Total Quality Management: A Sine Qua Non For Organizational Effectiveness: – An Analysis Of Standard Trust Bank

Project and Seminar Material for Business Administration and Management BAM

Total Quality Management: A Sine Qua Non For Organizational Effectiveness: – An Analysis Of Standard Trust Bank


The purpose of every business is customer satisfaction. But, management controlled system makes it impossible for organization to achieve this goal. this project reveals total quality management (TQM) as a sine qua non for organizational effectiveness achieving customer satisfaction. TQM is simply a customer focused performance enhancing tool, that is always striving to do better tomorrow what was done well today: sorting out smaller problem while looking for major ones and paying attention to smallest details. In carrying out this research work, questionnaires were distributed to both the staff and customers of Standard Trust Bank (STB), observation and interview was equally conducted, the internal record for STB was not left out in the quest for vital information to accomplish this work. The major findings shows that customer satisfaction will be achieved by doing the right things, right on time, first time and every time. And that continuous improvement is possible not minding the present performance level- this is the “sermon” of TQM.

Therefore organization interested in partaking and having a competitive edge in business have to adopt this contemporary management philosophy called TQM. It concludes by explaining that business must be operated to meet the expectations of both the internal and external customer and go as far as exceeding them.

Table Of Contents

Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title
  • Declaration
  • Approval
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of Content

Chapter One:


  • 1.1 Background of the study
  • 1.2 Statement of the problem
  • 1.3 Purpose of the study
  • 1.4 Significance of the study
  • 1.5 Research question
  • 1.6 Hypothesis
  • 1.7 Scope of the study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the study
  • 1.9 Definition of terms
  • Reference

Chapter Two:

Literature Review

  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 The management methodology
  • 2.3 Principles of total quality management
  • 2.4 Total quality management implementation
  • 2.5 How total quality management works
  • 2.6 Tools and techniques for TQM
  • 2.7 Benefits and bottleneck of TQM

Chapter Three

3.0 Research Design / Methodology

  • 3.1 Introduction to the design
  • 3.2 Research design
  • 3.3 Area of study
  • 3.4 Population
  • 3.5 Sample size determination
  • 3.6 Instrument for data collection
  • 3.7 Validation of the instrument
  • 3.8 Reliability of the instrument
  • 3.9 Method of data collection
  • 3.10 Method of data analysis
  • References

Chapter Four

4.0 Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Presentation and analysis of data

Chapter Five

5.0 Discussion, Recommendation & Conclusion

  • 5.1 Discussion of result finding
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • 5.4 Suggestion for further study
  • Appendix

Chapter One


1.1 Background of the Project

The importance of quality cannot be over emphasized. It can be trance back to the history of early man and his search for selection of fruits, capable of satisfying his need. Historically too, the ancient craftsmen of Egypt or let say other civilized words all over were conscious of what was considered appropriate and understanding.

When it comes to creation of aircraft and work of art, many story were been told of how narrow minded megalomaniacs unwilling to let another piece of art to be created by skilled craftsmen who have already produces one of

Outstanding work for them would order that the helpless craftsmen be put to death. to them, it is an attempt to preserve the quality in themselves alone. However in tracing the origin of total quality management (TQM) the following names and very important “ JAPAN which is generally acknowledged as the forefront while W. ED WARDS DEMING and J.M JURAN were credited with and boosting quality awareness in Japan . the advocates major assumption was that “ higher quality, higher prices”, constancy of purpose – an unwavering focus in an organization mission combined with statistical quality control leads to ever – improving quality at lower costs . To this end ,the Japanese spent heavily in designing operation systems which produce products with extremely small margins of errors .

At the beginning of industrial revolution therefore , the only attention that was paid to quality was to ensure that the buyers did not end with a useless

pieces of merchandise. The process of manufacturing, once it has been put in place, would be forgotten and it is only when it malfunction and requires a storage of production that attention would be paid to it. To ensure that the

definitive pieces of manufactured product did not reach the customer, a great deal of emphasis was placed on segregating the good output (product) from the ones with deficiency however, this tradition approach(method) dose not ensure ,that the product is produced “right first time”(APPLE BY,1994). which is TQM focus.

