The Frequent Changes In Local Government Administration As A Bane To A Proper Policy Implementation In Nigeria (A Case Of Owerri North Local Government)
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This work is dedicated wholly to Almighty God for His inspirations.
Also, to my parents Mr. and Mrs. Ebenezer Nworie for all their supports and efforts.
I explicitly express my sincere indebtedness to all persons who in varied forms contributed to the successful completion of this work. I hereby express my gratitude to the carious scholars whose works I referred to in the course of this project.
A work of this magnitude would not have been completed without the untiring financial and moral support of my parents Mr. and Mrs. Ebenezer Nworie, my big brothers, Okechukwu, Tochukwu and Chukwuma and also my sisters, Mrs. Chioma Kentasie and Mrs. Chika Amanaha, my colleagues in the Department and the lecturers, my supervisor, Mrs. Chidinma Amadi for her guidance and supervision for the success of this work.
Also my friends from other departments worthy to mention here are Steve Obi, Marketing Department, Lucy Okeke, Food Technology, Syeed, Egbufor Victor, Nkwaze Kelechi and Nwanne Victor I., Public Administration, etc. for their encouragements.
I say may God bless you all and grant you all your heart desires, Amen.
This research topic is on the Frequent Changes in Local Government Administration as a Bane to a Proper Policy Implementation in Nigeria, A Case Study of Owerri North Local Government Area. This forms thee basis of this research effort geared towards injecting new ideas into local government Administration and helping to solve this problem arising from this frequent regime changes not only in Owerri North Local Government but in all other local governments in Nigeria.
The objective of the study therefore aims at how best to reduce the incidence of frequent changes in the administration of Owerri North Government which leads to improper implementation of development policies thereby reducing the rate of development in Owerri North Local Government Area. Some of the findings include that there is the absence of people oriented leadership which has over the years formulated and implemented development policies in a selfish manner that development projects are abandoned by each succeeding administration in Owerri North Local Government Area.
The research of this work made the following recommendations; that only people oriented leadership is fundamental in Owerri North Local Government cherished development, that there is need for policy implementation guide which must be judiciously followed while policies are being implemented.
Table Of Content
- Title page i
- Approval page ii
- Dedication iii
- Acknowledgement iv
- Abstract v
- Table of Contents vi
- 1.0 Introduction 1
- 1.1 Background of the Study 1
- 1.2 Statement of the Problem 9
- 1.3 Objective of the Study 9
- 1.4 Research Questions 11
- 1.5 Significance of the Study 12
- 1.6 Scope of the Study 13
- 1.7 Limitation of the Study 14
- 1.8 Definition of Terms 14
- 2.0 Literature Review 17
- 2.1 Introduction 17
- 2.2 Local Government Administration 21
- 2.3 Local Government Reforms 23
- 2.4 Policy and Policy Implementation 26
- 2.5 Policy Formulations and Reforms Agenda 27
- 2.6 Causes of Frequent Policy Changes 32
- 2.7 Effects of Policy changes in Imo State Local Government with Specific Reference to Owerri North 36
- 2.8 Policy Implementation 38
- 2.9 Development Policy Implementation 39
- 2.10 Development Policy Implementation in 1998 43
- References 48
- 3.0 Research Design and Methodology 49
- 3.1 Introduction 49
- 3.2 Research Design 49
- 3.3 Sources/Methods of Data Collection 50
- 3.4 Population and Sample size 50
- 3.5 Sample Technique 52
- 3.6 Validity and Reliability of Measuring Instrument 53
- 3.7 Methods of Data analysis 53
- 4.0 Presentation and Analysis of Data 55
- 4.1 Introduction 55
- 4.2 Presentation of Data 55
- 4.3 Analysis of Data 55
- 4.4 Interpretation of Results 66
- 5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations 68
- 5.1 Introductions 68
- 5.2 Summary of Findings 68
- 5.3 Conclusion 69
- 5.4 Recommendations 70
- References 72
1.1 Background Of The Study
Local Government is the grass root government which is established world over not only for the purpose of authority maintenance, penetration of governance into the rural areas, consolidation of rural loyalty, obedience, political support and commitment of the subjects to the government and state, but also for the realization of rural development goals increased political participation of the rural people to the decision making process on issues that directly affect them.
