior. In earlier practice, training programmes focused more on preparation
for improved performance in a particular job. Most of these trainees are usually selected from
operative levels like mechanics, machines operators and other kinds of skilled workers.

1.1.2 Employees’ Performance

There is a need in every organization to enhance the job performance of the employees. The implementation of training and development are one of the major steps that most companies need to enhance employee performance. With organization having better trained and developed employees organizations are able to avoid wasteful spending and improved performance.

In today’s environment employees or staffs are increasingly demanding change, choice, flexibility, as well as variety in their work. The value of the organization increases with better trained employees and also employees trained properly are highly motivated and have a sense of responsibility as captivating the organization as their own. Employee performance depends on various factors, but tile most important factor of employee performance is training. Training is important to enhance the capabilities of employees. Employees who have more on the job experience have better performance because there is an increase in the both skills & competencies because of more on the job experience. Organizational performance depends• on the employee performance because human resource capital of organization plays an important role in the growth and the organizational performance. So. to improve the organizational performance and subsequently employee performance, training is given to the employee if the organization. Thus the purpose of this study is to show the impact of training and the design of training on the employee performance. Training and development increases the employee performance (Iftikhar Ahmad and Siraj-ud-din, 2009). Amisano (4010) said that employee performance is the important factor and the building block which increases the performance of the overall organization. Employee performance depends on many factors like job satisfaction, knowledge and management but that there is a relationship between training and performance. This shows that employee performance is important for the performance of the organization and that training and development is beneficial for the employee.

1.1.3 Training and Development and Employees’ Performance

Training and development play an important role in the effectiveness of organizations and to the experiences of people in work Training has implication» for productivity, health and safety at work and personal development. All organizations employing people need to train and develop their staff; most organizations are cognizant of this requirement and invest effort and other resources in training and development. Such investment’ can take the form of employing specialist training and development staff and paying salaries to staff undergoing training and development. Investment in training and development entails obtaining and maintaining space and equipment It also means that operational personnel, employed in the organization’s main business functions, such as production, maintenance, sales, marketing and management support, must also direct their attention and effort from time to time towards supporting training development and delivery. Investment in training and development is generally regarded as good management practice to maintain appropriate expertise now and in the, future.

Training and development fosters the initiative and creativity of employees and help to prevent manpower obsolescence, which may be due to age, attitude or the inability of a person to adapt him or herself to technological changes”. According, to Obisi (2001) training is a process through which the skills, talent and knowledge of an employee is enhanced and increased. He argued that training should take place only when the need and objectives for such training have been identified. Scott, Clothier and Spriege (1977) agreed that training is the corner-stone of sound management, for it makes employees more effective and productive. They argued that training is actively and intimately connected with all the personnel and managerial activities. It would be difficult for a new employee to grow on the job and become a manager .without adequate training ant: development. According to Mamoria (1995) training is a practical and vital necessity because it enables employees to develop and rise within the organization and increase their market value, earning power and job security. Mamoria explained that training helps to mould employees’ attitudes and help them to contribute meaningfully to the organization. The organization benefits because of enhanced performance of employees. He further stated that a well trained employee would make a better and economic us~ of materials and equipment which would go a long way to minimizing wastages.

According to Ohabunwa (1999) if organizations train their employees very well, managers and superiors would have the confidence to delegate authority to their subordinates but when subordinates are not properly trained, it would be difficult for authority to be delegated to them by their superiors.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

The major problem that prompted this research can be channeled on the reasons why organizations conduct an employee training sessions for her employees. When organizations start experiencing devastating stage in their operations, it shows that such organization needs to develop the employee training within the framework of a comprehensive, on-going, and consistent employee training program. These are the likely problems which most organizations experience in the organizations.


1.3 Aim and Objectives of the Study

The overall objective of this study is to look generally Oil the impact of training and development on employee’s performance with a particular reference to the organization of study. The objectives among others include the following:

  1. To determine the inf1uence of human resources training and development in the operation of the bank.
  2. To find out whether staff of the bank see training and development programme as motivating and mean of job enrichment and satisfaction
  3. To determine whether there is any relationship between labor turnover and availability of training and development opportunities in bank.
  4. To ascertain if the negative attitude of management and supervisors on training and development of their sub-ordinates promote unprecedented labor turnover
  5. To make recommendation where necessary to banks in order to make more meaningful its human resource training and development

1.4 Relevant Research Questions

This study shall address the following research question:

  1. How effective is the human resources training and development in the operation of the bank?
  2. Can training and development programme be seen as motivating and means of job enrichment and satisfaction?
  3. To what extent can work performance before and after training course be evaluated?
  4. Can negative attitude of management and supervisors on training and development of their sub-ordinates promote unprecedented labor turnover?

