Trace Elements Content Of Neem Leaves (Azadirachta Indica)

Project and Seminar Material for Biochemistry

Trace Elements Content Of Neem Leaves (Azadirachta Indica)


Abstract


The global scenario is now supporting the development of modern drugs from less toxic plant products with proven medicinal properties. Each part of the neem plant (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) reportedly has various medicinal properties and has been in use in many continents for centuries. In this project work, water extract from Neem leaves (Azadirachta indica A Juss) with the modern atomic absorption spectrophotometer was presented.

The mineral and chemical properties in the water extract of Neem leaf were studied. Results showed that the neem leaf contains some essential minerals needed by the biochemical system. It is obvious that the water extract of Azadirachta indica is significantly high in sodium ion (Na+) and potassium ion (K+) concentrations which are responsible in the conduction of impulses along the axons of the central nervous system. Iron is another element determined. This element is significantly low in the water extract of the sample used (neem leaf).


Table Of Contents


  • Title page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of contents

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Aim of project

Chapter Two

2.0 Literature Review

  • 2.1 History of Neem tree
  • 2.2 Scientific classification
  • 2.3 Description of the Neem tree
  • 2.4 Neem oil
  • 2.5 Neem gum
  • 2.6 Neem honey
  • 2.7 Chemical compounds in Neem
  • 2.8 Medicinal properties of Neem
  • 2.9 Modern researches on the effect of Neem
  • 2.9.1 Neem’s effect against microorganisms
  • 2.9.2 Neem’s effect against ailments
  • 2.9.3 Toxicity of Neem
  • 2.9.4 Neem as a vegetable

Chapter Three

3.0 Materials and Methods

  • 3.1 Raw material used
  • 3.2 Equipment used
  • 3.3 Sample preparation and extraction
  • 3.4 Atomic absorption spectrophotometer determination

Chapter Four

4.0 Results


Chapter Five

5.0 Discussion and Conclusion

  • References

Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) is one of the very few trees known in the Indian subcontinent (Puri, 1999). This tree belonged to Meliceae family, and grows rapidly in the tropic and semi-tropic climate. It is also observed that this tree could survive in very dry and arid conditions.(Puri, 1999). The Neem Tree is an incredible plant that has been declared the Tree of the 21st century by the United Nations (Puri, 1999). In India, it is variously known as ‘Divine Tree’, ‘Life giving tree’, ‘Nature’s Drugstore’, ‘Village Pharmacy’ and ‘Panacea for all diseases’. It is one of the major components in Ayurvedic medicine, which has been practiced in India since many centuries.

Extracts from the Neem tree (Azadirachta indica A Juss) also called ‘Dogonyaro’ in Nigeria are most consistently recommended in ancient medical texts for gastrointestinal upsets, diarrhoea and intestinal infections, skin ulcers and malaria (Schmutterer, 1995). All parts of Neem plant such as leaves, bark, flower, fruit, seed and root have advantages in medical treatment and industrial products. Its leaves can be used as drug for diabetes, eczema and reduce fever. Barks of Neem can be used to make toothbrush and the roots has an ability to heal diseases and against insects. (Puri, 1999). The seed of Neem tree has a high concentration of oil. Neem oil is widely used as insecticides, lubricant, drugs for variety of diseases such as diabetes and tuberculosis (Puri, 1999; Ragasa et al., 1996).

India encouraged scientific investigations on neem tree as part of his program to revitalise India tradition and also increase commercial interest on neem (Stix, 1992) and presently some authors believe that no other plant or tree in the world has been so extensively researched or used in all possible capacities so far. In Africa, extracts from neem leaves have provided various medicinal preparations (Ekanem, 1971; Udeinya, 1993). Neem plant (Azadirachta indica) has been of great benefit in human health due to its biochemical, pharmacological, and medicinal properties.


1.1 Aim of Project

Many researches have been carried out on neem plant (Azadirachta indica) and results have shown that it has both medicinal and pharmacological properties. However, there are no documented information relating the mineral properties inherent in the leaf of the plant. Consequently, this work was aimed at determining some minerals present in the water extract of neem leaf using the modern atomic absorption spectrophotometric analysis.


Chapter Five


Discussion and Conclusion

The result of the project work is as presented in the Tables in Chapter four. From the tables, it is obvious that the water extract of Azadirachta indica is significantly high in sodium ion (Na+) and potassium ion (K+) concentrations. The interpretation of this is that the continuous intake of the water extract of the neem leaves improve the conduction of impulses along the axons of the central nervous system. Sodium and potassium ions are vital electrolytes in the transfer of information along the central nervous system. Lack of these electrolytes indicates serious deleterious effect to the physiological homeostasis of higher organisms, especially man. On another note, sodium ions play important role in the transport of glucose across the plasma membrane. Glucose is the cellular-preferred metabolite for the generation of energy through the glycolytic pathway. This metabolite would not cross the cellular membrane barrier unaided. It is, therefore, transported to where it is metabolized in exchange for sodium ions. This shows that lack of this vital electrolyte (example sodium ion) could ‘ordinarily’ lead to the starvation of cells.

Iron is another element determined. This element is significantly low in the water extract of the sample used (neem leaf). Thus, the intake of water extract of Azadirachta indica leaf should be discouraged for individuals who are convalescing from serious anaemia and need urgent replenishment of blood – red blood cells. This is evident from the fact that the human red blood cells is built on the iron. Though iron can be regenerated or recycled from aged or dead red blood corpuscles, constant intake from ‘outside’ sources (example plant sources) should be encouraged. The water extract of Azadirachta indica is not a good source.

Besides, certain heavy elements assayed for included lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn). It is known that these elements are very toxic to the biochemical system and most often can initiate certain cancers or cause certain deformities. The water extract of Azadirachta indica was not found to possess any of these heavy elements and as thus could not be considered as poisonous.

It is therefore recommended that future researchers should study the various actions of the extract to their effect on the health of the heart; that is if it would lead to the packing of the heart. The extract should also be purified and graded for further clinical studies.


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