To buttress the above preamble, the 1976 guidelines for local government reform in Nigeria sees local government as that government at the local level exercised through representative councils established by law to exercise specific power within defined areas. These powers should give the councils substantial control over local affairs as well as the staff and institutional and financial powers to institute and direct the project so as to complete the activities of the state and federal government in the areas so that the local initiative and response to local needs and conditions are maximized.
When the above definition is examined, it implies that a local government is a representative government; a government empowered by law to undertake certain functions and established to implement development needs and policies that affect the rural people. The above is true because the existence of local government administration is aimed at the execution of development policies for the upliftment of lives of the rural people Nworji (2004).
In a similar vein, Appadorai (1975) defines local government as the government by popular elected bodies charged with administration and executive duties in matters concerning the inhabitants of a particular district or place.
It is true of course that the creation and establishment of local government in any civilized and even civilizing societies is for the purpose of grass root development and still for implementation of development policies of modern governments at the rural areas. In line with this conceptualization, local administration in Nigeria is established to carry out these functions of grass root development policies which dates back to the colonial era.
At this stage ion Nigerian history, Frederick Lugard the then governor general because of lack of administration staff had no choice than to adopt a strategy whereby colonial offices index him were instructed to rule the local people through their traditional chiefs warrant in the eastern Nigeria, Oba’s and their chiefs in the western Nigeria and the Emirs in the northern Nigeria. These riles had legal recognition under the native authority ordinance.
Thus, the native authority system of local government renewed round the practice and theory popularly called “indirect rule”. According to Ofoeze (2003), native administration in Nigeria is defined as a system by which titularym power recognized for grass root development. This really anchored on the believe by the colonial masters. That local government administration offers effective machinery through which the local people’s wishes and aspirations are made clearly to the central government who will be aimed most effectively while making policies that affects the development of the rural people.
In Nigeria therefore, after independence and in consonance with the pursuit of this development goals of the federal and state government in rural areas, local government creation becomes central in the development strategies of the various regimes since after the civil war was in Nigeria. For the realization of this policy of grassroots development in Nigeria has been increased in geometric proportion to accelerate national development to achieve policy of national development. Owerri North becomes carried out from the formal Owerri municipal council.
Owerri North Local Government area was created by the administration of Gen Sani Abacha in 1996. This was the outcome of the request made by ther late Eze (Dr.) Onu Egwunwoke for the creation of Uratta Local Government Area with headquarters at Orie Uratta.
However, since the request for the creation of another local government by Emekuku/Emiland Alaenyi blocks did not come to fruition. They were fused into the said proposed Uratta local government to accommodate the new configuration.
The inclusion of Obube, Agbala Ulakwo and Obibiezena block was later considered as they were not accepted by Ngor Okpala Local Government. Since the creation, there have been continued changes in administration of the council which have affected the development of the area.
It is based on this promise that the researcher has undertaken a research on the topic:“Frequent Changes in Local Government Administration as a Bane to Proper Policy Implementation in Nigeria, A Case Study of Owerri North Local Government”.
As mentioned above, Owerri North Local Government becomes created in 1996 with its headquarter at Orie Uratta. The local government has had about nine different regimes of administration made up of the executive chairman and two sole administrators. This local government is made up of nineteen autonomous communities namely:Obibi, Amakohia, Azaraubo, Ihiteoha, Orji, Emekuku, Umuakaliku, Mbaoma, Obube, Naze, Ulakwo, Emii and Akwakuma.
Owerri North Local Government is an urban local government. It encircles Owerri municipal council like a peninsula – six major roads that lead out of the municipal acts across Owerri North communities. In the North, Orlu road leads to Amakohia and Akwakuma community. In the east, Okigwe road leads to Orji community. MCC road leads off Wetheral to Obibi and Ihitteoha communities. In the South, Mbaise road leads to Egbu, Emii, Awaka and Emekuku Communities.
Owerri North is one which places high regards for her culture. The ceremony over kola nut is hitherto observed to the latter the new yam festival which is an annual event to thank God for all his provisions is highly rated and honoured.
Amongst the various cultural festivals is the “Onwa Oru Uratta”. This is an annual cultural festival celebrated by Uratta perople, Uratta clan is made up of eight brothers name:Umualum, Umuorji, Umuoba, Owaelu, Umunahu and Orji. In later years, Amakohia migrated from Owaelu while Akwakuma migrated from Umunahu. These ten are fondly called “Uratta Ofo Asato Mbamiri.
