The Impact Of Information And Communication Technology On The Mass Media In Nigeria (A Case Study Of Orient Television In Owerri)

Project and Seminar Material for Mass Communication

The Impact Of Information And Communication Technology On The Mass Media In Nigeria (A Case Study Of Orient Television In Owerri)


Abstract


The development of information and communication technology is essential on the efficient functioning of any mass media. Information and Communication technology includes all the devices by which information is acquired, passed on, exchanged and stored. This research work takes a look at the impact of information and communication technology on mass media in Nigeria as a result of the increasing development in the area of science and technology.

  1. Chapter one is the introductory part of this project and it also dwells on the background of the study.
  2. Chapter two reviews the literature of other writers and elaborates more on the interview.
  3. Chapter three dwells on the methodologies used in the research work.
  4. Chapter four is based on the data collection and also the discussion of the result gotten.
  5. Finally, chapter five shows the summary of the entire research work as well as recommendations of areas of further study in the field of communication.

Table Of Contents


Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title page
  • Certification
  • Approval page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgment
  • Abstract
  • Table of contents

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of study
  • 1.2 Statement of problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the study
  • 1.4 Research question
  • 1.5 Research hypothesis
  • 1.6 significance of the study
  • 1.7 Scope and limitation of study
  • 1.8 Definition of terms

Chapter Two:

Literature Review

  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 The history of broadcasting in Nigeria
  • 2.3 understanding ICT
  • 2.4 theoretical and hypothetic frameworks
  • 2.5 ICT as boom to mass media
  • 2.6 ICT as doom to mass media
  • 2.7 technological development of the communication industry in Nigeria
  • 2.8 mass media and ICT: comparison and convergence
  • 2.9 impact of ICT on mass media
  • 2.10 the role of information and communication technology on the growth of mass media business
  • 2.13 summary of the review of literature

Chapter Three:

Methodology

  • 3.1 Introduction
  • 3.2 Research design
  • 3.3 Area of study
  • 3.4 Sources of data
  • 3.5 Method of data collection
  • 3.6 population of the study
  • 3.7 Samples and sampling procedures
  • 3.8 Instrument for data collection
  • 3.9 Validity and Reliability of instrument
  • 3.10 Administration of the instrument
  • 3.11 Method of data analysis

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation And Analysis

  • 4.1 Introduction
  • 4.2 Data presentation
  • 4.3 Data analysis
  • 4.4 test of hypothesis
  • 4.5 Interpretation of Results

Chapter Five:

Summary of Findings, Conclusion and Recommendations

  • 5.1 introduction
  • 5.2 Summary
  • 5.3 Conclusion
  • 5.4 Recommendations
  • Bibliography
  • Appendix I
  • Appendix II

Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

Information and Communications Technology is not only important but crucial in Mass media job. ICT (information and communications technology – or technologies) is an umbrella term that includes any communication device or application, encompassing: radio, television, cellular phones, computer and network hardware and software, satellite systems and so on, as well as the various services and applications associated with them, such as videoconferencing and distance learning The term ICT is also used to refer to the convergence of audio-visual and telephone networks with computer networks through a single cabling or link system.

ICT is a blessing to society because it facilitates, complements, and supplements the process of mass media. There is a consensus that the communication process is incomplete without feedback and ICT facilitates this important stage, both in the electronic and in the print media. In broadcasting, ICT has virtually bridged the gulf between broadcasters and their audience or a viewer as far as feedback is concerned. For instance, mobile phones enable many broadcast audience or viewers to contribute to on air programmes through the expression of opinions, grievances, and commendations.

This technology also enables the audience to send short text messages to broadcast stations for the purposes enumerated above. E-mails sent via the internet also come in handy for the same reasons. In the print media, readers who wish to send their letters to editors, etc, also use elements of ICT.

The endless task of information storage, retrieval and updating in the process of mass communication has been made easy by ICT. Computer memories conveniently store information that would otherwise require many large rooms of paper files. Broadcast and print media transcripts can be conveniently accessed.

ICT has significantly enhanced production processes in mass media by easing communications problems among reportorial, desk, and production crews. With the advent of e-mails, internet telephony and mobile phones, reporters no longer need to travel long distances physically in order to beat crazy production deadlines.

The focus of this research study is on impact of ICT on mass media in Nigeria. The chapter is broken down into sub-headings via- background of the study, statement of problem, objective / purpose of the study, research question, and research hypothesis, significance of the study, scope and limitations of the study, and definition of terms. Each sub-heading is discussed one after the other below.


1.1 Background Of The Study

This project is aimed at analyzing the impact of ICT on the mass media in Nigeria in the area of effective news gathering and dissemination among Nigerian journalists. However, Internet is the worldwide system of interconnected network of more than one computer with the ability to share and exchange files and data from one another irrespective of geographical location and time.