1.5 Relevant Research Hypothesis

The following hypothesis was formulated for the study:

  • HI: Human Resource Training and Development has significant effect on Employees’ Performance.
  • H2: Training and development program is motivating and means of enriching employees performance.

1.6 Significance of the Study

The development of any organization depends on the employees. For employee’s performance, training and development assumes great significance. This study should be of immense assistance to business students, business practitioners, systems designers and indeed all persons who are concerned about the proper informational input into training and development processes.

By bringing into focus the state of the art in the literature, it is also going to be of assistance to lecturers. The service sector, as earlier indicated arc very important to the organization of this country, therefore, since this is assumed to be a thorough study of training and development in this sector, it will reveal its level of management efficiency and effectiveness. And this knowledge will be vital to both the government and owners of industries.

Furthermore, it will provide a model for an efficient and effective training and development, which will, assists managers in this sector.

This research work will be important to the company concerned i.e. United Bank for Africa plc, government institution and the general public. The importance of this research work can be viewed from three angles that:

  1. From the importance to the company concerned
  2. From the importance to the individual concerned (i.e. the employee) and
  3. From the importance to the society at large.
1.6.1 Importance to the Company Concerned

Training and development applies not only to new employees but also to experienced people as well. It can help employees increase their level of performance and hence increase productivity which invariably leads to increase in profit for the industry concerned. It will help the management of the company to identify training needs of their workers.

1.6.2 Importance to the Individual

Training and development are also important to the individual ill that it would help him/her to possess useful skills, which enhance his/her value to the employer and increase his/her job security. Training may also qualify employer for promotion which increase their pay.

1.6.3 Importance to the Society At Large

Training leads to increase in productivity and thereby serving as tools for economic development in the country. Hence, it contributes to the increase ii~ the standard of living,


1.7 Scope of the Study

The scope of study is exclusively restricted to United Bank for Africa PIc, Marina, Lagos. However, it should not be misconceived that the study has no relevance to other organizations in Nigeria they are bound to face such problem considering the globalized nature of organizational environment.

The present study is limited to many aspects. Providing information about Training and Development is the outcome of various variables. It is not possible to take into consideration each and every criterion in this study.

It will be very difficult to carry out the study of this nature m virtually every company in Nigeria (both public and private sector) in Nigeria. Hence, the researcher decided {o enter his study on training and development and employees performance on the staff of United Bank for Africa Plc. Lagos. It covers all the various employees in the organization ranging from executive management, middle management, supervisors and the rest of the workers in the organization.


1.8 Definition of Terms Management:

The act of getting things done with the use of other people’s efforts,

Company:

A formal business set out to make maximum profit and other related objectives, like social and human objectives

Objectives:

These are considered to be aims set out to be obtained by a person or organization within a specific time.

Policies:

They are set of rules and regulations that regulate the behavior of workers.

Training:

Training involves an expert working with learners to transfer to them certain areas of knowledge or skills to improve in their current jobs.

Development:

Development is a broad, on-going multi-faceted set of activities (training activities among them) to bring someone or an organization up to another threshold of performance, often to perform some job or new role in the future.

Organization:

This is an association of employees, working collectively towards common goals of the firm.

Staff Organization

A structural arrangement provided for advisory or technical service to facilitate line function
in an operating organization.

Turnover:

This is the number of times a cycle occurs in a given’ time period; e.g. the ration of actual
monthly, credit sales to the average daily volume of outstanding accounts receivable.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

In this chapter, the researcher is going to articulate the option of the respondents as presented in chapter four. The aim of this chapter is to conclude on Training and Development and its impact on employees’ performance. Recommendations, which the researcher believes will enhance better performance of the employees in the organization, would be given.


5.1 Summary

Management should endeavor to administer training programmes that standard, adequate, relevant and beneficial to both staff and company. It could from the analysis stated above be concluded that United Bank for Africa Plc has done a lot in training its employees; especially their professional. It should be noted that there is still room for further improvement since such improvement would be to the benefit of the organization and their employees


5.2 Conclusions

In Nigeria today, the government has gone a long way in establishing institutions for training executives and has even encouraged companies to set up their own training centres in order to reduce the problems of skilled manpower shortage that seemed to be engulfing the country. The (.objectives of an organization cannot be achieved without properly training ‘workforce to make the objectives of the organization a dream come true. In this age of modernization and technological advancement, by the day, the more acquisition of educational qualification does not increase a worker’s efficiency. A worker must be trained because training is a continuous process in the lives of individuals if obsolescent and the things associated with it are to be avoided. Training, however, does not only increase job efficiency but it gives the worker job satisfaction on any job workers perform.

