The Impact Of Information And Communication Technology On The Mass Media In Nigeria (A Case Study Of Orient Television In Owerri)
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This project work is dedicated to God Almighty who have kept us alive throughout our academic endeavours in National Diploma to him be the glory.
We bow our heads before the Almighty God, the giver of knowledge, for his mercies, goodness and kindness in our lives; we say may his name alone be highly exalted forever in Jesus name. Amen.
We acknowledge our project supervisor, Mrs. Linda Ikechukwu for helping to see to the success of this project we say God bless you, nor forgetting our HOD Mrs. Kalu Joy Nwaiwu for her contributions.
Finally, we are highly indebted to our sponsors, parents, brothers, sisters, uncles, aunts, friends and well wishers who have contributed immensely in our academic pursuits, we area saying may God reward you all abundantly in Jesus name. Amen.
The development of information and communication technology is essential on the efficient functioning of any mass media. Information and Communication technology includes all the devices by which information is acquired, passed on, exchanged and stored. This research work takes a look at the impact of information and communication technology on mass media in Nigeria as a result of the increasing development in the area of science and technology.
- Chapter one is the introductory part of this project and it also dwells on the background of the study.
- Chapter two reviews the literature of other writers and elaborates more on the interview.
- Chapter three dwells on the methodologies used in the research work.
- Chapter four is based on the data collection and also the discussion of the result gotten.
- Finally, chapter five shows the summary of the entire research work as well as recommendations of areas of further study in the field of communication.
Table Of Contents
- Title page
- Approval page
- Table of contents
- 1.1 Background of study
- 1.2 Statement of problem
- 1.3 Objective of the study
- 1.4 Research question
- 1.5 Research hypothesis
- 1.6 significance of the study
- 1.7 Scope and limitation of study
- 1.8 Definition of terms
Chapter Two:Literature Review
- 2.1 Introduction
- 2.2 The history of broadcasting in Nigeria
- 2.3 understanding ICT
- 2.4 theoretical and hypothetic frameworks
- 2.5 ICT as boom to mass media
- 2.6 ICT as doom to mass media
- 2.7 technological development of the communication industry in Nigeria
- 2.8 mass media and ICT:comparison and convergence
- 2.9 impact of ICT on mass media
- 2.10 the role of information and communication technology on the growth of mass media business
- 2.13 summary of the review of literature
- 3.1 Introduction
- 3.2 Research design
- 3.3 Area of study
- 3.4 Sources of data
- 3.5 Method of data collection
- 3.6 population of the study
- 3.7 Samples and sampling procedures
- 3.8 Instrument for data collection
- 3.9 Validity and Reliability of instrument
- 3.10 Administration of the instrument
- 3.11 Method of data analysis
Chapter Four:Data Presentation And Analysis
- 4.1 Introduction
- 4.2 Data presentation
- 4.3 Data analysis
- 4.4 test of hypothesis
- 4.5 Interpretation of Results
Chapter Five:Summary of Findings, Conclusion and Recommendations
- 5.1 introduction
- 5.2 Summary
- 5.3 Conclusion
- 5.4 Recommendations
- Appendix I
- Appendix II
Information and Communications Technology is not only important but crucial in Mass media job. ICT (information and communications technology – or technologies) is an umbrella term that includes any communication device or application, encompassing:radio, television, cellular phones, computer and network hardware and software, satellite systems and so on, as well as the various services and applications associated with them, such as videoconferencing and distance learning The term ICT is also used to refer to the convergence of audio-visual and telephone networks with computer networks through a single cabling or link system.
ICT is a blessing to society because it facilitates, complements, and supplements the process of mass media. There is a consensus that the communication process is incomplete without feedback and ICT facilitates this important stage, both in the electronic and in the print media. In broadcasting, ICT has virtually bridged the gulf between broadcasters and their audience or a viewer as far as feedback is concerned. For instance, mobile phones enable many broadcast audience or viewers to contribute to on air programmes through the expression of opinions, grievances, and commendations.
