Time Series Analysis Of Road Accidents In Imo State 2002 – 2006 (A Case Study Of Federal Road Safety Commission Imo State)
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I dedicate this work to God Almighty, the author and finisher of our lives.
All our students at various levels of study as well as my family.
My profound gratitude and indebtedness goes to my loving and caring parents, Mr. and Mrs. Sydney Amaefule for giving me the basic education which is a leader to attain this level and to become an illustrious son in future.
My thanks also go to my siblings, uncle Bethel Amaefule and others, may God bless them all.
I also acknowledge the support assistance from my friends Ike Joel, Nkem, Edu etc.
I appreciate the encouragement given to me by my supervisor Mr. Chime C.C.
My thanks also go to my Head of Department (H.O.D) Mr. Ajaroku, and special thanks to almighty God for the give of life and all source of our income.
The deplorable and unsafe state of road traffic in Nigeria roads kept the road user helpless, vulnerable and endangered the life of road users.
Again, other road users such as the motorists, cyclists are psychologically reckless and unmindful of road user’s safely. Also the pronounced disorderliness and the admixture of various components of road traffic units such as motor vehicle, bicycles, motorcycles, pedestrians on narrowed poorly maintained road network further aggregates the confusion, tension, danger and crises experienced by road user.
This project work consequently agitates for the applications of users’ friendly road traffic environmental concepts (i.e. sustainable traffic system management) to enhanced and integrated road traffic environment (design, supply and maintenance), prioritization of road traffic safety educational programmes, and introduction of a functional and dynamic national road safety policy. This is with view to maintaining a safer road traffic environment for road users in Imo State.
Table Of Contents
- Title page
- Approval page
- Table of contents
- 1.1 Background
- 1.2 Historical
- 1.3 Statement of problem
- 1.4 Objective / purpose of study
- 1.5 Research questions
- 1.6 Significance of study
- 1.7 Scope / limitation of study
- 2.0 Literature review
- 3.1 Methodology
- 3.2 Sources of data
- 3.3 Method of data analysis
- 4.1 Analysis of data using linear regression
- 4.2 Analysis of data using least square method
- 4.3 Analysis of data using chi-square
- 5.1 Findings
- 5.2 conclusion
- 5.3 recommendation
1.1 Background Of The Study
For quite a long period, Africans and indeed, Nigerians have been deluded to believe or accept that road traffic accident is an integral part of human fate. This belief tended to inspire a considerable in difference to the road traffic accident syndrome because death and injury resulting from traffic accidents were accepted as part of human destiny.
Back in the 1990’s during the trail of oil boom, which as a matter of fact re-share wealth distribution and test in our safety were many devastating and long lasting side effects. Among such was influx or coming in of motor vehicles into a country where only few number of good roads exist. There is no doubt that this increase number vehicle charged the nations driving style.
A large percentage of Nigerian motorists took up the driving business as if they had a set number of people to maim and kill before sunset. The rate at which accidents happen on our roads has almost turned them into slaughter slabs making road traffic accidents Nigerian’s number two life taker after diseases.
No wonder the World Bank data revealed that the ratio of road traffic accidents especially the fatality rate in Nigeria was 10 times higher than the percentage obtained or recorded in developed countries.
The impact of that sudden awareness was translated into the motivation to create a safer road culture in Africa as a whole.
In Naibobi Kenya in 1984, the economic commission for Africa (ECA) organized the first African road safety congress. The congress revealed how awfully bloody road traffic accidents took place in Africa. In Nigeria between 1980 – 1988, 254, 492 cases of accidents were reported and about 78, 73 people were confirmed dead.
It was in this regard that the federal government of Nigeria established the FRSC with the honest intentions at conscioutizing Nigeria on road safety matter and accident prevention programmes, this call for engure and action should not be left alone for the FRSC, everyone should join hand to arrest the ugly incidence with the urgency it deserves.
The consequences of road accidents are both socially and economically distressing. In the cases where the bread winner of a family lost his / her life or becomes seriously in capacitated with little or nothing left behind for the dependants, hunger, starvation and diseases usually dwell among such family for dependants who found themselves in such hardship is to join undesirable elements in the society and acquire deplorable behavioural characteristics. The victims end up in becoming thieves, or drug addicts, prostitutes in this case constitute a menace to public peace and order.
Furthermore, many drop out of school for lack of find; others never have access to education for the same reason in this case illiteracy level rises.
Estimated loss of property, damages, and medical expenses administrative lost and other in Naira (N) according to a source (Nigerian Tribune wed march 13 – 1985) is worth one billion which I believe is more presently.
Before now, I have been passionately concerned and bothered about the form and characteristics of road traffic accidents.
It is my felt opinion that a reflection over the recent past will not only describe and analyze the situation for better understanding but will also help articulate and direct out future effort in most efficient and profitable manner. No doubt this study will provide comparative analytical frame work from 2002 – 2006.
Background of FRSC
The Federal Road Safety Commission (FRSC) was established with decree 45 of No 1998, the man that instituted it was Prof. Wole Soyinka, and FRSC signifies the honest intentions of government concientizing Nigerians on Road Safety matters and accident prevention programmes.
Since then Nigerians have shown a remarkable grasp of road safety, ideals the result of which is evident in the significant reduction of speed craze and rough driving and its negative trends.