However the Japanese who were struggling to recover from post war “hargover”quickly embraced and adopted “demings” ideal and this greatly contributed to the miraculous post war recovery and success of Japan

This new quality . awareness was an important step control (TQC) which eventually became TQM. TQM has now become an important tool in the hands of management practitioners for organizational effectiveness TQM is a philosophy which emphasizes that continuous improvement is a process with customer satisfaction as its ultimate goal (gatchalian,1997) it is really a business strategy for resorting that an organization delivers quality goods and services and services to its external customers so that the organization can continually remain profitable and rewarding business.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

There is a widely and strong held belief that organizational effectiveness can be achieved if only workers could do their job correctly .but the problem of failure in organizations are mainly caused by the management controlled systems. Workers can control fewer than 15% of the problem. This is because organizations are still neck deep in tailors : characterized by a system of command, control and compliance. This traditional management culture, allows top managers to impose goals on their workers who in turn struggle to meet these goals, forced to ignore how much they dispatch in other parts of the company these exposes, the management in that, they are they are concerned with customer satisfaction. They do not emphasize on company’s relationship with the customer; the knowledge of ivy function that determine market place competitiveness. The internal customers prevented from experiencing the reward of doing a good job. They don’t experience pride in work , and job security is not enhanced, management policies treated employee like commodities and use fear to enforce them .management deficiency is also evident in the aspect of knowledge of improvement trends in quality, company’s operational performance in relation to those of the competitors . all these, culminating in poor products and services, made available to the external customers

1.3 Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this study is

  1. To reveal as the basis tool which is very necessary for organizational effectiveness to make sure that customers are been satisfied in all area and level of organization without been neglected.
  2. To ensure zero defect in the various organization production sections.
  3. To acquaint students and organization alike with some of the principles, tools and way /method of implementing TQM in achieving word class performance. to allow employees enjoy the reward of a good job and to enhance job securities

1.4 Significance of the Study

the study will lay more emphasis on the importance as well as the potency in improving and raising the capability for a good governance in any organizational level. the study of TQM will be useful to business managers and serve as a guide tall sectors of industry and commerce at all stages of putting into practice the quality improve process.

1.5 The Research Question

  1. Has the organization really been carrying out effective management in the various sectors of the organization?
  2. How can organization be introduced to basis principle of TQM?
  3. Can customers really be satisfied after adopting and practicing the said principle of TQM in the organization ?
  4. How dose organization treat their employees in our various organization is it true that they are being denied some of their right in their organization?
  5. Does organization try to enhance job securities in the in the verius organization?
  6. Is TQM really that basis tool which every organization will need to embrace before achieving an effective man arrangement in any organization?

1.6 Statement of Hypothesis

This research work is adopted to survey TQM philosophy on the basis of the following assumption. Note that ho represent null(negative) hypothesis and hi represent the positive hypothesis.

  1. Ho when TQM has been adopted and has become the culture of an organization employees are not motivated to be doing right thing.
  2. Ho that it leads to fewer problem with the product or service thereby dose not ensure greater satisfaction employee are motivated only On doing the right thing
    Hi that it lead to fewer problem with the product or service thereby ensuring greater satisfaction.
  3. Ho TQM lead to efficiency in production through reduce cost of during thing right and every time.
    Hi that it lead efficiency in production through increase cost of during thing right first time and every time.
  4. Ho TQM is not a people oriented way of running a business which involve using customer focus, supplier relationship building and employee empowerment.
    Hi TQM is people oriented way of running a business which involve using customer focus, supplier relationship building and employee empowerment.
  5. Ho that through TQM organizational effectiveness in all of it’s ramification will not be achieved.
    Hi that through TQM organizational effectiveness in all of it’s ramification will not be achieved.

1.7 Scope of the Study

the thrust of the philosophy of this tool (TQM) recognized that no business can succeed without employees (internal customer)and the consumers (external customers). therefore this study covers how an organization can become a reality through corporate attention on meeting customers quality requirement value throughout the organisation , disseminating total quality requirement values throughout the organisation, employees empowerment to continually improve all key business process, partnership with suppliers toward improving product or services quality with a clear explanation of the principle behind TQM.

1.8 Limitations of the Study

This project is designed to cover all aspect as well as providing a sound knowledge in the TQM concept, though comprises of so many aspects, and space will. Not permit. The concept itself having been in existence since 1950 when it originated from Japan, is still a new management philosophy here in Nigeria. many people contacted closing the give necessary finds it difficult to give the topic strand and trust bank lokoja is where the analysis based, since I spent most of my time in kogi state .i decided to of my source of data from Lokoja (Kogi state)

1.9 Definition of Terms

In order to achieve clarity ,avoid misconception and ambiguity an attempt will be made here to define some terminologies, give full meaning of abbreviation and unfamiliar expression used in this study .


Total quality management

Organization effectiveness

Customer satisfaction

Quality policy

It is set of values by which TQM implementation will be successful.

Zero defect

It is the result of doing the right thing, right, the first time and always.