This technology also enables the audience to send short text messages to broadcast stations for the purposes enumerated above. E-mails sent via the internet also come in handy for the same reasons. In the print media, readers who wish to send their letters to editors, etc, also use elements of ICT.
The endless task of information storage, retrieval and updating in the process of mass communication has been made easy by ICT. Computer memories conveniently store information that would otherwise require many large rooms of paper files. Broadcast and print media transcripts can be conveniently accessed.
ICT has significantly enhanced production processes in mass media by easing communications problems among reportorial, desk, and production crews. With the advent of e-mails, internet telephony and mobile phones, reporters no longer need to travel long distances physically in order to beat crazy production deadlines.
The focus of this research study is on impact of ICT on mass media in Nigeria. The chapter is broken down into sub-headings via- background of the study, statement of problem, objective / purpose of the study, research question, and research hypothesis, significance of the study, scope and limitations of the study, and definition of terms. Each sub-heading is discussed one after the other below.
1.1 Background Of The Study
This project is aimed at analyzing the impact of ICT on the mass media in Nigeria in the area of effective news gathering and dissemination among Nigerian journalists. However, Internet is the worldwide system of interconnected network of more than one computer with the ability to share and exchange files and data from one another irrespective of geographical location and time.
Information and Communication Technology (ICT) which according to a great Canadian English Professor Marshall McLuhan ,described as what has changed the world into a global village by compressing the world into a single electronic room where information from nooks and crannies of the world can be exploited and disseminated or exchanged within a twinkle of an eye.
Internet is now a new way of gathering news, which offers maximum advantage to Nigerian journalists. Internet has become an encyclopedia of almost all information in the world and most of the information is gathered free unlike that of subscription to news agencies and wire service before journalists can have access to international news and other information.
The development of technology most especially in this century has impact on every sphere of human life including journalists. This has changed the look of the existing media. Because of this, the practice of journalism is no longer in the way of one-dimensional flow of information rather it is interactive and the audience are now part of the information gathering and information distribution. It should be noted that information quality through the internet demands caution as it is questionable since it lack the activities of the gatekeepers who can decide what information to disseminate and what not to make available for the public.
Internet poses many challenges on mass media because mass media is considered “spoon-feed” sources of information, a one-way conversation where some media outlets or publishers say “Here you go”, “This is it.” whereas, with the computer technology the power has shifted to the people and the proliferation of information users and audience generated content. It is now a two-way conversation. Meanwhile, the new media, which the internet is one, has gone along way in bringing information to ones doorstep.
It is known fact that journalist in Nigerian who want to report adequate information about the widest topical issues will benefit from the service of the internet as source of gathering information and making it possible for journalist to exchange information.
ICT can also help the Nigerian journalist to speak into the daily affairs of the public without physical presence of journalist; it does reduces traveling and hotel accommodation cost and stress.
Therefore, the impact of the ICT on journalists cannot be over emphasizing for it’s an essential source where journalist gets information at anytime.
1.2 Statement Of The Problem
The researcher after due consideration of the research topic has decided to shortlist the challenges facing mass media in information and communication technology in Nigeria.
Effective information and communication technology is the basic pre-requisite for the insurance of instruction and accomplishment of the mass media goals. Besides, it has remained the biggest problem facing business organization this recent day and mass media is not exceptional. Meanwhile, these problems are as a result of inefficient and archaic communication channels.
Some of the manager does not understand the importance of information technology in communication, which has led to several ugly scenarios/consequences like; strike action, demonstration, lack of adequate equipment for communication is a result of misconception of ideas between management and their subordinate and which appear to be the highest factor militating against the effectiveness of communication in an organization.
In view of the above challenges, the researcher attempts to find out some of the immediate and remote causes of losses associated with poor and inefficient communication network system in modern mass media.
1.3 Objectives Of The Study
The main purpose of this study is to examine the impact of information and communication technology on mass media and recommend probable ways of ameliorating the issue so that the impact of communication network in the mass media will be felt in mass media houses. Other objectives includes:
- To examine whether ICT has enhanced news gathering of Orient TV?
- To know if ICT has affected the performance of the Nigerian journalist?
