The Design And Fabrication Of A Commercial Grinding Mill
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This project is dedicated to the Almighty God, the giver of divine health, wisdom, understanding and strength, for His grace that we are all alive. And to our parents for their moral and financial support.
We deeply acknowledge the help and encouragement given to us in the production of this project by our lecturers in the mechanical engineering department.
We also express our immeasurable gratitude to our project supervisor Engr. Okoye Peter who stood by us despite of his tight schedule, saved time and remained with us through his meticulous guidance, advice and recommendation of our work through its various stages to make sure this project came through.
We appreciate each and every one for their ideas during this research. We say that may the Almighty God in his loving kindness bless them in abundance. Amen.
This project is about the design and fabrication of the commercial grinding mill machine. To improve or develop a local technology in processing industry. History and journals on how the concept of commercial grinding mill started, modern technologies used in manufacturing process.
Also, during the course of this project, a working principle was analyzed to ensure a smooth operation of the machine and proper selection of the materials used. In carrying out this project, care was taken on the design concept to meet the required specification.
Calculations were done to determine the required efficiency of the machine. The component for fabricating the machines is the spark ignition engine, the grinder, the belt system & the framework. Testing was carried out to ensure a complete quality control and assurance which can be affordable in any domestic commercial and industrial requirement.
Table Of Contents
- Title page i
- Certification Page ii
- Dedication iii
- Acknowledgement iv
- Abstract v
- Table of contents vi
- 1.0 Introduction
- 1.1 Background of the study
- 1.2 Statement of the problem
- 1.3 The Purpose of the study
- 1.4 Significance of the study
- 1.5 Classification of the grinding mill
- 1.6 Application of the grinding mill
- 1.7 Advantages of the grinding mill
- 2.0 Literature review
- 2.1 Method of production
- 2.2 Importance of the grinding mill
- 2.3 Types of grinding machine
- 2.4 Features of grinding machine
- 2.5 History and development of grinding machine
- 2.6 Uses of the grinding mill
- 3.0 General description of the component material
- 3.1 Methodology
- 3.2 Component of the commercial grinding machine
- 3.3 Method of fabrication
- 4.0 The working principle of the grinding mill
- 4.1 The velocity ratio of the pulleys
- 4.2 The designing and construction of the grinding mill machine
- 4.3 Permanent welding of joints
- 4.4 The painting operation
- 4.5 The welding operation
- 4.6 Precautionary measures observed when constructing the machine
- Summary, conclusion and recommendation
- 5.0 Summary of the study
- 5.1 Conclusion
- 5.2 Recommendations
This work is made to reduce the stress and increase in price that is associated with the use of manual method of grinding either in domestic, commercial or industrial grinding which requires a lot of man power. With fast growing technological advancement, this invention is primarily geared towards minimizing the use of manpower and stress in grinding, this new invention is made in a way that it will give a good and perfect grinding, also to make the work quick and at the same time phase out the use of manual grinding method. This new invention of a grinding gives a perfect work efficiency than the manual method i.e. manpower type.
1.1 Background Of The Study
Nigeria is a country where good policies are made but actualization of these well designed policies have remained a dream particularly in the area of science, technology and engineering research. However, some government agencies in the science and technology sector, some private engineering firms and some good engineers and technologists are working towards the area of industrial self-sufficiency.
The ever increasing level of unemployment and the resultant need to provide youths with saleable skills that could make them enterprising and self-reliant economically justifies the introduction of technological and vocational education into the new Nigerian Educational system.
Technological and vocational education enable youths to obtain practical based training in a wide range of technical course, trades and occupations, so that on completion, they can either take up paid employment in any establishment or start their own business and employ others. It is worthy to note that from the primitive era to the contemporary time, man has always been confronted with the need for well-designed tools and machines that will make his life comfortable and more convenient.
According to Science Teachers Association of Nigeria (STAN) (1991), the processing machines or equipment are the equipment used for processing harvested food crops into forms that they could be readily consumed, sold or stored for future cultivation. This study is based on observation by experts for increase in production output, then the need for a production machine should be incorporated into grinding of grains, cereals, etc.
