The Effective Stock Control System In Food Industry (A Case Study Of Mr. Biggs, Owerri)
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This work is dedicated to the Almighty God for making this project a successful one and my parent. Mr. and Mrs. George Chukwueke for their parental love and advice.
I express my profound gratitude to God Almighty who has given me the ability to fulfill this very task.
I thank all the people who have encourage me in my academic pursuit, most especially my amiable lecturer Mr. Obuseh Raphael for his unrelenting effort in seeing to the success of this project I pray that God will continue to bless him more grace to his elbow.
I feel highly indebted and grateful to my one and only parent Mr. and Mrs. George Chukwueke and my twin brother, Chidozie Chukwueke for their assistance and encouragement, which enabled me to produce this work.
These research work title “the role of purchasing in economic development of Ehime Mbano (A case study of Mbano Local Government Area) was carried out by the researcher.
That purchasing is doing fairly well in Mbano local government area by providing employment, and imposing purchasing educational program from time to time for the member, to ensure close monitoring of activities in purchasing.
Purchasing have been able to develop the area in term of providing employment for the citizen and providing essential commodities to the member and also help their members economically in term of granting loan to member.
Table Of Contents
- Title i
- Approval ii
- Dedication iii
- Acknowledgement iv
- Abstract v
- Table of Content vi
- 1.0 Introduction 1
- 1.1 Background of the Study 1
- 1.2 Statement of the Problem 7
- 1.3 Objectives of the Study 9
- 1.4 Research Question 9
- 1.5 Significance of the Study 10
- 1.6 Scope of the Study 11
- 1.7 Limitation of the Study 11
- 1.8 Definition of Terms 12
- 2.0 Review of Related Literature 14
- 2.1 Purchasing:an Overview 14
- 2.2 The Contribution of Purchasing Toward Educational Development 24
- 2.3 Purchasing and its Economic Contribution to Rural Development 26
- 2.4 The Performance of Purchasing in Nigeria 28
- 2.5 The Impact of Purchasing in Mbano Local Government Area 31
- 3.0 Research Design and Methodology 34
- 3.1 Introduction 34
- 3.2 Research Design 35
- 3.3 Sources/Method of Data Collection 36
- 3.4 Population and Sample Size 36
- 3.6 Validity and Reliability of Measuring Instrument 38
- 3.7 Method of Analysis 39
- 4.0 Presentation and Analysis of Data 41
- 4.1 Introduction 41
- 4.2 Presentation of Data 43
- 4.3 Analysis of Data 44
- 4.4 Interpretation of Result 47
- 5.0 Summary of Finding Conclusion and Recommendation 50
- 5.1 Introduction 50
- 5.2 Summary of Finding; 50
- 5.3 Conclusion 53
- 5.4 Recommendation 54
- Reference 56
- Appendix 57
1.1 Background Of The Study
In the recent part, emphasis was only on the balance sheet report without cognizance of other factor that made up the inflow and outflow of resource that sustain the body mechanism of a given firm. With recent emphasis on cost control in the face of the rising cost of input resource and subsequent spill over of high cost of output.
It is very essential to discuss the role and function of purchasing and supply management toward the profitability of a local government. After the civil war the attendant boom in production resulting from the growth of private sector enterprises from Europe and American began to awaken other management input for eventual profit . The reason is based on the sophistical resource put in by these multinational into the mechanism of our business sector. One of these resources is purchasing and supply management.
It is imperative to note that the concept of purchasing has been broadened since the turn of the century and it include all those business activities relevant to the securing of material supplier and equipment as well as services needed by business and industries.
The evolution of right material has brought purchasing principle and management and its effect on shortage, high price of commodities and the allied improvisation have cause the problem of the material and services to intrude into broad room of many local government large or small, public or private and even government agencies.
Therefore purchasing is referred to as the department which is concerned with the process of defining the local government need, selecting supplier, agreeing term placing order and receiving goods and function which is oriented to providing complete supply function services for user within the local government . purchasing mission is to be selected of material or services agreement of price and acquisition item.
A well organized purchasing is one of the criteria of a company to minimize cost at the same time increase profit . The function of purchasing and supply management toward ensuring rapid growth of a local government profitability cannot be over-emphasized. It has been sample and proved that a nonprofessional in the field of purchasing easily view purchasing function as more obtaining requisition, negotiation and placing order without the knowledge that purchasing goes beyond this area of activities.