- To examine whether Orient TV has depend on internet as a source of information?
- To study the negative effect of ICT on orient TV?
- To examine whether modern technology captured the audience of orient TV in this era?
1.4 Research Questions
- Is poor information and communication technology (ICT) a barrier to journalist job performance in Nigeria?
- Do ICT has a positive impact on the performance of the Nigerian journalists?
- Does Orient TV depend on internet as source of information?
- Is there any clearly defined channel of communication between management and workers in orient tV?
- Does information and communication technology have any impact towards achievement of organizational objectives?
- Do information and communication technology play a vital role in effective business management in a broadcasting house?
- Is there any relationship between information and communication technology and mass media?
1.5 Statement Of Hypothesis
The following hypotheses were formulated:
Ho:poor information and communication technology (ICT) is not a barrier to journalist job performance in Nigeria.
H1:poor information and communication technology (ICT) is a barrier to journalist job performance in Nigeria
- Ho: ICT has no positive impact on the performance of the Nigerian journalists.
- H2: ICT has a positive impact on the performance of the Nigerian journalists.
- Ho: Mass media do not depend on internet as source of information.
- H3: Mass media depend on internet as source of information?
- Ho: Information and communication technology do not play a vital role in effective business management in a broadcasting industry.
- H4: information and communication technology play a vital role in effective business management in a broadcasting industry?
1.6 Significance Of The Study
The finding of this project will be relevant to media house and other agencies in letting them know the importance and usefulness of ICT to journalism.
It will be useful to internet service providers on how they can serve the journalists better.
Academics, who are studying the information and communication technology (ICT) will find the useful data in finding of the research work.
Also, other stakeholder like regulatory bodies, government and professional bodies within the media industry will find the result of the study useful.
It will be useful to researcher and academicians who want to make a further research on the subject matter. It will add to the existing literature on the subject matter.
1.7 Scope Of The Study
The scope of this work will examine the Impact of ICT on mass media in Nigeria. The work will therefore be limited to orient television Owerri. This is so due to the fact that all mass media in Nigeria cannot be study in whole due to time limit and finance
1.8 Limitation Of The Study
Due to the present economic stagnation in the country, the researcher was constrained in cause of carrying out this study by many factors especially the following;
Finances are the major factors that limit the scope of the study more especially the fund to design enough questionnaires which led to the limited nature of the sample size.
The researcher was failed with time shortage including much loaded activities in this short semester like; assignments, sports, departmental jobs, and fast approaching examination, all these contributed to the limited nature of the study below its expectations.
Nonchalant Attitude Of Management Staffs:
The researcher was made to go to different offices in search of information that could have been provided by one office, due to the above process, the information was delayed and sometimes the management are reluctant in allowing the researcher to source the information needed for the work.
1.9 Definition Of Terms
Internet:This can be defined as a collection of millions of computer network of varying the size of millions users who share an interactive means for interacting with one another to exchange digital data.
This an electronic device which is capable of receiving information (data) and performing a sequence of logical operations in accordance with a predetermined but variable set of procedural instructions (program) to produce a result in the form of information or signals.
A journalist is a person whose professional is to practices journalism. Also is a person involved in the operation of gathering and dissemination of information through an appropriate medium.
This is the process of collecting and searching for information
It is the powerful effect that something has on somebody or another thing.
Application of the systematic knowledge of improved communication to produce gadgets and equipments that actually improve communication.
The act or process of bringing to a more advanced or more highly organized state.
The modern means of giving news, opinion, education, entertainment and agenda-setting to large numbers of people, especially through radio, television, newspapers, magazines and films.
This is the reply that comes to the sender by the receiver whether positive or negative.
This is the information, which the activator of communicator of communication sends across the receiver message may be spoken or written.
This is the act of conveying the thoughts and feelings to other people in organization and receiving in return their reactions in accordance to the purpose, system and manner of the act.
This means when there is a successful transfer of information, which must have meaning and understanding from a sender to a receiver.
Business means organized effort enterprises to supply consumers with goods and services. It also means the activity of making, buying, selling or supplying things for profit. It can be as well defined as an activity that two or more people undertakes that gives satisfaction.