1.2 Statement Of The Problem
One of the goal of engineering technology is to give training and impact the necessary skills to individual who shall be self-reliant economically. There are numerous evidences in research literature showing that most product of mechanical engineering programmes in Nigeria are not proficient technically, especially in the area of design and construction (Udofia, 2002; Unanaowo, 2005).
The absence of cheap and potable machine for grinding account for persistent use of the manual or hand method for grinding materials, despite its attendant problems of much time consumption, high energy consumption and lower rate of productivity. Besides, it’s laborious and enervating. Since the use of locally design and constructed machines can greatly reduce the hard and drudgery associated with grinding, increase productivity of processed material, improve the nation’s economy as well as enable technical and mechanical student to acquire more skill in the area of design and construction.
1.3 Purpose Of The Study
The main purpose of the study is to design and construct a simple, cheap and portable electrically operated machine for grinding. The study will specifically attempt to:
- Design a simple, cheap and portable machine for grinding materials.
- Develop a working drawing of the design machine.
- Construct the different part of the machine using metal pieces and other locally sourced materials
- Assemble the different part of the material together using such process as welding and the use of bolt, nut and screws.
- Test the machine to establish its functionality.
1.4 Significance Of The Study
The result of this study will be of immense benefit to the processing industries, house wives, entrepreneurs, engineering students and educational researchers. The general public will also benefit from the result of the study as the cost of grounded materials in the market will be greatly reduced through the use of the machine.
Engineering student will also benefit from the result of this study as they will learn how to design and construct a commercial grinding mill machine and other similar machines. Entrepreneurs and processing research institutes will also find the product of this study very useful as they can use the prototype of the design machine for mass production.
Lastly, the result of this study when publish will provide literature on design and construction of commercial grinding mill machines for mechanical engineering researchers.
1.5 Classification Of Grinding Mill
Basically, grinding mills are grouped into two categories such as;
- Domestic/commercial grinding mill
- Industrial grinding mill
- Domestic/Commercial Grinding Mill:E.g. Stone burr, Iron burr and hammer mills.
- Industrial Grinding Mill:E.g. Ball mill, rod mill Raymond mill etc
For the purposes of this study, only commercial grinding mill and its applications will be discussed.
1.6 Application Of Commercial Mill
1. Stone Burr Mill:
The stone burr mill produces the finest flour possible and is ideal for fine milling or dry, non-oily grain like wheat, corn, rye, oath etc.
2. Iron Burr Mill:
Iron burr mill are use for fine or coarse grinding of dry grain as well as wider range of materials including substances with high oil content such as suya beans, castor oil seeds, coffee, and spices. Among others, Iron Burr Mill burst high production rate at moderate cost when “talcum fine” flour is not required.
3. Hammer Mill:
Hammer Mill offer extremely aggressive pulverizing product by rotary action of a hardened steel hammer strap rotating in a steel closure. Product escapes the mill only when it is small enough to pass through the holes in heavy duty steel screen, which are interchangeable and available with a range hole sizing.
Pleasant mill grain offer commercial grain mill and general grinding equipment for a wide range of grinding needs. Most dry materials can be grind with Stone Burr Mill and both dry, wet and oily materials can be grind with Iron Burr Mills. Application includes grinding of wheat, corn, soya beans, buck wheat, oath, hulls, masa harina, spices, coffee, oil seed, egg shells, bones, roots, hulling of sun flowers, walnut, etc.
All commercial mills are fully adjustable for texture, fine flour to mill texture or “cracked grain” and are suitable for human consumption or animal feed.
1.7 Advantage Of Commercial Mill
- It is durable.
- It helps to reduce stress and makes improves speed rate of work
- It gives a good finish after grinding of the grain
- It is made of wear resistance alloy steel burrs for rapid and efficient grinding of wide range of dry or wet materials
- It can be used any where
- It can be used to grind wet or oily materials because of its non-porous burrs
- It is more reliable and stronger than the manual type of grinding mill
- The burr mill never require dressing and their alloy steel composition is long wearing.
