The Impact Of Delegation Of Authority On Organizational Efficiency (A Case Study Of Pz Industries Plc Aba)
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This project is special dedicated to the God almighty for His strength and quicken me throughout this semester and also to my mummy Mrs. Chigozie Okekwu and my Brother and sister for their support and encouragement.
This project went through so many difficulties that nearly made it impossible to see the light of the day, but good strength. Wisdom prevail to continue the work in spite of all besetting difficulties and problems. There are some remarkable challenges encouragement and inspiration received from individuals who make relentless efforts to keep the dreams away from dying.
Therefore my profound gratitude goes to my project supervisor Mr. Nwosu A.N, the project and these positive and untiring efforts towards making it a success.
I am also seriously indebted to my dear parents Mr. and Mrs. Chgozie Okekwu. There are some people that cannot be forgotten to mention in this project, (my baby) which is my beloved friend Chinwendu Kalu Peace, for her prayer and encouragement towards my education, my appreciation goes to her.
There are some individuals who are worthy to mention for heir effort and financial support towards making this a success, Ikenna Okekwu, Chukwudi Adindu, Catherine Kalu, James Nwaka who contributed for providing with one information and other needed for accomplishment of this project. May Almighty God bless them?
I am grateful to them all as regards information they gave to me, knows to all my friends, cousins, neighbors, roommates, well-wishers and others whose names were not mentioned here but who in one way or the other were assistance to this project, I am very grateful to them.
The primary purpose of delegation of authority is to make organization possible. Just as no one person is an enterprise can do all the task necessary for accomplishment of a group goals so as an enterprise grows, it becomes impossible for the manager to exercise all the authority of making decisions.
This is so because there is a limit to the number of persons a manager can effectively supervise and for whom they can make decisions. Once this limit is exceeded, authority has to be delegated to subordinates. This work explained and explored the nature of authority delegation in an organizational structure using PZ industry Aba as a case study. Also, efforts were made to identify the principles underlying authority delegation, its impact towards organizational efficiency.
The problems militating against authority delegation was also explored and identified and suggestions or recommendations put forth. Both primary and secondary data were used for the work. Visits were made to both the generalized and specialized libraries. It was clearly discovered the authority delegation has a great impacts on organizational efficiencies.
Table Of Contents
- Title page i
- Approval page ii
- Dedication iii
- Acknowledgement iv
- Abstract v
- Table of contents vi
- 1.0 Introduction 1
- 1.1 Background of the study 1
- 1.2 Statement of the problems 3
- 1.3 The purpose/Objectives of the study 4
- 1.4 Research questions 4
- 1.5 Significance of the study 5
- 1.6 Scope of the study 6
- 1.7 Limitation of the study 7
- 1.8 Definition of terms 8
- Literature Review
- 2.0 Literature Review 9
- 2.1 Historical Background 9
- 2.2 Process of Authority Delegation 13
- 2.3 Requirements for Effective Delegation 15
- 2.4 Conditions under which Delegation can fail 17
- 2.5 Limitations of the Right to delegate 17
- 2.6 Impact/Effect of Authority Delegation 18
- 2.7. The effect of Non-delegation 25
- 3.0 Methodology and research design 26
- 3.1 Introduction 26
- 3.2 Research design 26
- 3.3 Sources of data collection 26
- 3.4 Population and sample size Determination 27
- 3.5 Sample techniques/ procedures 28
- 3.6 Validity and reliability of measuring instrument 30
- 3.7 Method of date analysis 31
- 4.0 Data Presentation, analysis and interpretation 33
- 4.1 Introduction 33
- 4.2 Analysis of data 36
- 4.3 Interpretation of result(s) 46
- 5.0 Summary of findings, conclusion and recommendation 50 5.1 Introduction 50
- 5.2 Summary of findings 50
- 5.3 Conclusion 52
- 5.4 Recommendations 52
- 5.5 Areas for further study 54
1.1 Background Of The Study
A common and popular adage states that a tree cannot make a forest. Another similar one assets that no man is an island, because of some psychological, economical and biological limitations of the individual, it is unavoidable that individuals should cooperate with each other in order to be able to surmount the many problems facing them.
Similarly, in the business world, the business manager is faced with lots of problems and tasks to perform in his organization. some of these problems are external while others are internal. As a result of this, the manager or who ever that is responsible must therefore prepare himself in order to compete favorably in the dynamic business environment so as to achieve the corporate objectives of the organization. But if he fails, it means that the organizations aim for going into the business is defeated.
