Total Quality Management And Service Delivery In The Local Government System (A Case Study Of Adavi Local Government Area In Kogi State)

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Total Quality Management And Service Delivery In The Local Government System (A Case Study Of Adavi Local Government Area In Kogi State)


This study is an empirical assessment of services delivery in Nigeria local government system using Adavi local government area of Kogi State as a case study from 2004-2013. Structured questionnaire made up of open and close ended questions, personal interview and observation were used to collect primary data. The secondary data were collected through text books, journals, newspaper, government and internet publications. Analysis of data was through descriptive statistics of tables and simple percentages. The study revealed that Adavi local government has averagely performed in service delivery. Inspite of this, the study discovered that some of the factors affecting the discharge of service delivery in Adavi local government in terms of timelines, satisfaction, adequacy and effectiveness are insufficient funds irregular payment of salaries and allowances, undue political interference and divided loyalty, poor observance of the principle of meritocracy in recruitment and promotion of staff and corruption. It was recommended among others that employment and promotion should be based on ability, high performance, experience, qualification and not patronage, intensification of the campaign against corrupt public officials regular payment of salaries and allowance and increase funding backed up by prudent management conclusively, the study recommends that undue political interference in the affairs of the government should be stopped and discourage.

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

It is pertinent to give or analyze the introduction of this essay by giving the historical background of Adavi local government area in Kogi State. So as to enable the reader have a proper grasp of the research topic (Total Quality Management and Service Delivery in the Local Government in Nigeria) A case study of Adavi Local Government Area of Kogi State.

Adavi local government was created from Okehi local government area on 27th August, 1991 alongside with the creation of Kogi State, during the regime of the General Ibrahim Badamosi Babangida. It was then that Adavi Local government obtained its own divisional status as a third tier of government in Nigeria.

Prior to 1976 reform, the local authorities were not fully accorded recognition by the federal government. The state government was responsible for establishing the local government and in most cases with no clear or specified function expected of them.

The reform by the federal government of Nigeria 1976 gave local government a pride of place as a third tier of government with assumed parallel roles, responsibilities and relationship with the state and federal government.

Adavi local government area of Kogi State is inhibited by the Ebira dialect but there are many non-indigens such as Ibo, Igalas, Yoruba and Hausa among others who settled in the area for the purpose of farming and trading. It has an area of 718km2 and a population of 202, 194 people based on the 2006 census estimates. The headquarter of the council is at Ogaminana. Written records about the origin of the Ebira people were those compiled from palace sources by the British Colonial Administrators in early 20th century. The Ebiras through oral tradition trace their descent to Wukari (In the present Taraba state) where they were a constituent part of the Kwararafa confederation. In about 1680AD, they (along with Idoma and Igala) migrated out of Wukari a chieftaincy dispute. The Ebira later split into various groups and settled in different locations between 1680 and 1750AD. The Ebira people are republican by nature, out spoken and very hard working. Farming and cloth weaving are occupations for which the Ebiras are known.

They are presently spread in five local government areas of Kogi State namely; Adavi, Okene, Ajaokuta and Ogori Mangongo. A sizeable number is also found in Lokoja and Oyo state. The paramount ruler of the Ebira people’s is called Ohinoyi of Ebira land. Okene is said to be the administrative centre of the Ebira speaking people in Kogi State headed by his Royal Majesty Ado Ibrahim.

Service delivery in Ebira native authority covered education, security and peace.

Adavi local government council is bounded in the north by Okehi, in the west by Okene in the east by Lokoja and in the south y Ajaokuta local government area.

Today, local government as the third tier of government is not just a permanent features in the centre for grass root transformation.

1.1 Background of the Study

Every government irrespective of its ideological inclination is responsible for the socio-economic transformation of the people at the grasroot. In Nigeria, local governments are essentially created to transform the rural area through proper administration and provision of local services which Adavi local government area is one of them.

The principal purpose of service delivery is to contribute to the social-economic development of the area.

The integration of local government in service delivery is to enable us focus our unreserved attention on the performance of the Adavi local government as a system this approach sees local government as a system which encourage the services provided to the people.

According to Michael (1995), total quality management is a system approach to management that aims continuously increase value to customers by designing and continuously improving organizational process and systems. By implication, local government in Nigeria is a system put in a place by the federal government with input to provide service to the people especially those at the grassroot. This all important levels of government was nationally acclaimed as the third tiers of government in 1976, years before the inception of the second republic.