Training and development is the tonic employees need to enhance their performance and potentials that will in turn enhance organization effectiveness. Nigerian organizations should face realities, serious approach to training and development requires careful systematic and planned training and development activities. Nigerian organizations should invest more in training and development as money invested in the employees is like money kept in a safe
deposit, which appreciates in value over time.

Personal and awkward influences arc affecting employee-training efforts. Laisez-Faire approach to employee training is retrogressive. A. situation where organizations believe that training and development is an act of faith, that employees should find their way is fraught with dangerous consequences. Some organizations are accepting training programs from their friends and relatives which are not based on the need of their organization. On the other hand, some employees do. not show seriousness whenever they are sent on a training program. They come late, in some cases, on five day training program; they would show up only on the last day.

Many employees have failed in their organization because their needs for training and development were no identified and provided for as an indispensable part of the management function. This effect of training and development is meant for achieving employee productivity which is a function of ability, will and situational factors.
In a number of cases, lack of power training could be very costly and lead to a loss of productive ability and consequent short fall in target returns to the organization.

The management as a part-of its duty in the organization should contend to maintain a highly qualified workforce, an indispensable potential in the drive towards increased productivity and overall goal actualization.

Training is therefore the acquisition of the technology, which allows employees to perform their task satisfactory or to some specified standards. In essence, the emphasis of training is on the acquisition of new predetermined behavior, the basic premise of training that it concerns people already employed and whole job are sufficiently defined that we are able to identify the appropriate job behaviors. The focus should be on enabling the individual to perform more efficiently on the new one. Training may be needed if a person hired without requisite skills, attitudes or after being on the job, performance differences were identified which are amendable to encourage the maintenance of a stable workforce, which has a reasonable level of job enrichment and training.

The importance of manpower training and development to an organization, individual and nation cannot be over emphasized. The federal government thereby reacted and demonstrated this by offering or embarking on training scholarship and also encourages state government to operate training schemes. Also federal government established industrial training funds where individual industries are required to train and develop staff and recover a certain proportion of their contribution to the found. The realization of this is to fill the vacuums created by the departure of personnel and to some extent to meet the requirement of the industrial training fund. Both the federal and state governments recognized the importance of training and development in the development of the nation and the entire workforce.


5.3 Recommendations

Since training and development is very important in .my business organization, it would remain a worthy cause of investment because it is the employees that make up a business; they are the life of a business if the objectives of the organization are realized. It is essential that all organization make proper plans in training their workforce in the days of technological advancement. The following are recommendations for the organizations under review as drawn up from the information contained in chapter four of this research work.

  1. United bank for Africa Plc could still improve on the quality of the training administered to their staff and this would ensure efficiency,
  2. United bank for Africa PIc have really come a long way to enhance and motivate their staff going by the management’s efforts at developing and updating their employees in keeping with modern environment but the need still remains that these staff need to be given the opportunity at management courses and supervisory course, relevance of training being borne in mind a pre-requisite, staff in the organization especially those that have served to have risen to the cadre in the organization when trained in areas that will be beneficial to them will be further motivated, which leads to realization of organizational goals.
  3. Management of United bank for Africa PIc needs to realize the importance of training their staff to improve their job performance. When bank’s staff are employed it is assumed they are professional hence there is no need for further training, but in this age of technological advancement, staff are to be trained and re-trained III
    order to be able to measure up with demands of modern period.
  4. When trained, standard of work in the organization will improve, not only work output of the staff but staff ill general. Mistakes are reduced and expenses of the organization are curtailed. Also, qualified employees will be attracted because of the company’s good reputation for training,
  5. Management of United bank for Africa Plc need to know that not only is training of their employee important, it would equally beneficial to the organization and their employee ill that it would encourage self confidence on the job, Increase their productivity, encourage, innovations, Improve work standard and also satisfaction and recognition on the job.
  6. The organization should pay more attention to training by providing training ineffective management courses, comprehensive language course.
  7. Training should be carried out on a regular basis to keep staff in line with new developments in the business world. It is vital that staffs are current in the use .of equipment that would enhance their work. and improve the image of the organization to the public.
  8. Management should give adequate financial support to the cause of training and development of their employees.
  9. As training cannot be viewed as an end in itself, a considerable portion of management training functions should be devoted to the identification of training of individuals.

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