The activities of purchasing and supply management have the primary purpose apart from procurement of right quality from the right source at the right price , they distributed these material or resource to the user department with the required determination . taking procurement ,decision making or buy decision bidding, vendor selection, negotiation, re-negotiation, awarding of contract, contracting order processing, expediting, taking delivery, material handling, storage and distribution within the local government.
Purchasing department saves cost while other functional department within the local government accumulate cost and this make it to contribute immensely toward the profitability of a local government. It is from this perceptive that research reviewed the function to profitability.
According to A. M. UZOR (2003), purchasing function is to see that material and services are provide at the lowest cost, which is compatible with suitable quantity and safety. From his definition, purchasing can be seen as cost conscious department that recognizes the distinction between price and value and the aim to secure value of money. Examples purchasing department initiates value of analysis, exercise with designers and user to reduce cost by modifying component or substituting materials without detriment to the end user producer.
Purchasing also aim in making sure that the materials procured are of the right quantity, in the right quality, from the right source and at the right price using the right time , delivered to the right destination , purchasing function exist in a local government as a means to an end and provide service to user department by making good and services available as when required to meet local government operation need.
ALJIAN G. W. (1973:13) defined business as straining for profit by adding values . This mean that profit occur when value is added to raw material by turning it into a product. Value is added when a fabricated part is improved or incorporated into a major assemble for final use. Taking “cotton” as an example, it is harvested from farm and end up as a printed cloth. In order word, it has undergone many processes each of which costs something to perform and each of which add value.
(Aijian G. W 1973) from this statement, it is clear that purchasing function is a profit center and a focal point for substantial cost saving. For a company to succeed or to achieve its desired objectives the material section of the local government should be highly trained and knowledge in the field of purchasing and other material related function in order to harness effective and efficient profitability to their local government . in view of numerous challenges of the profession requires a caliber of person that can exercise prudence sound judgment for any naira spent at any given point in time, in order to minimize cost and increase profit.
Sincerely speaking, these cannot be achieved if the buyer is not a professional buyer that should adhere strictly to the ethics of purchasing profession and techniques of purchasing practice. Quite unlike untrained buyer, a trained and professional purchasing executive is aware that he is bound by the ethics of purchasing profession.
1.2 Statement Of The Problem
It has been noted earlier that purchasing erupted because of the harsh sword of capitalism, which is a system, divided into exploiter and exploited in which the exploiters (the capitalism) owned the means of production.
Capitalism turns the heart against man, destroys man humanity and promotes man’s inhumanity, hardship, social irresponsibility, poverty and constant unhappiness to the citizen. It also brings inflation depression, unemployment and various forms of economic and social insecurity for the greater majority of the populace.
The government in defense, say resource is not adequate to meet their demand, the citizen spine that it is due to mal- administration.
Therefore, it is a bid to examine the economic development effect of the purchasing in line with the prevalent problem that this being carried out with Mbano local government area as a study area.
1.3 Objectives Of The Study
- To examine the adequacy of the resource with the reach of purchasing to achieve economic development
- To examine the social- economic effect of purchasing sponsored project as compared to government sponsored project
- To critically study the level of government assistance, threat to purchasing existence.
- To examine the effect of remedial action already taken by purchasing to ensure their survival and continued economic development as well as recommended measures were necessary.
1.4 Research Question
The following research questions have been developed for the study:
- Has the remedial action already taken by the purchasing been able to encourage the growth?
- How has the government activities been able to encourage or threaten the existence of purchasing in Mbano local government?
- What is the level of impact by the citizen as a result of project embarked by purchasing as compared to those sponsored by the government?
- Is the resource available to the disposal of purchasing, adequate to encourage economic development in Mbano local government area?
1.5 Significance Of The Study
The study will portray the available and alternative source of resources open to purchasing societies in Mbano local government area, particular and other places in general.
The political class, the student and the entire citizen are bound to benefit from the finding of the study especially now that unemployment is the other of the day and they can contribute resources to gainfully employ themselves .
1.6 Scope Of The Study
The research work will be restricted to the role of purchasing and economic development.
It cover such area , the role of awarding of contracts, contracting order processing, expediting, material handling, storage and distribution .
Hence, the scope of the research work is restricted to economic development within the local government.
1.7 Limitation Of The Study
The researcher would extend the survey to other area at the empirical level, but limitation here includes cost of transportation to source for materials and the cost of typesetting the complete work.