Bearing in mind human limitations and its human beings are not “jacks of all trade and masters of all, hence the need for delegation of authority in the organization be encouraged.
This is so because whenever an organization changes its legal form of one man or small scale business to a two or more partnership, medium of large scale business, it inevitable grows to a point of impersonality. At this point, it is difficult for top management to know every one in the organization and exactly what they are doing or should be doing, nor is it possible any more to oversee the whole of this now extensive activities personality. Instead, various organizational techniques of which delegation is one used to spread the lad or break down the bulk of work to be done by the managers. The breaking down of the duties of the top management is done for a number of reasons raging for lack of enough time for the superior to attain to every task in the firm, lack of expertise in the various departments or for the purpose of training.
With delegation of authority in the organization, the workload of the manager is reduced or eased economically or otherwise. This is true because left alone, the managers cannot accomplish the entire task necessary for the attainment of the group goals, thus some of these have to be delegated to enable the delegate to work out the assigned tasks.
1.2 Statement Of Problem
Today’s managers have continually observed the lack as much as they could, they have not been able to properly motivated and make best use of the work force for greater performance.
Some firms even with the abundant resources both finance and materials, still experience poor performance due to lack of a well structural organization which is largely as a result of the inability of some managers to delegate authority to their subordinates. The problem of authority delegation in the organization has posed a very big problem to the smooth running of many organizations, as well as the government of the country.
It has become so enormous and has increases the complex of most organizations by creating relationship gap between managers and their subordinates and has inevitably has enormous impact on the overall performance of these organizations.
The pertinent question that comes to mind in case of appraising authority delegation as it affects the different organization is:
- Have Nigeria managers understood the fact that workers yearn to be fully integrated in the scheme of things that determine their future.
- What effect does delegation of authority have on the overall work force.
- How best would a manager delegate authority without losing total control.
- Why need for authority delegation.
1.3. Purpose / Objectives Of The Study
- Determining the causes and effects of inadequate or non-delegation of authority with special reference to PZ Nigeria Aba.
- Determining the impact of the delegation of authority in PZ Aba.
- To identify the better means of delegating authority with no adverse effect on the organization.
- To evaluate the strength of authority delegation in PZ Aba.
1.4 Research Questions
The benefits cum importance of authority delegation in the organization cannot be over emphasized. Delegation of authority therefore serves as an effective tool for optimum productivity in an organization.
Based on the afore concept, the following research questions are formulated.
- Does delegation of authority makes organizing less difficult?
- Has delegation of authority lead to effective and efficient attainment of organizational goal?
- Is delegation of authority necessary for managerial development?
1.5 Significance Of The Study
The impact of delegation of authority cannot be over emphases. It ensures managerial development as well as effective and efficiency in job performance as a result of the following.
- Promotion of legible
- Competent workers
- Pay increase
- Higher responsibilities
- Better performance appraisal
- Increase in job effectiveness etc.
While the PZ Nigeria Aba, organization will benefit from this study in the following ways:
- The work will help the management of PZ Nigeria Aba appreciate the importance of delegation of authority in an organization.
- It will help the organization to develop their workers as it also serves as on-the-line training.
- The organization will through this study know the strength, that is their specialization and weakness of their workers.
- The students of personnel and business management will see work as a reference work and a guide for further research.
1.6 Scope Of The Study
This study is on the impact of delegation of authority in PZ Nigeria Aba, which deals with the process in which delegation of authority can be carried out in an organization, the requirement needed for effective delegation from the superior have to be met as the will have great impact on how delegated duties are performed.
The conditions under which delegations can fail due to poor understanding of the duties and responsibilities delegated of the superior to his subordinates in an organization. Also noted in some effects of non-delegation viz; good ideas often remain inexperienced because subordinates believed that will be punished for disagreement with the superior or showing too much competence.
1.7 Limitations Of The Study
In the course of carrying out this research, the researcher encountered some difficulties which acted as limitations to the successful completion of the work.
These are as follows:
1. Time constraint:
This research work was carried out during holidays with all its social activities including other problems thereby necessitating the disruption and jam¬¬ packing of academic work.
The research was conducted at the time when the cost of living is very exorbitant hence high fare and this obstructed or limited the findings of the work.