The festival is organized on a selected orie market day in February determined by Ndi Oha supreme council of elders of Uratta. On the said day, the various town adorn their various canopies with decorations, food and drinks appearing in cultural dresses of judge wrapper and white shirt for the men and white blouses and matching gears for women, many cultural dances are displayed to thrill the public and guests. The occasion is set out to honour some deserving sons and daughters of Uratta who contributed in no small measure in the development of their localities.
Owerri North local government according to the 2006 population census has a total number of one hundred and seventy –six thousand, three hundred and thirty four (176,334), made up of eighty-seven thousand and ninety four (87,094) makes and eight-nine thousand two hundred and forty (89.094) males and eighty-nine thousand two hundred and forty (89,240) females.
Owerri North Local Government Area has its peculiar problems of lack of electricity, roads, portable dinking water, under-development agricultural method, dilapidated infrastructures like schools and water tanks and bore holes, and inadequate health care delivery system among other problems. These above form the nucleus of the challenges facing meager Owerri North local government administration in the face meager revenue base.
These administration have tried to grapple with the problems of the underdevelopment, but the frequent and sudden change or high turn-over of administration has impacted negatively to the community of policies and programmes for the development of Owerri North locaql government.
This situation explains why soon as there is change in administration in Owerri North and New ones formulated leading to abandonment of needed projects for grass root development. In fact, this is one of the problems or changes to the development of Owerri North local government area since its creation.
1.2 Statement Of The Problem
In every aspect of human endeavour, there must be ups and downs, so also to Owerri North local government area.
In the course of this work, a handful of problem emerged.
These problems are not only fundamental, but their proper appraisal and comprehension are relevant to the proper implementation of policies and policy continuity in Owerri North local government area which will invariably pave way for the realization of the very essence of creation of Owerri North local government.
The management of Owerri North local government is therefore faced with the problems of meeting the developmental needs of the citizens of the 19 communities that made up Owerri North local government area.
1.3 Objective Of The Study
This research is structured to achieve many purposes of the following.
- First, it is structured to explain the need for policy continuity in Owerri North local government administration. Again, it shows that regimes tenures are to short for the completion of individual administrations policies.
- Also, it aims at proving that financial administration in Owerri North is at the dictates of the executive chairmen and not strictly guided or controlled by any legal enactment.
- The research also aims to examine the procedures at appointment of the various local government chairmen and their consequences on implementation of cherished development programmes.
- It also intends to explain why new administration in Owerri North Local Government abandoned the development policies of their predecessors at the expenses of the poor masses who elected them.
- Finally it intends to explain the process and procedures through which plans are formulated in Owerri North local government.
1.4 Research Questions
In the course of this research, some questions are raised to actually ascertain the rational behind the under development of Owerri North local government.
Stated below are some of the questions:
- Why has Owerri North local government since its creation not done much for the realization of this development objective?
- Why is there nothing to show in terms of development projects for the much/statutory allocation given to Owerri North from the federation account and the state statutory allocation to Owerri North local government from the state government?
- What are the financial control mechanisms put in place to check mismanagement of funds?
- To what extent is this mechanism employed in Owerri North local government financial management to ensure consistency in the use of funds for development?
- Why is there culture of policy discontinuity in Owerri North local government administration?
- How are the policies planned or formulated in Owerri North Government?
1.5 Significance Of The Study
The creation of Owerri North local government is as a matter of national policy on national development channel. This research is geared towards making it possible for the understanding that the administration of this council area should remain focused towards realization and the achievement of the rural committed leadership.
This study will make way for the realization that continuity in planning and programmes no matter who initiated it, will make way for the accelerated development of the entire autonomous communities in Owerri North local government.
This research also emphasizes the importance of expanding reference base of this local government administration through harnessing all these neglected services allocated to by the 1976 constitution.
It will also sensitize the rural people on how they should as a matter of necessity contribute to the development of the council area through making the council become aware of their felt needs.
It also emphasizes that the strict application of recommendations of this work by the executive and the legislators will as a matter of expediency create room for quick development of Owerri North local government area.
1.6 Scope Of Study
This study beams its focus on Owerri North development policies since its creation to date, and how these policies are implemented. The 19 communities in Owerri North local government area were grouped into 6 and one community representing each group was used. A total of 6 communities were used for study.