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How to nail it on the head during your project defence
You are through with writing that project. Now what?
You have found yourself at that point where you have to defend what you have written. Of course you have to stand in front of your supervisor and other literary personalities to prove that you know what you wrote in your project paper. Unfortunately, the more you think about it, the more it looks like you are about to face a legion. It is not a war. But the emotion of dread welling up inside of you makes it look like one. So now you are asking yourself questions.
- How am I going to start?
- I hope I will do well enough to get an A.
You really want to nail it, but you need to come to terms with exactly how to get everything in perfect control. Especially your emotions of fear that seem to make a wreck of you every time you think about public speaking.
So here is the deal. I want to help you avoid that feeling that would ruin your precious moment if you dare to let it. And we are going to do it together.
I am going to highlight some very important tips to help you get in control for you to be comfortable enough to move from that feeling of DREAD to CONFIDENT; and making an awesome Impression for that great rating your supervisors should be giving to you so freely.
Consider these tips as you prepare for your defence. We will be taking them one after the other so here we go.
Watch Your Body Language And Keep It Confident:
Can you tell that a person is falling apart if they look confident? … If I can second guess you rightly, am sure you answered no to that question. Remind yourself that you need to come out that way. Now this might seem like a huge big deal when you are dealing with the foreboding. Maintaining a poise of confidence is very important. So find your most comfortable position, sitting or standing and draw up your body. You must exude confidence. It is something you need to do for yourself. People can only see what you allow your body language to show. So you must endeavour to put that out. Remember the story of David and Goliath? … At the end of your defence day, you want to be David.
Dress In Your Most Comfortable And Impressive:
Am sure this one is a no brainer. However I must highlight that you choose comfortable pieces. You don’t want to look so good and yet look like you were forced to wear something that does not belong to you. It’s great to ensure that as impressive as your clothes are on you, that they are also very comfortable.
Speak With Authority:
Going hand to hand with that aura of confidence is your most powerful asset:your words. If you look that confident, your words must not come out like whimpers. To be able to pull this off, you definitely need to speak as deliberately as possible in expressing yourself. Let them also hear what they see.
Use, Your Gestures:
I have often found this to come to my rescue in dealing with shyness and conveying my confidence. Usually it gives you an edge to also drive home your point. You must, however, ensure that you do not over use it. It doesn’t mean that your hands should be flying all over the place. That would be absolutely unnecessary. If you do this well, after a while you will realize that you are not as self-conscious as you used to be at the very start. For most situations, it would have completely disappeared altogether; leaving a really confident you talking.
Have A Good Opening And Closing Line:
Make sure you have perfected a good opening line. You should also be armed with a good closing line too. Try and rehearse it to a friend. If for the first time you presented it, your friend does not say “wow, that’s beautiful” or something like that; just know you need to keep refining it until you get the perfect line. Both opening and closing lines will go a long way in how impressed your panel gets to rate you high.
Make Sure You Know Your Work:
Certainly you should understand how important it is to know your own work from start to finish. Not having in-depth knowledge of your own work is tantamount to a suicide mission. Why should you kill yourself?
When all is said and done, this is what you came to defend in the first place. You should know your work from A to Z.
Prepare For The Questions:
Now this part is truly essential. You must be sure you do not floor all the good work you did on your presentation by not answering correctly. You must pay attention to the questions you are asked to be sure you will give the right answer. Many people get it wrong at this stage and spoil their good presentation. When you do not understand any question do endeavour to ask the person to expatiate what they mean before you answer.
These tips are by no means exhaustive, but applying these tips will give you some necessary advantage you need for a great outcome. Of course that outcome would mean that you eventually earn all your points on this project.
The structure of a good project work
Undergraduate projects in Nigeria is a prerequisite for graduation amongst Nigerian tertiary students who will which to obtain bachelors degree in their respective courses of study such as accounting, banking and finance, business administration and a host of others. Writing an undergraduate project in Nigeria for final year students entails a lot both financially and otherwise. Being able to develop any final year project depends on getting a researchable topic whether it is Accounting Undergraduate project topics, Banking and Finance research topics or banking and finance project topics and materials and it all requires diligent hard work of students who are willing to develop best undergraduate projects in Nigeria and graduate in flying colors.