An organization can be defined simply as a structure of relationship to get work done.
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How to nail it on the head during your project defence
You are through with writing that project. Now what?
You have found yourself at that point where you have to defend what you have written. Of course you have to stand in front of your supervisor and other literary personalities to prove that you know what you wrote in your project paper. Unfortunately, the more you think about it, the more it looks like you are about to face a legion. It is not a war. But the emotion of dread welling up inside of you makes it look like one. So now you are asking yourself questions.
- How am I going to start?
- I hope I will do well enough to get an A.
You really want to nail it, but you need to come to terms with exactly how to get everything in perfect control. Especially your emotions of fear that seem to make a wreck of you every time you think about public speaking.
So here is the deal. I want to help you avoid that feeling that would ruin your precious moment if you dare to let it. And we are going to do it together.
I am going to highlight some very important tips to help you get in control for you to be comfortable enough to move from that feeling of DREAD to CONFIDENT; and making an awesome Impression for that great rating your supervisors should be giving to you so freely.
Consider these tips as you prepare for your defence. We will be taking them one after the other so here we go.
Watch Your Body Language And Keep It Confident:
Can you tell that a person is falling apart if they look confident? … If I can second guess you rightly, am sure you answered no to that question. Remind yourself that you need to come out that way. Now this might seem like a huge big deal when you are dealing with the foreboding. Maintaining a poise of confidence is very important. So find your most comfortable position, sitting or standing and draw up your body. You must exude confidence. It is something you need to do for yourself. People can only see what you allow your body language to show. So you must endeavour to put that out. Remember the story of David and Goliath? … At the end of your defence day, you want to be David.
Dress In Your Most Comfortable And Impressive:
Am sure this one is a no brainer. However I must highlight that you choose comfortable pieces. You don’t want to look so good and yet look like you were forced to wear something that does not belong to you. It’s great to ensure that as impressive as your clothes are on you, that they are also very comfortable.
Speak With Authority:
Going hand to hand with that aura of confidence is your most powerful asset:your words. If you look that confident, your words must not come out like whimpers. To be able to pull this off, you definitely need to speak as deliberately as possible in expressing yourself. Let them also hear what they see.
Use, Your Gestures:
I have often found this to come to my rescue in dealing with shyness and conveying my confidence. Usually it gives you an edge to also drive home your point. You must, however, ensure that you do not over use it. It doesn’t mean that your hands should be flying all over the place. That would be absolutely unnecessary. If you do this well, after a while you will realize that you are not as self-conscious as you used to be at the very start. For most situations, it would have completely disappeared altogether; leaving a really confident you talking.
Have A Good Opening And Closing Line:
Make sure you have perfected a good opening line. You should also be armed with a good closing line too. Try and rehearse it to a friend. If for the first time you presented it, your friend does not say “wow, that’s beautiful” or something like that; just know you need to keep refining it until you get the perfect line. Both opening and closing lines will go a long way in how impressed your panel gets to rate you high.
Make Sure You Know Your Work:
Certainly you should understand how important it is to know your own work from start to finish. Not having in-depth knowledge of your own work is tantamount to a suicide mission. Why should you kill yourself?
When all is said and done, this is what you came to defend in the first place. You should know your work from A to Z.
Prepare For The Questions:
Now this part is truly essential. You must be sure you do not floor all the good work you did on your presentation by not answering correctly. You must pay attention to the questions you are asked to be sure you will give the right answer. Many people get it wrong at this stage and spoil their good presentation. When you do not understand any question do endeavour to ask the person to expatiate what they mean before you answer.
These tips are by no means exhaustive, but applying these tips will give you some necessary advantage you need for a great outcome. Of course that outcome would mean that you eventually earn all your points on this project.