Institutional arrangement and road users safety Nigeria. The Nigeria police force (Traffic) and the federal road safety institution responsible for the maintenance of road traffic safety in Nigeria they perform the following function among others;
- Appreciation of erring drivers
- Clearance of disables and accidented
- Provision of first and treatment
- Enforcement of speed unit
- Collection of accident data
- Issuance of drivers license, vehicle registration etc
- They conduct research into causes of accident and method of preventing and putting into use of the result of such researchers.
1.3 Statement Of Problem
Most transport drivers and cyclists tend to drive fast I n a bid to get as much as they can every day especially if their vehicle was ceased and they are supposed to bring in a minimum amount of money daily. Thus increased speed results in more road traffic accidents because of the difficulty in controlling the vehicles at high speeds.
Moreover, motorcycle is now the means of transports and the cheapest to acquire. However due to it go on two wheels and those road traffic accidents tends to occur with great frequency.
1.4 Objectives / Purpose Of Study
This research aims to solve the following problems;
- To estimate the trends of road accident in Imo State over the period of my study 2000 – 2006.
- Ascertain whether the frequency is independent of the moths of the year within my study.
- To determine the age groups mostly involved in road traffic accidents.
- To determine the nature of the relationship between period and rate of accident occurrence over the selected year of study.
1.5 Research Questions
Is the proportion of road traffic accident between and within the factors that causes accident?
- Ho: Incidence of road accident is independent of the type of vehicle involved.
- Hi: Incidence of road accident is not independent of the type of vehicle involved.
1.6 Significance Of Study
The study will help the government, the general public, the Nigerian police and other agencies concerned with safety on our roads in the following ways;
- It will help Nigerian police, federal road safety commission and other authorities concerned with similar assignment to access their performance over the years.
- It will help the federal state government especially Imo state government to articulate police on road transportation and road safety. Such polices will form the basic of planning the social economic the performance of road users.
- The cause effect of road traffic accidents and the awareness derived from the study will awaken a general sense of responsibility and co-operation in the mind of road users. They will become partners in progress by making effort to protect lives and property on our roads.
- It will further indicate where and how resources should be directed to ensure efficient performance for instance, whether road safety measures should be into duce in some urban area.
1.7 Scope / Limitation Of Study
The scope of this research work is restricted to the urban cities in Imo state. Listed below are the limitation encountered during the research work.
The time available for this research work is too short to cover other states.
The resources available were very inadequate to expand the scope example the financial aspect of the resources.
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How to nail it on the head during your project defence
You are through with writing that project. Now what?
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Watch Your Body Language And Keep It Confident:
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Use, Your Gestures:
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Have A Good Opening And Closing Line:
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Make Sure You Know Your Work:
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Prepare For The Questions:
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The structure of a good project work
Undergraduate projects in Nigeria is a prerequisite for graduation amongst Nigerian tertiary students who will which to obtain bachelors degree in their respective courses of study such as accounting, banking and finance, business administration and a host of others. Writing an undergraduate project in Nigeria for final year students entails a lot both financially and otherwise. Being able to develop any final year project depends on getting a researchable topic whether it is Accounting Undergraduate project topics, Banking and Finance research topics or banking and finance project topics and materials and it all requires diligent hard work of students who are willing to develop best undergraduate projects in Nigeria and graduate in flying colors.
A typical Undergraduate project in Nigerian tertiary institutions can be said to be divided into five or six chapters depending on the format of the school and course of study which are
The introduction of an undergraduate project states the main research problem and research argument. What precisely the study is all about and why it is important. It looks at the originality of the research work and how it will fill the gap in other studies. Justification for a research undergraduate topic should not be lengthy before it has been explicitly stated.
Below are the contents in chapter one of an undergraduate research project which includes;
- Background of the study,
- Statement of the problem,
- Objectives or aims of the study,
- The research questions,
- Research hypothesis,
- Significance of the study,
- Scope of the study,
- Limitations of the study and
- Operational definition of terms.
2. Literature review
Literature review of any undergraduate research work, be it business administration project topics or Economics project topics just to mention a few is very critical to securing a high grade in one’s project work. The literature review of a research process uncovers what other writers have written about the student’s topic. A student’s undergraduate research work should include a discussion or review of what is known about the subject and how that knowledge was acquired. The review could conclude with a brief summary of the literature and its implications. The contents of the literature review are the theoretical review, conceptual framework, empirical review and summary of literature review.
3. Research Methodology
This section includes a description of the research methods used in the undergraduate research work such as the sample size, data collection methods, measurement instruments, research data analysis procedures and the population from which the sample was selected. This section also describes the method used in selecting the sample or samples, validation and reliability of the instruments used in the research work. There are different research statistical techniques used in undergraduate research work such as SPSS, e-views etc.
4. Results & Discussion
This section presents and discusses the data analysis results used in an undergraduate research work, the results of each analysis is being summarized, tabulated, and then discussed for each research question. Then for each research hypothesis, the statistical test of significance selected and applied to the data is briefly described, followed by a statement indicating whether the hypothesis was supported or not supported. In presenting the result analyses/summary in an undergraduate project tables and figures and or graph are used to add clarity to the presentation.
5. Summary, Conclusions And Recommendations
This section summarizes the findings of the study in an easy to understand manner. It also explains the practical implications of those findings, and points to recommended directions for future research in that area.
This is where every source cited in the undergraduate research work is being included. Every undergraduate research work must be properly referenced for its authenticity.