It tries to examine the quantum of these financial resources and base in order to know the extent to which this resources base can lead her in the development of the council.
1.7 Limitation Of The Study
The research of this nature requires enough money and time which are in short supply and will obviously conduct a research of this type. Again, the interviewee may not open up to the interviewer for fear of being mentioned and this may affect the objective, result or even findings.
The areas to cover by the researcher in Owerri North possess another feat to objectivity since there are about nineteen autonomous communities to cover within a short time frame.
1.8 Definition Of Terms
To avoid ambiguity and salting away understating some concepts have been defined to enhance their rationalization.
They includes the following:
This means the government at the level of grass root, government exercised through elected representatives to perform specific functions, Awa (1980).
This is a group of people who live together in a particular area and who are alike by way of custom and tradition.
This means qualitative human happiness and welfare of citizens of a country or nation.
This is the process by which the efforts of the people themselves are united with those of government authorities to improve economic social and cultural conditions of communities, Owuamalam (1995).
These are those needs that remain uppermost in the need hierarchy of various communities.
This is a broad guidelines used by organizations in translating strategies into action or activities. Policy is aimed at mapping programmes of actions that need to be pursued in order to accomplish the goals of the enterprise which are already defined.
This presupposed the process of developing an effective and efficient broad guideline in a structured manner for its effective implementation.
This is the process of implementing a broad of action. It also embraces associated with putting the chosen policy into place and supervising its pursuit.
It is the capacity to achieve maximum output with minimum input.
It is a defined expected result to be achieved in the future. It is futuristic because it states the predetermined result.
This is the use of human, material and financial resources to achieve organizational objectives.
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How to nail it on the head during your project defence
You are through with writing that project. Now what?
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Use, Your Gestures:
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The structure of a good project work
Undergraduate projects in Nigeria is a prerequisite for graduation amongst Nigerian tertiary students who will which to obtain bachelors degree in their respective courses of study such as accounting, banking and finance, business administration and a host of others. Writing an undergraduate project in Nigeria for final year students entails a lot both financially and otherwise. Being able to develop any final year project depends on getting a researchable topic whether it is Accounting Undergraduate project topics, Banking and Finance research topics or banking and finance project topics and materials and it all requires diligent hard work of students who are willing to develop best undergraduate projects in Nigeria and graduate in flying colors.
A typical Undergraduate project in Nigerian tertiary institutions can be said to be divided into five or six chapters depending on the format of the school and course of study which are
The introduction of an undergraduate project states the main research problem and research argument. What precisely the study is all about and why it is important. It looks at the originality of the research work and how it will fill the gap in other studies. Justification for a research undergraduate topic should not be lengthy before it has been explicitly stated.
Below are the contents in chapter one of an undergraduate research project which includes;
- Background of the study,
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2. Literature review
Literature review of any undergraduate research work, be it business administration project topics or Economics project topics just to mention a few is very critical to securing a high grade in one’s project work. The literature review of a research process uncovers what other writers have written about the student’s topic. A student’s undergraduate research work should include a discussion or review of what is known about the subject and how that knowledge was acquired. The review could conclude with a brief summary of the literature and its implications. The contents of the literature review are the theoretical review, conceptual framework, empirical review and summary of literature review.
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This section includes a description of the research methods used in the undergraduate research work such as the sample size, data collection methods, measurement instruments, research data analysis procedures and the population from which the sample was selected. This section also describes the method used in selecting the sample or samples, validation and reliability of the instruments used in the research work. There are different research statistical techniques used in undergraduate research work such as SPSS, e-views etc.
4. Results & Discussion
This section presents and discusses the data analysis results used in an undergraduate research work, the results of each analysis is being summarized, tabulated, and then discussed for each research question. Then for each research hypothesis, the statistical test of significance selected and applied to the data is briefly described, followed by a statement indicating whether the hypothesis was supported or not supported. In presenting the result analyses/summary in an undergraduate project tables and figures and or graph are used to add clarity to the presentation.
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Choosing A Good Project / Research Topic
Students in Nigerian universities these days wish to choose a very simple project topic/material. There is no issue choosing a simple project topic; the only problem is your ability to choose a good project or research topic that your supervisor will easily approve for you.
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