Most information sought for are not to let out by the management. They keep on telling the researcher to wait for long or to call back with the view of frustrating his efforts. Distance:The place to get the required information for the progress of this work was too far.
1.8 Definition Of Terms
This is the process by which a superior transfers part of his legitimate authority to a subordinate but without passing on the ultimate responsibilities which has been given to him by his own superior.
The power granted by an organization to an individual to act in various specified ways.
A pattern of ways in which large number of people engage in a complex task, relate to each other in conscious, systematic, establishment and accomplishment of mutually agreed purpose.
The process of creating a formal organizational structure or of breaking a task to be performed into sub-task.
Performance area in which a person or unit is expected to produce result.
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How to nail it on the head during your project defence
You are through with writing that project. Now what?
You have found yourself at that point where you have to defend what you have written. Of course you have to stand in front of your supervisor and other literary personalities to prove that you know what you wrote in your project paper. Unfortunately, the more you think about it, the more it looks like you are about to face a legion. It is not a war. But the emotion of dread welling up inside of you makes it look like one. So now you are asking yourself questions.
- How am I going to start?
- I hope I will do well enough to get an A.
You really want to nail it, but you need to come to terms with exactly how to get everything in perfect control. Especially your emotions of fear that seem to make a wreck of you every time you think about public speaking.
So here is the deal. I want to help you avoid that feeling that would ruin your precious moment if you dare to let it. And we are going to do it together.
I am going to highlight some very important tips to help you get in control for you to be comfortable enough to move from that feeling of DREAD to CONFIDENT; and making an awesome Impression for that great rating your supervisors should be giving to you so freely.
Consider these tips as you prepare for your defence. We will be taking them one after the other so here we go.
Watch Your Body Language And Keep It Confident:
Can you tell that a person is falling apart if they look confident? … If I can second guess you rightly, am sure you answered no to that question. Remind yourself that you need to come out that way. Now this might seem like a huge big deal when you are dealing with the foreboding. Maintaining a poise of confidence is very important. So find your most comfortable position, sitting or standing and draw up your body. You must exude confidence. It is something you need to do for yourself. People can only see what you allow your body language to show. So you must endeavour to put that out. Remember the story of David and Goliath? … At the end of your defence day, you want to be David.
Dress In Your Most Comfortable And Impressive:
Am sure this one is a no brainer. However I must highlight that you choose comfortable pieces. You don’t want to look so good and yet look like you were forced to wear something that does not belong to you. It’s great to ensure that as impressive as your clothes are on you, that they are also very comfortable.
Speak With Authority:
Going hand to hand with that aura of confidence is your most powerful asset:your words. If you look that confident, your words must not come out like whimpers. To be able to pull this off, you definitely need to speak as deliberately as possible in expressing yourself. Let them also hear what they see.
Use, Your Gestures:
I have often found this to come to my rescue in dealing with shyness and conveying my confidence. Usually it gives you an edge to also drive home your point. You must, however, ensure that you do not over use it. It doesn’t mean that your hands should be flying all over the place. That would be absolutely unnecessary. If you do this well, after a while you will realize that you are not as self-conscious as you used to be at the very start. For most situations, it would have completely disappeared altogether; leaving a really confident you talking.
Have A Good Opening And Closing Line:
Make sure you have perfected a good opening line. You should also be armed with a good closing line too. Try and rehearse it to a friend. If for the first time you presented it, your friend does not say “wow, that’s beautiful” or something like that; just know you need to keep refining it until you get the perfect line. Both opening and closing lines will go a long way in how impressed your panel gets to rate you high.
Make Sure You Know Your Work:
Certainly you should understand how important it is to know your own work from start to finish. Not having in-depth knowledge of your own work is tantamount to a suicide mission. Why should you kill yourself?
When all is said and done, this is what you came to defend in the first place. You should know your work from A to Z.
Prepare For The Questions:
Now this part is truly essential. You must be sure you do not floor all the good work you did on your presentation by not answering correctly. You must pay attention to the questions you are asked to be sure you will give the right answer. Many people get it wrong at this stage and spoil their good presentation. When you do not understand any question do endeavour to ask the person to expatiate what they mean before you answer.
These tips are by no means exhaustive, but applying these tips will give you some necessary advantage you need for a great outcome. Of course that outcome would mean that you eventually earn all your points on this project.