Since questionnaire method of data collection is relied upon a major source of data collection, and in view of an average Nigeria. Negative attitude towards questionnaire matters, the ills of the method constitute serious in limitation of the study.
1.8 Definition Of Terms
These are organization intended to support the economy of member, household through the acquisition of merchandise from wholesales and for sales to member at a fair price.
These are association of person who engage in production of industrial commodities, either with the use of machine or by employing worker for the production of goods and services of various kind
Marketing Purchasing:These are association of farmer union to produce marketing agricultural.
Input Service Purchasing:
These societies exist to supply its member with seasonal input at reasonable price.
These are purchasing that engage in transport business, external transportation of their good for marketing and sometime they carried out some activities for non-member for a discount price.
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How to nail it on the head during your project defence
You are through with writing that project. Now what?
You have found yourself at that point where you have to defend what you have written. Of course you have to stand in front of your supervisor and other literary personalities to prove that you know what you wrote in your project paper. Unfortunately, the more you think about it, the more it looks like you are about to face a legion. It is not a war. But the emotion of dread welling up inside of you makes it look like one. So now you are asking yourself questions.
- How am I going to start?
- I hope I will do well enough to get an A.
You really want to nail it, but you need to come to terms with exactly how to get everything in perfect control. Especially your emotions of fear that seem to make a wreck of you every time you think about public speaking.
So here is the deal. I want to help you avoid that feeling that would ruin your precious moment if you dare to let it. And we are going to do it together.
I am going to highlight some very important tips to help you get in control for you to be comfortable enough to move from that feeling of DREAD to CONFIDENT; and making an awesome Impression for that great rating your supervisors should be giving to you so freely.
Consider these tips as you prepare for your defence. We will be taking them one after the other so here we go.
Watch Your Body Language And Keep It Confident:
Can you tell that a person is falling apart if they look confident? … If I can second guess you rightly, am sure you answered no to that question. Remind yourself that you need to come out that way. Now this might seem like a huge big deal when you are dealing with the foreboding. Maintaining a poise of confidence is very important. So find your most comfortable position, sitting or standing and draw up your body. You must exude confidence. It is something you need to do for yourself. People can only see what you allow your body language to show. So you must endeavour to put that out. Remember the story of David and Goliath? … At the end of your defence day, you want to be David.
Dress In Your Most Comfortable And Impressive:
Am sure this one is a no brainer. However I must highlight that you choose comfortable pieces. You don’t want to look so good and yet look like you were forced to wear something that does not belong to you. It’s great to ensure that as impressive as your clothes are on you, that they are also very comfortable.
Speak With Authority:
Going hand to hand with that aura of confidence is your most powerful asset:your words. If you look that confident, your words must not come out like whimpers. To be able to pull this off, you definitely need to speak as deliberately as possible in expressing yourself. Let them also hear what they see.
Use, Your Gestures:
I have often found this to come to my rescue in dealing with shyness and conveying my confidence. Usually it gives you an edge to also drive home your point. You must, however, ensure that you do not over use it. It doesn’t mean that your hands should be flying all over the place. That would be absolutely unnecessary. If you do this well, after a while you will realize that you are not as self-conscious as you used to be at the very start. For most situations, it would have completely disappeared altogether; leaving a really confident you talking.
Have A Good Opening And Closing Line:
Make sure you have perfected a good opening line. You should also be armed with a good closing line too. Try and rehearse it to a friend. If for the first time you presented it, your friend does not say “wow, that’s beautiful” or something like that; just know you need to keep refining it until you get the perfect line. Both opening and closing lines will go a long way in how impressed your panel gets to rate you high.
Make Sure You Know Your Work:
Certainly you should understand how important it is to know your own work from start to finish. Not having in-depth knowledge of your own work is tantamount to a suicide mission. Why should you kill yourself?
When all is said and done, this is what you came to defend in the first place. You should know your work from A to Z.
Prepare For The Questions:
Now this part is truly essential. You must be sure you do not floor all the good work you did on your presentation by not answering correctly. You must pay attention to the questions you are asked to be sure you will give the right answer. Many people get it wrong at this stage and spoil their good presentation. When you do not understand any question do endeavour to ask the person to expatiate what they mean before you answer.
These tips are by no means exhaustive, but applying these tips will give you some necessary advantage you need for a great outcome. Of course that outcome would mean that you eventually earn all your points on this project.
