The Effect Of Long Term Planning On Organisational Performance (A Case Of Nnpc)
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This research study is dedicated to God Almighty my creator who gave me inspiration and knowledge above all good health to accomplish this work.
Also to my lovely parents Mr. and Mrs. OHADOMERE for the wonderful contribution both material and finically.
I say may God Bless them all Amen.
From the depth of my heart, I thank God for the gift of health and wisdom without which this research could not have seen the light of the day Graciously and with humility I appreciate my supervisor Mrs. Amadi C.J for her advice and successful suggestion and necessary corrections my project. To my HOD and lecturers in Public Administration Department I say a big thank you for importing great knowledge on me.
I remain ever grateful to my lovely parents my Good Lord keep you all to reap the rewards of your labour in Jesus Name Amen. Also to my brothers, Aunties my friends and well wishers, I say big thank you for being there for me.
This study was designed to find out if or whether long term planning has any effect on organization performances in Nigeria National Petroleum Corporation in carrying out this, respondents.
The questionnaire were analyzed using simple percentages and all square for which conclusion were made on the basis of the findings. Also in handling our topic, we have framed it into five chapters.
Chapter one boarded on introduction which contains background of the study, scope of the study, limitation and definition of terms.
Chapter two concentrated on literature review which is made up of introduction.
Chapter three dealt on research design and methodology which contains introduction, research design, sources / methods of data collection, population and sample size, sample techniques, validity and reliability of measuring instrument and method of data analysis.
Chapter four centered on presentation and analysis of data which contains introduction, presentation of data analysis of data, test of hypotheses and interpretation of result.
Lastly, chapter five is summary of findings, conclusion and recommendations.
Tables Of Content
- Title page
- Approval page ii
- Dedication iii
- Acknowledgement iv
- Abstract v
- Table of contents vi
- 1.0 Introduction 1
- 1.1 Background of the study 1
- 1.2 Statement of the problem 5
- 1.3 Objectives of the study 7
- 1.4 Research question 8
- 1.5 Significance of the study 8
- 1.6 Scope of the study 9
- 1.7 Limitation of the study 9
- 1.8 Definition of terms 10
- 2.0 Literature review 13
- 2.1 Introduction 13
- 2.2 The underlying principles of planning 18
- 2.3 Classification of planning 23
- 2.4 The need for long term planning 28
- 2.5 Techniques for long term planning 31
- 2.6 Steps in long-term planning process 35
- 2.7 Areas where long-term could be applied 42
- 3.0 Research design and methodology 47
- 3.1 Introduction 47
- 3.2 Research design 47
- 3.3 Sources / method of data collection 48
- 3.4 Population and sample size 49
- 3.5 Sample techniques 50
- 3.6 Validity and reliability of measuring instrument 50
- 3.7 Method of data analysis 52=
- 4.0 Presentation and data analysis and interpretation 54
- 4.1 Introduction 54
- 4.2 Presentation of data 54
- 4.3 Analysis of data 54
- 4.4 Interpretation of results 54
- 5.0 Summary, conclusion and recommendation 62
- 5.1 Introduction 62
- 5.2 Summary of findings 62
- 5.3 Conclusion 63
- 5.4 Recommendations 64
- References 66
1.1 The Background Of The Study
Extensive business planning is a comparatively modern development. Early industrial and marketing organizations concentrated upon production and selling rather than planning. This was partially a reflection of size of the industrial concerns small-scale operations permitted much planning to be done formally. Business was also less complete many factors of great significance to day such as labour, public relation, tax legislation, consumer preferences, and international business were relatively unimportant in the early period.
Various developments have created the need for more extensive business planning. Growth in size made it difficult to operate without formalize planning. In the field of petroleum, the work of Fredrick W. Tayor and the scientific management movement placed great stress upon detailed banking planning. Since the second world war, there has been a substantial increase in corporate planning of a comprehensive nature. In earliest years.
These was a tendency for planning to be performed unevenly throughout. The company and the result was a collection of plans which controlled. The operation on individual segment of the business but lacked overall unity.
Heindreds of large corporation have adopted. The practice of comprehensive corporate planning regularly preparing formal long-rang plans.
The constantly accelerating rate of changes in the environment, products markets, and method of business has forced attention to long term planning.
A company must therefore plan long into, the future if it must stay even with the competition environment. Discoveries and new product line obsolete. Lead time for introducing new products and exploiting new materials is shortened by the rush to duplicate the success of other by competitors. In this atmosphere of constant change, long term planning is necessary for survival. Today, the need for long-term planning in public administration, but to use complete quantitation and sophisticated tools such as electronic computers in planning.