A typical Undergraduate project in Nigerian tertiary institutions can be said to be divided into five or six chapters depending on the format of the school and course of study which are
The introduction of an undergraduate project states the main research problem and research argument. What precisely the study is all about and why it is important. It looks at the originality of the research work and how it will fill the gap in other studies. Justification for a research undergraduate topic should not be lengthy before it has been explicitly stated.
Below are the contents in chapter one of an undergraduate research project which includes;
- Background of the study,
- Statement of the problem,
- Objectives or aims of the study,
- The research questions,
- Research hypothesis,
- Significance of the study,
- Scope of the study,
- Limitations of the study and
- Operational definition of terms.
2. Literature review
Literature review of any undergraduate research work, be it business administration project topics or Economics project topics just to mention a few is very critical to securing a high grade in one’s project work. The literature review of a research process uncovers what other writers have written about the student’s topic. A student’s undergraduate research work should include a discussion or review of what is known about the subject and how that knowledge was acquired. The review could conclude with a brief summary of the literature and its implications. The contents of the literature review are the theoretical review, conceptual framework, empirical review and summary of literature review.
3. Research Methodology
This section includes a description of the research methods used in the undergraduate research work such as the sample size, data collection methods, measurement instruments, research data analysis procedures and the population from which the sample was selected. This section also describes the method used in selecting the sample or samples, validation and reliability of the instruments used in the research work. There are different research statistical techniques used in undergraduate research work such as SPSS, e-views etc.
4. Results & Discussion
This section presents and discusses the data analysis results used in an undergraduate research work, the results of each analysis is being summarized, tabulated, and then discussed for each research question. Then for each research hypothesis, the statistical test of significance selected and applied to the data is briefly described, followed by a statement indicating whether the hypothesis was supported or not supported. In presenting the result analyses/summary in an undergraduate project tables and figures and or graph are used to add clarity to the presentation.
5. Summary, Conclusions And Recommendations
This section summarizes the findings of the study in an easy to understand manner. It also explains the practical implications of those findings, and points to recommended directions for future research in that area.
This is where every source cited in the undergraduate research work is being included. Every undergraduate research work must be properly referenced for its authenticity.
Choosing A Good Project / Research Topic
Students in Nigerian universities these days wish to choose a very simple project topic/material. There is no issue choosing a simple project topic; the only problem is your ability to choose a good project or research topic that your supervisor will easily approve for you.
Most project supervisors really want to see how good his or her project student understands his or her surrounding through the kind of topic he or she chooses for their project work.
There are some project topic that are not reject-able; for instance in Nigeria of today; what do you think is the major issue on ground now?
If a project student can choose or craft a topic on the effect of dollar increment on the economy of Nigeria. Such project topic will be very interesting to write on.
Now what are the qualities of a good project topic?
- The materials for the project topic must be easily assessable.
- The project topic itself must be meaningful.
- The variables must be able to give a clear aim of the project topic.
What do I mean by variable?
Well I am deriving my point from the area of ; the variables here are those main words in the project topic.
Like the above project topic; the effect of dollar increment on the economy of Nigeria. You can see the main variables that really define this project topic are:dollar, increment and economy.
Before you present your topic to your project supervisor, first of all understand your project topic, and then secondly try to do some research for your topic to see if at least you can get up to 60% of what you need to write the complete project.
I said that above because you might have a very nice topic that the materials are not available online and there are no books as regard the topic; in this case the project topic becomes difficult for you even though the topic is catchy.
What do I mean by your topic being assessable?
Well what I mean is very simple and easy to understand. Simply pick your project topic, type it on google and see if you will have at least a good background for the topic you are writing on.
If you can have a good background for your project topic and you can understand the problem associated with the project topic, then I believe the aim of the project is not far-fetched.