Information and Communication Technology (ICT) which according to a great Canadian English Professor Marshall McLuhan ,described as what has changed the world into a global village by compressing the world into a single electronic room where information from nooks and crannies of the world can be exploited and disseminated or exchanged within a twinkle of an eye.

Internet is now a new way of gathering news, which offers maximum advantage to Nigerian journalists. Internet has become an encyclopedia of almost all information in the world and most of the information is gathered free unlike that of subscription to news agencies and wire service before journalists can have access to international news and other information.

The development of technology most especially in this century has impact on every sphere of human life including journalists. This has changed the look of the existing media. Because of this, the practice of journalism is no longer in the way of one-dimensional flow of information rather it is interactive and the audience are now part of the information gathering and information distribution. It should be noted that information quality through the internet demands caution as it is questionable since it lack the activities of the gatekeepers who can decide what information to disseminate and what not to make available for the public.

Internet poses many challenges on mass media because mass media is considered “spoon-feed” sources of information, a one-way conversation where some media outlets or publishers say “Here you go”, “This is it.” whereas, with the computer technology the power has shifted to the people and the proliferation of information users and audience generated content. It is now a two-way conversation. Meanwhile, the new media, which the internet is one, has gone along way in bringing information to ones doorstep.

It is known fact that journalist in Nigerian who want to report adequate information about the widest topical issues will benefit from the service of the internet as source of gathering information and making it possible for journalist to exchange information.

ICT can also help the Nigerian journalist to speak into the daily affairs of the public without physical presence of journalist; it does reduces traveling and hotel accommodation cost and stress.

Therefore, the impact of the ICT on journalists cannot be over emphasizing for it’s an essential source where journalist gets information at anytime.


1.2 Statement Of The Problem

The researcher after due consideration of the research topic has decided to shortlist the challenges facing mass media in information and communication technology in Nigeria.

Effective information and communication technology is the basic pre-requisite for the insurance of instruction and accomplishment of the mass media goals. Besides, it has remained the biggest problem facing business organization this recent day and mass media is not exceptional. Meanwhile, these problems are as a result of inefficient and archaic communication channels.

Some of the manager does not understand the importance of information technology in communication, which has led to several ugly scenarios/consequences like; strike action, demonstration, lack of adequate equipment for communication is a result of misconception of ideas between management and their subordinate and which appear to be the highest factor militating against the effectiveness of communication in an organization.

In view of the above challenges, the researcher attempts to find out some of the immediate and remote causes of losses associated with poor and inefficient communication network system in modern mass media.


1.3 Objectives Of The Study

The main purpose of this study is to examine the impact of information and communication technology on mass media and recommend probable ways of ameliorating the issue so that the impact of communication network in the mass media will be felt in mass media houses. Other objectives includes:

  1. To examine whether ICT has enhanced news gathering of Orient TV?
  2. To know if ICT has affected the performance of the Nigerian journalist?
  3. To examine whether Orient TV has depend on internet as a source of information?
  4. To study the negative effect of ICT on orient TV?
  5. To examine whether modern technology captured the audience of orient TV in this era?

1.4 Research Questions

  1. Is poor information and communication technology (ICT) a barrier to journalist job performance in Nigeria?
  2. Do ICT has a positive impact on the performance of the Nigerian journalists?
  3. Does Orient TV depend on internet as source of information?
  4. Is there any clearly defined channel of communication between management and workers in orient tV?
  5. Does information and communication technology have any impact towards achievement of organizational objectives?
  6. Do information and communication technology play a vital role in effective business management in a broadcasting house?
  7. Is there any relationship between information and communication technology and mass media?

1.5 Statement Of Hypothesis

The following hypotheses were formulated:

Hypothesis One
  • Ho: poor information and communication technology (ICT) is not a barrier to journalist job performance in Nigeria.
  • H1: poor information and communication technology (ICT) is a barrier to journalist job performance in Nigeria
Hypothesis Two
  • Ho: ICT has no positive impact on the performance of the Nigerian journalists.
  • H2: ICT has a positive impact on the performance of the Nigerian journalists.
Hypothesis Three
  • Ho: Mass media do not depend on internet as source of information.
  • H3: Mass media depend on internet as source of information?
Hypothesis Four
  • Ho: Information and communication technology do not play a vital role in effective business management in a broadcasting industry.
  • H4: information and communication technology play a vital role in effective business management in a broadcasting industry?

1.6 Significance Of The Study

The finding of this project will be relevant to media house and other agencies in letting them know the importance and usefulness of ICT to journalism.

It will be useful to internet service providers on how they can serve the journalists better.

Academics, who are studying the information and communication technology (ICT) will find the useful data in finding of the research work.

Also, other stakeholder like regulatory bodies, government and professional bodies within the media industry will find the result of the study useful.