The structure of a good project work
Undergraduate projects in Nigeria is a prerequisite for graduation amongst Nigerian tertiary students who will which to obtain bachelors degree in their respective courses of study such as accounting, banking and finance, business administration and a host of others. Writing an undergraduate project in Nigeria for final year students entails a lot both financially and otherwise. Being able to develop any final year project depends on getting a researchable topic whether it is Accounting Undergraduate project topics, Banking and Finance research topics or banking and finance project topics and materials and it all requires diligent hard work of students who are willing to develop best undergraduate projects in Nigeria and graduate in flying colors.
A typical Undergraduate project in Nigerian tertiary institutions can be said to be divided into five or six chapters depending on the format of the school and course of study which are
The introduction of an undergraduate project states the main research problem and research argument. What precisely the study is all about and why it is important. It looks at the originality of the research work and how it will fill the gap in other studies. Justification for a research undergraduate topic should not be lengthy before it has been explicitly stated.
Below are the contents in chapter one of an undergraduate research project which includes;
- Background of the study,
- Statement of the problem,
- Objectives or aims of the study,
- The research questions,
- Research hypothesis,
- Significance of the study,
- Scope of the study,
- Limitations of the study and
- Operational definition of terms.
2. Literature review
Literature review of any undergraduate research work, be it business administration project topics or Economics project topics just to mention a few is very critical to securing a high grade in one’s project work. The literature review of a research process uncovers what other writers have written about the student’s topic. A student’s undergraduate research work should include a discussion or review of what is known about the subject and how that knowledge was acquired. The review could conclude with a brief summary of the literature and its implications. The contents of the literature review are the theoretical review, conceptual framework, empirical review and summary of literature review.
3. Research Methodology
This section includes a description of the research methods used in the undergraduate research work such as the sample size, data collection methods, measurement instruments, research data analysis procedures and the population from which the sample was selected. This section also describes the method used in selecting the sample or samples, validation and reliability of the instruments used in the research work. There are different research statistical techniques used in undergraduate research work such as SPSS, e-views etc.
4. Results & Discussion
This section presents and discusses the data analysis results used in an undergraduate research work, the results of each analysis is being summarized, tabulated, and then discussed for each research question. Then for each research hypothesis, the statistical test of significance selected and applied to the data is briefly described, followed by a statement indicating whether the hypothesis was supported or not supported. In presenting the result analyses/summary in an undergraduate project tables and figures and or graph are used to add clarity to the presentation.
5. Summary, Conclusions And Recommendations
This section summarizes the findings of the study in an easy to understand manner. It also explains the practical implications of those findings, and points to recommended directions for future research in that area.
This is where every source cited in the undergraduate research work is being included. Every undergraduate research work must be properly referenced for its authenticity.
Choosing A Good Project / Research Topic
Students in Nigerian universities these days wish to choose a very simple project topic/material. There is no issue choosing a simple project topic; the only problem is your ability to choose a good project or research topic that your supervisor will easily approve for you.
Most project supervisors really want to see how good his or her project student understands his or her surrounding through the kind of topic he or she chooses for their project work.
There are some project topic that are not reject-able; for instance in Nigeria of today; what do you think is the major issue on ground now?
If a project student can choose or craft a topic on the effect of dollar increment on the economy of Nigeria. Such project topic will be very interesting to write on.
Now what are the qualities of a good project topic?
- The materials for the project topic must be easily assessable.
- The project topic itself must be meaningful.
- The variables must be able to give a clear aim of the project topic.
What do I mean by variable?
Well I am deriving my point from the area of ; the variables here are those main words in the project topic.
Like the above project topic; the effect of dollar increment on the economy of Nigeria. You can see the main variables that really define this project topic are:dollar, increment and economy.
Before you present your topic to your project supervisor, first of all understand your project topic, and then secondly try to do some research for your topic to see if at least you can get up to 60% of what you need to write the complete project.
I said that above because you might have a very nice topic that the materials are not available online and there are no books as regard the topic; in this case the project topic becomes difficult for you even though the topic is catchy.
What do I mean by your topic being assessable?
Well what I mean is very simple and easy to understand. Simply pick your project topic, type it on google and see if you will have at least a good background for the topic you are writing on.
If you can have a good background for your project topic and you can understand the problem associated with the project topic, then I believe the aim of the project is not far-fetched.