Today local government as the third tier of government, is not just a permanent features in the political arrangement of the country but the veritable centre for grass root transformation.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

Since the 1976 local government reforms in Nigeria, billions of naira have been sunk into the activities of local government administration with the expectation that, this funds will enhance their performance in rendering cutting edge services to the rural people. Unfortunately, the achievements of the third tier of government have continued to fall below expectations.

According to Zakari (2010), the founding fathers of the Nigeria local government system had good intentions. Their major aims was for this third level of government to positively affect the lives of the people at the grassroot. But the system has been hijacked by the politician and senior bureaucrats for personal enrichment.

Essentially, local government are statutorily empowered to contribute towards the realization of national development.

In view of this, Adavi local government has over the year neglected the statutory requirements as a service provider to enhance grassroot development. The failure and inconsistency of Adavi local government can be traced to this following incompetent administrators, which led to the unbalance growth and maladministration in public affairs of the local government.

Misconception of the political will that necessitates the creation of local government area.

The concept and impression that funds for local administration are the share of national cake for few political actors at the grassroot level

Competency and imposition of wrong candidates/aspirants in an election is seriously a threat to effective and efficient service delivery of the local administration

Selfish interest has engulfed the mind of so called politician/actors at the grass roots that they could not think wisely and reasonably on how to improvement performance as implied by total quality management (TQM).

1.3 Objectives of the Study

The study was designed to investigate the efficacy of local government in Nigeria with a view of determining the relevance of total quality management to enhance good service delivery.

Specifically, the study sought to determine:

  1. The role of local government in Nigeria
  2. The application of total quality management for effective and efficient service delivery
  3. The relevance of Adavi local government in socio-economic transformation
  4. The position of local level for realization of national plan
  5. How good administration can aid all round development at the grassroot

1.4 Significance of the Study

The significance of this project cannot be over estimated. It is expected that, the finding of this study would be utilized by federal, state and local government in Nigeria to restructure and sanitized the system for better performance that would enhance national transformation. The project stand to expose the role of local governments, the political actors in the local government to appreciate their statutory functions.

Lastly, the study is considered significance as reference and it serve as a benchmark for continuity especially to researchers who may wish to go further on the topic. It is also a requirement to the award of Higher National Diploma in Public Administration in Kogi State Polytechnic Lokoja.

1.5 Scope of the Study

The study is design to ascertain the applicability of total quality management and service delivery in the local government in Nigeria, particularly in Adavi local government.

Having Adavi local government in focuses, the study will confines its discussion and draw the score board on appraising the performance of the local government from the fourth republic till date (1999-2013).

1.6 Limitations of the Study

In the course of this work, I was confronted with some difficulties, particularly in trying to obtain relevant validity and reliability as result of political consideration, likewise, aside time limit, academic stress couple with the antecedent economic constraints.

Also, the secondary data used in this work cannot be qualitatively guaranteed or objectives, as they were compiled by different scholars. As regards the primary data, some respondents may not be willing to give some vital information; some may not return their questionnaire while some may be damaged in the process.

1.7 Definition of the Terms


The can be referred as to goods and services that are reliable, dependable and psychologically.


It is the totality of features and characteristics of a product or services that bears on it ability to satisfy stated or implied needs.


It is a collaborative efforts towards utilization of the available resources effectively and efficiently to improve change on the desire goal.

Services Delivery:

In this study service delivery is accorded two basic meanings. Firstly, it is equated with the provision of social services like education, security, water sanitation, infrastructure, transportation like mass transit, social welfare services like bursary, scholarship to students disaster prevention and rehabilitation. Bello Imam and Roberts (2001) agree delivery when they noted that local social services delivery is the provision of services intended to alleviate human suffering and by extension, enhance the quality of life of the citizens.

Secondly, service delivery refers to the discharge of the duties assigned to workers of the local government.

External Factors:

This refers to things or circumstance emanating from outside the environment of the local government but having potentials to mar or enhance the performance of the local government councils in Nigeria. Some of this factor includes undue government interference, monthly financial allocations from the federation account, undue societal pressure etc.

Internal Factor:

Refers to things or circumstances emanating from within the local government area which affect its operation and performance for instance, irrelevant academic qualification and experience, work attitude, recruitment process among others.


This refers to the recruitment of workers based on a person’s intelligence, talent, ability, possession of relevant academic qualification and experience.

Quality Service Delivery:

Is characterized with timeliness, adequacy, satisfaction of the customer or consumer, fairness, honesty and transparency.

Ineffective Service Delivery:

Is characterized with unseemliness, inadequacy, dissatisfaction (of the customer or consumer) and lack of transparency.