The desirable course of action for the business. The major question today, is not whether to engage in long term planning on the organization is performance.
Brief History Of Nigerian Nation Petroleum Corporation (NNPC)
The Nigerian national petroleum corporation (NNPC) is a state oil cooperation through which the federal Government of Nigeria regulates and participate in the country’s petroleum industry.
NNPC was established on April 1, 1977 as a merger of the Nigerian national oil corporation and the Federal ministry of mines and steel. NNPC by law managers the joint venture between the Nigeria. Federal government and a numbers of foreign multinational corporations, which includes ROYAL DUTCH SHELL, AGIP, EXXONMOBIL CHEVRON AND TAXACO. Through collaboration with these companies, the Nigeria government conducts petroleum exploration and production.
The NNPC Towers in Abuja is the headquarters of NNPC, consisting of four identical towards the complex is located on Herbert Macaulay way, contral Business District Abuja. NNPC also has zonal offices in lagos, Kaduna, port Harcourt and warri. It has an international office located in London, united kingdom.
The NNPC group Comprises the NNPC Board, the group managing directors office, each of the directorate is headed by a group Executive Directors (GED). Its divislons are headed by Group General managers (GGM).
The directorates of the NNPC company is as follows:
- Exploration and production
- Refining and petrochemicals
- Commercial and investment
- Finance and accounts
- Corporate services
- Gas and power
- Engineering and technology
- Business development
Divisions and subsidiaries
|National petroleum investment and management service (NPIMS)||Nigeria LNG Limited (NLNG)|
|Crude oil Marketing Division (COMD)||Nigerian Petroleum Development Company (NPDC)|
|Research and Development (RD)||National Engineering and Technical Company (NETCO)|
|Engineering/Technology Division (ETD)||Pipelines an Products Marketing Company (PPMC)|
|National Frontiers Exploration Services (NFES)||Nigerian Gas Company (NGC)|
The factory commenced production in February 2007 to meet up with the daily rising demand of their numerous and increasing list of clients and satisfy the widening architectural taste of may Nigerians. The factors is equipped with three giant modern automated petroleum plant capable of producing.
- Crude oil
- Petroleum products
1.2 Statement Of The Problem
The issue of organizational performance in Nigeria has been a thing of concern in management and owners of business (public and Private) the public consumers and the nations as a whole. The research for this concern is based on the fact that in a capitalist or mixed economy like Nigeria, aggregate economic performance is dependent on the performance of the players in the economy i.e the government, business firms and the household, the performance of any organization is therefore based not only in management is ability to plan in the short-run control organize, direct and coordinate its resources but also on the ability to effectively plan for into the future and effectively implement the plans.
It is pertinent to note that planning ahead has many forms which has different effects on the organizational performance. These are short term plans, medium term and long term plans. The adoption of any of these ronges of plan by any organization will depend on the foreseen effect it will have on its operations. Most organization in Nigeria prefers the short and medium range plans because of the flexibility and almost certain outcomes of such plans.
The use of long-terms plans is therefore not widely applied by Nigeria companies. This is probably due to the seeming uncertainty associated with the outcome and high cost involved in formulating and implementing such plans. The reluctance shown on the part of most Nigeria companies in using the long term planning is due to the advantaged and that therefore brought about the problem of this research work which are:
- High labour turnover due to poor welfare scheme implementation.
- Poor employee performance due to the use of obsolete equipment.
1.3 Objectives Of The Study
The purpose of this research work is to determine
- If long term survival of organization and the achievement of desired goals is depended on effective long term planning or not.
- The relationship between long-term planning and the performance of the organization.
- If long term planning can help in sustenance of growth and proper the organization to react favourable to the changing environment factors.
1.4 Research Questions
In this research work, the following questions were developed and answered by the researcher. For the purpose of this research work, the researcher will formulate.
- What roles does long-term planning play in the sustence and growth of an organization?
- Does long term planning make on organization to be more effective than when it was running on short and medium term plan?
- Does long term planning make an organizational performance of the personal ability to recite favourable to the organizations changing patterns.
- How long-term planning does ensures long terms survive of any organization that embarks on it?
- To what extent is the relationship between long-term planning and the performance of the organization?
1.5 Significance Of The Study
This research work will be beneficial to employers of labour both the private and public. It will also benefit all planning units within an organization.