Quality concept =TQM

STB = standard trust bank

QC = Quality circles

BPR = business r-engineering

Q-D-P = Quality delivered process

SERMON = what TQM advocates

Chapter Five

Discussion, Recommendation and Conclusion

5.1 Discussion of Result Findings

Standard trust bank makes use of the internal control system in ensuring quality control. This internal consol system consist of a team of chartered accountants. It is the belief of standard trust bark that they are operating the TQM concept therefore the propose of this control system is to ensure that the quality they intend to make available to their customer in product and services offered, will be without defect by reviewing the work processes to ensues compliance with policies. STB believes that it ‘s response time to complaints and suggestions is “away.” This is because at the end of each day they with 90 in to coalition of all opinions received at the staff meeting. Before now in order to ensure internal customers satisfaction a tool was carried out to determine the best time for the staff meeting and it was agreed at 7;30am . the maiprocesses of STB are writhen down such processes like operations processes , marketing process to mention test two. Also, they have various operational manuals for their various products, this manual provides all the inform motion required about the product.

They measure their customer satisfaction at standard trust from complaints they receive for example, during the period of this research work there was a lot of complain was centered on delay incentive which was as a result of long queue that was being experienced. The complain was quickly responded to by conducting interview to employ more hands when it was discovered that, that constituted the problem.

In a bid to maintain the quality of it’s proud and services to ensure continuous improvement, STB undertakes continuous training and retraining of staff . also special training is quanta staff responsible for product development and cashiers are trained on how to approach customers. STB believes that there are a lot on ground to motivate employee which includes salary, quarterly picnic, off hours payment and internal transfer which equally constitute promotion. They believe so much that staff is well motivated hence the slogan “STB …. The best place to work”.

The measure performance through “performance appraisal” which is both qualitative and achieve this performance appraisal is carried out “on –line “ they make use of the rating scale technique and have a technique similar to the management by objective (MBO) for appraising their marketing staff. They base their promotion on the out come of the appraisal exercise. From the available data, t is clear that at STB they manage affectively, this is eliding in the size of their balance sheet after just about flue (5) years of . operation making 5th largest bank in Nigeria based on bounce sheet size.

The propose of the smarmy and recommendation was to assist in drawing valid conclusion to this research study and to help TQM organization and other organization that want to achieve corporate excellence adopting TQM philosophy. Where TQM teas become the cuter of an organization employees are motivated to doing only the right thing and these right things are dodged stoically from the perspective of the customers interest and help to satisfy the requirements of the customers are considered acceptable.

That it leads to fewer problems with the precut or services thereby ensuring greater satisfaction and condition improvement becomes the attitude inn organisation,it is logical that standard requirement for ever one is zero defect which is the only acceptable error rate it has to achieve through a process of continuous improvement. the word “total” in this management philosophy also underscore the aspires to be a corporation culture of quality in everything it has or does. the organization must always invest necessary time and effort to achieve `excellence in their people, excellence in all activities of their business and excellence in their product and loyal employees over satisfied external customers, stake shoulder and assurance of sustained growth and earning.

5.3 Recommendations

Organization can achieve world class performance with the practical application of Total Quality Management (TQM) and as a result, it is recommended that:

  1. Total Quality Management is the single most important methodology available to achieve organizational effectiveness.
  2. The implementation of TQM with clear understanding of the principle behind it, is an indispensable guide for senior managers in all sectors of industry and commerce at all stages of putting into practice the quality improvement process.
  3. For TQM not to be defective, every single employee of an organization should beware of it’s implementation.
  4. Every organization, that is yet to adopt TQM in totality, can make use of this project work entitled: Total Quality Management; a sine qua non for organizational effectiveness, because it redresses the balance by giving the management the tools and concept successfully in their organization.
  5. Organization that want to be perceived and acknowledged as a quality organization, must also achieve quality in the components of people, process and product/services and excellence must also be achieved in the tree.
  6. There should be a faithful adherence and missionary commitment to quality, delivery process (Q-D-P) which is the secrete of all TQM organization, so as to ensure that money, time and energy are not expended on correcting error, scrapping output or re-works.
  7. Organizations should develop the culture of always determining who the customer for an activity or product or service is in all TQM organizations, the organization should never expend it’s energy on useless activities that cannot put it’s business forward.
  8. Organizations should be 100% customer focused because quality is tudged from the customer perceptiveness.
    The implementation of TQM helps achieve organizational effectiveness, this is because the fundamental aim of today’s Total Quality Movement has become Total Customer satisfaction.

5.4 Suggestion for Further Study

The following topics are suggested for the research/study:

  1. Quality Delivery Process (QDP): the secret to all Total Quality Management Organizations.
  2. Determining who the customer for an activity, product or service is in an organization. (who is a customer)
  3. Employee empowerment: A basic weapon for promoting creativity and initiative in the application of skill and experience.

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