Work Attitude:

This is the predisposition to work arising from concepts, feelings, beliefs, habits and motives. It could be positive, passive or negative, comfort, good health; success and good environment contribute to the formation of a positive work attitude while illness, hardship failure and lack of essential facilities result in the development of a negative work attitude.


In its simple form is the misuse of authority (or one position) as a result of consideration of personal gains which may not necessarily be monetary. It is also defined as deviation from acceptable norms, values standards of a society.

Chapter Five

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

5.0 Introduction

This chapter intends to summaries the study by drawing up the conclusion and proper recommendations on hoe government can tackled the issue of total quality management and service delivery in the local government and Nigeria in general.

5.1 Summary

The research work was principally aimed at accessing the total quality management and delivery in Nigeria local government; A case study of Adavi Local Government area in Kogi state.

The research study began in considering the introduction ,background of the study, significance of the study and definition of some key concept.

Also, the literature review was been considered alongside with the theoretical framework. The method use in carrying out this research work was fully explained in chapter three data use for the research were both collected through interview and questionnaire.

Data analysis and presentation is another segment or part of this research work. The segment is concerned with presentation analysis of data obtained from field survey of the topic

Finally the research end by giving its summary, conclusion and recommendation. All this put together serve as panacea and road map for the attainment of success of this research work

5.2 Conclusion

What have we done in this study? We have endeavoured to show through hybridization of content and empirical analysis.

  1. The social services local government councils are expected to render the rural people
  2. That local government have not performed well in the quality of services delivered to the people
  3. Unraveled external and internal causes of dissatisfactory of services delivery cause such as corruption, undue political interference or divided loyalty, irregular payment of salaries and allowances of workers, insufficient funds and poor observance of the principle of meritocracy in the recruitment and promotion of local government workers were among the factors discovered.

Moreover, irregular payment of staff salary and allowances has given birth to poor work attitude absenteeism, lateness to work and lack of commitment and devotion to work. Workers are forced to seek for supplementary livelihood during office hours as a means of survival. This in turn has affected the productivity. It was therefore not surprising to discover that ‘’only skeletal services’’ are rendered at Adavi local government area because of the ‘’demonstration’’ of the work force through irregular payment of salary and allowances.

5.3 Recommendations

Recommendations made in the study if implemented have the potential of injecting the needed service delivery capacity fundamental in facilitating development in rural areas. The recommendations are as follows:

  1. Employment and promotion of local government workers should be based on the principles of meritocracy through emphasizing high performance, ability, experience, skill and relevant qualifications. To achieve this, the process of recruitment and promotion of workers must be made transparent and devoid of spoil and patronage politics.
  2. The problem of corruption in Nigeria local government must be urgently address in other to free financial resources for the provision of services in this important tiers of government. This can be achieved by bringing to book all corrupt local government chairman and public officials. Anti-corrupt agencies like economic and financial crime commission (EFCC) should honestly be beamed on the activities/expenditures of local governments with a view to bring to book all corrupt public officials.
  3. The salaries and allowances of local government staff should be regularly paid in other to motivate the work force for productivity enhancement.
  4. To solve the problem of inadequate financial resources, three things could be done; one financial allocations to local government could be increased followed by prudent use of them. secondly, the internally generated revenue of local governments should be increased by getting people to pay their rates and taxes, local government must performed. Thirdly, corrupt practices which sapped available financial resources of local government should be addressed bringing to book all corrupt public officials to serve as deterrent to others.
  5. Undue political interference and divided loyalty should be addressed by giving local government authorizes the free hands to operate. Unethical practices which encroach into the autonomy of local government should be stopped.
  6. Importantly, there is need to cultivate the culture of maintenance of local government projects to the people and its properties like the council heavily duty equipment.
  7. The staff of local government in Nigeria should develop a high level of commitment towards making local government efficient and effective provider of social services and not an avenue for sharing national cake.

5.4 Suggestion for Further Studies

This research work has raised certain questions about the nature of service delivery in Nigeria local governments, Adavi Local government as a case study. More so, necessary recommendations have been provided as such more research and studies need to be carried out in other to ensure continuity and keeping the services providers in the Nigeria local government abreast abut the cutting, accurate, timely effective, and prompt services which their owned the grass roots dwellers. The further studies should bring about workable solutions and not an illusive and mirage suggestions for adequate service deliveries, serves as a panacea for development.

Also, the issue of thuggery, godfatherism stigma, spoil politics, election malpractices among others should be arrested in other to create a way for meritocracy when this is determined service delivery in the local government and Nigeria in general will serve as a right for all and not a cake for the few.

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