Employees are not left out because it serves as an eye opener to them to determine the relationship between long-term planning and their performance.
Students and research scholar will find this materials useful for further citation.
1.6 Scope Of The Study
The scope of the research will be limited to the Nigerian national petroleum corporation (NNPC). The reason for this is to make an in-depth analysis of the effects of long term planning on the company is performance and not on the entire operations of the company. Questionnaire will be limited to those involved in formulating and implementing long term planning in the organization.
1.7 Limitation Of The Study
The study encountered several limitations such as:
- Inability of the interviewers to disclose fact which is deemed necessary for the study as well as distance that is being covered through and for the company site.
- Limitation in questionnaires was also a problem since, respondents worthiness in answering question was not adequately guaranteed.
Therefore, the work was limited to the answer given to the researcher from the respondents.
- Frequent rescheduling of interviews by the top management to the researcher and their unwillingness when interview to disclose some vital information they considered confidential to the researcher on the long term planning methods used by the organization.
- The last but most important was financial constraints. The cost of transportation to many state round. The country were the case study firm is located and funds spent in gathering data were very height.
1.8 Definition Of Terms
This word is used to refer to the out come or result of an occurrence or event in this work. Therefore, we are talking about the result or an occurrence or event, which is the implementation on long term plan.
Selecting mission and objectives and the strategies, policies, programme and procedures for achieving them. Decision making selection of a course of action from among alternative.
Long Term Planning:
This is also means long range planning. The activity process of study of preparing plans that covers long periods usually five years or more.
The outcome of the planning process. It is defined as a projected course of action that is designed to lead to desired result or goals.
A rational approach of setting and accomplishing an objectives and evaluating alternatives in light of goals, sought and against the environment of planning premises.
This means assessing the future, it normally involves asking calculations and projections which take account in the past performance, current trends and anticipated change in any period ahead.
This means the achievement success or failure of an organization in this work however, success will be considered.
This is the future desired state of an organization. Anderson defined it as target for achievement in pursuit of specific aims and objectives.
These are the specific aims of an organization. They are target aimed at activity goals. Objectives according to Akawa (1999:38) are broad aims towards which activities is targeted.
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How to nail it on the head during your project defence
You are through with writing that project. Now what?
You have found yourself at that point where you have to defend what you have written. Of course you have to stand in front of your supervisor and other literary personalities to prove that you know what you wrote in your project paper. Unfortunately, the more you think about it, the more it looks like you are about to face a legion. It is not a war. But the emotion of dread welling up inside of you makes it look like one. So now you are asking yourself questions.
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Consider these tips as you prepare for your defence. We will be taking them one after the other so here we go.
Watch Your Body Language And Keep It Confident:
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Dress In Your Most Comfortable And Impressive:
Am sure this one is a no brainer. However I must highlight that you choose comfortable pieces. You don’t want to look so good and yet look like you were forced to wear something that does not belong to you. It’s great to ensure that as impressive as your clothes are on you, that they are also very comfortable.
Speak With Authority:
Going hand to hand with that aura of confidence is your most powerful asset:your words. If you look that confident, your words must not come out like whimpers. To be able to pull this off, you definitely need to speak as deliberately as possible in expressing yourself. Let them also hear what they see.
Use, Your Gestures:
I have often found this to come to my rescue in dealing with shyness and conveying my confidence. Usually it gives you an edge to also drive home your point. You must, however, ensure that you do not over use it. It doesn’t mean that your hands should be flying all over the place. That would be absolutely unnecessary. If you do this well, after a while you will realize that you are not as self-conscious as you used to be at the very start. For most situations, it would have completely disappeared altogether; leaving a really confident you talking.
Have A Good Opening And Closing Line:
Make sure you have perfected a good opening line. You should also be armed with a good closing line too. Try and rehearse it to a friend. If for the first time you presented it, your friend does not say “wow, that’s beautiful” or something like that; just know you need to keep refining it until you get the perfect line. Both opening and closing lines will go a long way in how impressed your panel gets to rate you high.
Make Sure You Know Your Work:
Certainly you should understand how important it is to know your own work from start to finish. Not having in-depth knowledge of your own work is tantamount to a suicide mission. Why should you kill yourself?
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Prepare For The Questions:
Now this part is truly essential. You must be sure you do not floor all the good work you did on your presentation by not answering correctly. You must pay attention to the questions you are asked to be sure you will give the right answer. Many people get it wrong at this stage and spoil their good presentation. When you do not understand any question do endeavour to ask the person to expatiate what they mean before you answer.