It will be useful to researcher and academicians who want to make a further research on the subject matter. It will add to the existing literature on the subject matter.


1.7 Scope Of The Study

The scope of this work will examine the Impact of ICT on mass media in Nigeria. The work will therefore be limited to orient television Owerri. This is so due to the fact that all mass media in Nigeria cannot be study in whole due to time limit and finance


1.8 Limitation Of The Study

Due to the present economic stagnation in the country, the researcher was constrained in cause of carrying out this study by many factors especially the following;

Insufficient Fund:

Finances are the major factors that limit the scope of the study more especially the fund to design enough questionnaires which led to the limited nature of the sample size.

Time Factor:

The researcher was failed with time shortage including much loaded activities in this short semester like; assignments, sports, departmental jobs, and fast approaching examination, all these contributed to the limited nature of the study below its expectations.

Nonchalant Attitude Of Management Staffs:

The researcher was made to go to different offices in search of information that could have been provided by one office, due to the above process, the information was delayed and sometimes the management are reluctant in allowing the researcher to source the information needed for the work.


1.9 Definition Of Terms

Internet: This can be defined as a collection of millions of computer network of varying the size of millions users who share an interactive means for interacting with one another to exchange digital data.

Computer:

This an electronic device which is capable of receiving information (data) and performing a sequence of logical operations in accordance with a predetermined but variable set of procedural instructions (program) to produce a result in the form of information or signals.

Journalist:

A journalist is a person whose professional is to practices journalism. Also is a person involved in the operation of gathering and dissemination of information through an appropriate medium.

News Gathering:

This is the process of collecting and searching for information

Impact:

It is the powerful effect that something has on somebody or another thing.

Technology:

Application of the systematic knowledge of improved communication to produce gadgets and equipments that actually improve communication.

Development:

The act or process of bringing to a more advanced or more highly organized state.

Mass Media:

The modern means of giving news, opinion, education, entertainment and agenda-setting to large numbers of people, especially through radio, television, newspapers, magazines and films.

Feedback:

This is the reply that comes to the sender by the receiver whether positive or negative.

Message:

This is the information, which the activator of communicator of communication sends across the receiver message may be spoken or written.

Communication:

This is the act of conveying the thoughts and feelings to other people in organization and receiving in return their reactions in accordance to the purpose, system and manner of the act.

Effective Communication:

This means when there is a successful transfer of information, which must have meaning and understanding from a sender to a receiver.

Business:

Business means organized effort enterprises to supply consumers with goods and services. It also means the activity of making, buying, selling or supplying things for profit. It can be as well defined as an activity that two or more people undertakes that gives satisfaction.

Organisation:

An organization can be defined simply as a structure of relationship to get work done.


Chapter Five


Summary Of Findings, Conclusion And Recommendations

5.1 Introduction

This chapter will be discussed under the following sub headings.

  1. Summary of findings/conclusion
  2. Recommendation
  3. Suggestion for further studies

5.2 Summary Of Findings

The following findings was obtained during the course of the research work:

That ICT is very imperative and such should not be over looked as it helps to increase productivity in the organization.

The results from the findings also show that effective ICT network is very vital in a business world and it makes journalist and other staff to work more effectively with greater achievement.

It was found that there is a relationship between information and communication technology and mass media job.

ICT helps mass media houses or journalist in gathering information and news and also makes their work easier and fast.

The findings of the work show that poor information and communication technology (ICT) is a barrier to journalist job performance in Nigeria and ICT has a positive impact on the performance of the Nigerian journalists.


5.1 Conclusion

Information and communication technology is essential and significance for effective and efficient operation of any modern media house. As finance is the life wire of any profitable business, so also is ICT essential to journalists for decision-making process and a tool for discharging their duties.

For information to be effective there must be a good communication network, which will enable the information to flow in accordance with the intended direction. Good information technology aids organization to achieve their desired objectives through the people employed in its service and communication is the only effective means through which member of the organization interacts.


5.3 Recommendations

The following recommendations are necessary as it relates to this research work and this we think will enhance the impact of ICT on mass media in Nigeria.

  1. All the problems militating against mass media as concern to ICT in the various organizations should be resolved by the media house owners and other stakeholder sin the business.
  2. Media houses should trained their staff or journalist on the proper use of modern and sophisticated ICT equipments.
  3. Management of media houses should address the problems of journalist in efficient handling these ICT devices.
  4. Nigerian government needs to increase the budgetary allocation with 20% to the communication industries in Nigeria for efficient operation of the media houses.
  5. There should be boost in the training and retraining of journalists to enable them to be well equipped in new technologies and in the use of certain ICT gadgets.

The Impact Of Information And Communication Technology On The Mass Media In Nigeria (A Case Study Of Orient Television In Owerri)


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