The structure of a good project work
Undergraduate projects in Nigeria is a prerequisite for graduation amongst Nigerian tertiary students who will which to obtain bachelors degree in their respective courses of study such as accounting, banking and finance, business administration and a host of others. Writing an undergraduate project in Nigeria for final year students entails a lot both financially and otherwise. Being able to develop any final year project depends on getting a researchable topic whether it is Accounting Undergraduate project topics, Banking and Finance research topics or banking and finance project topics and materials and it all requires diligent hard work of students who are willing to develop best undergraduate projects in Nigeria and graduate in flying colors.
A typical Undergraduate project in Nigerian tertiary institutions can be said to be divided into five or six chapters depending on the format of the school and course of study which are
The introduction of an undergraduate project states the main research problem and research argument. What precisely the study is all about and why it is important. It looks at the originality of the research work and how it will fill the gap in other studies. Justification for a research undergraduate topic should not be lengthy before it has been explicitly stated.
Below are the contents in chapter one of an undergraduate research project which includes;
- Background of the study,
- Statement of the problem,
- Objectives or aims of the study,
- The research questions,
- Research hypothesis,
- Significance of the study,
- Scope of the study,
- Limitations of the study and
- Operational definition of terms.
2. Literature review
Literature review of any undergraduate research work, be it business administration project topics or Economics project topics just to mention a few is very critical to securing a high grade in one’s project work. The literature review of a research process uncovers what other writers have written about the student’s topic. A student’s undergraduate research work should include a discussion or review of what is known about the subject and how that knowledge was acquired. The review could conclude with a brief summary of the literature and its implications. The contents of the literature review are the theoretical review, conceptual framework, empirical review and summary of literature review.
3. Research Methodology
This section includes a description of the research methods used in the undergraduate research work such as the sample size, data collection methods, measurement instruments, research data analysis procedures and the population from which the sample was selected. This section also describes the method used in selecting the sample or samples, validation and reliability of the instruments used in the research work. There are different research statistical techniques used in undergraduate research work such as SPSS, e-views etc.
4. Results & Discussion
This section presents and discusses the data analysis results used in an undergraduate research work, the results of each analysis is being summarized, tabulated, and then discussed for each research question. Then for each research hypothesis, the statistical test of significance selected and applied to the data is briefly described, followed by a statement indicating whether the hypothesis was supported or not supported. In presenting the result analyses/summary in an undergraduate project tables and figures and or graph are used to add clarity to the presentation.
5. Summary, Conclusions And Recommendations
This section summarizes the findings of the study in an easy to understand manner. It also explains the practical implications of those findings, and points to recommended directions for future research in that area.
This is where every source cited in the undergraduate research work is being included. Every undergraduate research work must be properly referenced for its authenticity.
Choosing A Good Project / Research Topic
Students in Nigerian universities these days wish to choose a very simple project topic/material. There is no issue choosing a simple project topic; the only problem is your ability to choose a good project or research topic that your supervisor will easily approve for you.
Most project supervisors really want to see how good his or her project student understands his or her surrounding through the kind of topic he or she chooses for their project work.
There are some project topic that are not reject-able; for instance in Nigeria of today; what do you think is the major issue on ground now?
If a project student can choose or craft a topic on the effect of dollar increment on the economy of Nigeria. Such project topic will be very interesting to write on.
Now what are the qualities of a good project topic?
- The materials for the project topic must be easily assessable.
- The project topic itself must be meaningful.
- The variables must be able to give a clear aim of the project topic.
What do I mean by variable?
Well I am deriving my point from the area of ; the variables here are those main words in the project topic.
Like the above project topic; the effect of dollar increment on the economy of Nigeria. You can see the main variables that really define this project topic are:dollar, increment and economy.
Before you present your topic to your project supervisor, first of all understand your project topic, and then secondly try to do some research for your topic to see if at least you can get up to 60% of what you need to write the complete project.
I said that above because you might have a very nice topic that the materials are not available online and there are no books as regard the topic; in this case the project topic becomes difficult for you even though the topic is catchy.
What do I mean by your topic being assessable?
Well what I mean is very simple and easy to understand. Simply pick your project topic, type it on google and see if you will have at least a good background for the topic you are writing on.
If you can have a good background for your project topic and you can understand the problem associated with the project topic, then I believe the aim of the project is not far-fetched.