These tips are by no means exhaustive, but applying these tips will give you some necessary advantage you need for a great outcome. Of course that outcome would mean that you eventually earn all your points on this project.
The structure of a good project work
Undergraduate projects in Nigeria is a prerequisite for graduation amongst Nigerian tertiary students who will which to obtain bachelors degree in their respective courses of study such as accounting, banking and finance, business administration and a host of others. Writing an undergraduate project in Nigeria for final year students entails a lot both financially and otherwise. Being able to develop any final year project depends on getting a researchable topic whether it is Accounting Undergraduate project topics, Banking and Finance research topics or banking and finance project topics and materials and it all requires diligent hard work of students who are willing to develop best undergraduate projects in Nigeria and graduate in flying colors.
A typical Undergraduate project in Nigerian tertiary institutions can be said to be divided into five or six chapters depending on the format of the school and course of study which are
The introduction of an undergraduate project states the main research problem and research argument. What precisely the study is all about and why it is important. It looks at the originality of the research work and how it will fill the gap in other studies. Justification for a research undergraduate topic should not be lengthy before it has been explicitly stated.
Below are the contents in chapter one of an undergraduate research project which includes;
- Background of the study,
- Statement of the problem,
- Objectives or aims of the study,
- The research questions,
- Research hypothesis,
- Significance of the study,
- Scope of the study,
- Limitations of the study and
- Operational definition of terms.
2. Literature review
Literature review of any undergraduate research work, be it business administration project topics or Economics project topics just to mention a few is very critical to securing a high grade in one’s project work. The literature review of a research process uncovers what other writers have written about the student’s topic. A student’s undergraduate research work should include a discussion or review of what is known about the subject and how that knowledge was acquired. The review could conclude with a brief summary of the literature and its implications. The contents of the literature review are the theoretical review, conceptual framework, empirical review and summary of literature review.
3. Research Methodology
This section includes a description of the research methods used in the undergraduate research work such as the sample size, data collection methods, measurement instruments, research data analysis procedures and the population from which the sample was selected. This section also describes the method used in selecting the sample or samples, validation and reliability of the instruments used in the research work. There are different research statistical techniques used in undergraduate research work such as SPSS, e-views etc.
4. Results & Discussion
This section presents and discusses the data analysis results used in an undergraduate research work, the results of each analysis is being summarized, tabulated, and then discussed for each research question. Then for each research hypothesis, the statistical test of significance selected and applied to the data is briefly described, followed by a statement indicating whether the hypothesis was supported or not supported. In presenting the result analyses/summary in an undergraduate project tables and figures and or graph are used to add clarity to the presentation.
5. Summary, Conclusions And Recommendations
This section summarizes the findings of the study in an easy to understand manner. It also explains the practical implications of those findings, and points to recommended directions for future research in that area.
This is where every source cited in the undergraduate research work is being included. Every undergraduate research work must be properly referenced for its authenticity.
Choosing A Good Project / Research Topic
Students in Nigerian universities these days wish to choose a very simple project topic/material. There is no issue choosing a simple project topic; the only problem is your ability to choose a good project or research topic that your supervisor will easily approve for you.
Most project supervisors really want to see how good his or her project student understands his or her surrounding through the kind of topic he or she chooses for their project work.
There are some project topic that are not reject-able; for instance in Nigeria of today; what do you think is the major issue on ground now?
If a project student can choose or craft a topic on the effect of dollar increment on the economy of Nigeria. Such project topic will be very interesting to write on.
Now what are the qualities of a good project topic?
- The materials for the project topic must be easily assessable.
- The project topic itself must be meaningful.
- The variables must be able to give a clear aim of the project topic.
What do I mean by variable?
Well I am deriving my point from the area of ; the variables here are those main words in the project topic.
Like the above project topic; the effect of dollar increment on the economy of Nigeria. You can see the main variables that really define this project topic are:dollar, increment and economy.
Before you present your topic to your project supervisor, first of all understand your project topic, and then secondly try to do some research for your topic to see if at least you can get up to 60% of what you need to write the complete project.
I said that above because you might have a very nice topic that the materials are not available online and there are no books as regard the topic; in this case the project topic becomes difficult for you even though the topic is catchy.
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Well what I mean is very simple and easy to understand. Simply pick your project topic, type it on google and see if you will have at least a good background for the topic you are writing on.
If you can have a good background for your project topic and you can understand the problem associated with the project topic, then I believe the aim of the project is not far-fetched.