The structure of a good project work
Undergraduate projects in Nigeria is a prerequisite for graduation amongst Nigerian tertiary students who will which to obtain bachelors degree in their respective courses of study such as accounting, banking and finance, business administration and a host of others. Writing an undergraduate project in Nigeria for final year students entails a lot both financially and otherwise. Being able to develop any final year project depends on getting a researchable topic whether it is Accounting Undergraduate project topics, Banking and Finance research topics or banking and finance project topics and materials and it all requires diligent hard work of students who are willing to develop best undergraduate projects in Nigeria and graduate in flying colors.
A typical Undergraduate project in Nigerian tertiary institutions can be said to be divided into five or six chapters depending on the format of the school and course of study which are
The introduction of an undergraduate project states the main research problem and research argument. What precisely the study is all about and why it is important. It looks at the originality of the research work and how it will fill the gap in other studies. Justification for a research undergraduate topic should not be lengthy before it has been explicitly stated.
Below are the contents in chapter one of an undergraduate research project which includes;
- Background of the study,
- Statement of the problem,
- Objectives or aims of the study,
- The research questions,
- Research hypothesis,
- Significance of the study,
- Scope of the study,
- Limitations of the study and
- Operational definition of terms.
2. Literature review
Literature review of any undergraduate research work, be it business administration project topics or Economics project topics just to mention a few is very critical to securing a high grade in one’s project work. The literature review of a research process uncovers what other writers have written about the student’s topic. A student’s undergraduate research work should include a discussion or review of what is known about the subject and how that knowledge was acquired. The review could conclude with a brief summary of the literature and its implications. The contents of the literature review are the theoretical review, conceptual framework, empirical review and summary of literature review.
3. Research Methodology
This section includes a description of the research methods used in the undergraduate research work such as the sample size, data collection methods, measurement instruments, research data analysis procedures and the population from which the sample was selected. This section also describes the method used in selecting the sample or samples, validation and reliability of the instruments used in the research work. There are different research statistical techniques used in undergraduate research work such as SPSS, e-views etc.
4. Results & Discussion
This section presents and discusses the data analysis results used in an undergraduate research work, the results of each analysis is being summarized, tabulated, and then discussed for each research question. Then for each research hypothesis, the statistical test of significance selected and applied to the data is briefly described, followed by a statement indicating whether the hypothesis was supported or not supported. In presenting the result analyses/summary in an undergraduate project tables and figures and or graph are used to add clarity to the presentation.
5. Summary, Conclusions And Recommendations
This section summarizes the findings of the study in an easy to understand manner. It also explains the practical implications of those findings, and points to recommended directions for future research in that area.
This is where every source cited in the undergraduate research work is being included. Every undergraduate research work must be properly referenced for its authenticity.
Choosing A Good Project / Research Topic
Students in Nigerian universities these days wish to choose a very simple project topic/material. There is no issue choosing a simple project topic; the only problem is your ability to choose a good project or research topic that your supervisor will easily approve for you.
Most project supervisors really want to see how good his or her project student understands his or her surrounding through the kind of topic he or she chooses for their project work.
There are some project topic that are not reject-able; for instance in Nigeria of today; what do you think is the major issue on ground now?
If a project student can choose or craft a topic on the effect of dollar increment on the economy of Nigeria. Such project topic will be very interesting to write on.
Now what are the qualities of a good project topic?
- The materials for the project topic must be easily assessable.
- The project topic itself must be meaningful.
- The variables must be able to give a clear aim of the project topic.
What do I mean by variable?
Well I am deriving my point from the area of ; the variables here are those main words in the project topic.
Like the above project topic; the effect of dollar increment on the economy of Nigeria. You can see the main variables that really define this project topic are:dollar, increment and economy.
Before you present your topic to your project supervisor, first of all understand your project topic, and then secondly try to do some research for your topic to see if at least you can get up to 60% of what you need to write the complete project.
I said that above because you might have a very nice topic that the materials are not available online and there are no books as regard the topic; in this case the project topic becomes difficult for you even though the topic is catchy.
What do I mean by your topic being assessable?
Well what I mean is very simple and easy to understand. Simply pick your project topic, type it on google and see if you will have at least a good background for the topic you are writing on.
If you can have a good background for your project topic and you can understand the problem associated with the project topic, then I believe the aim of the project is not far-fetched.