Terrorism, Child Protection And Care In Northern Nigeria

Project and Seminar Material Under International Law and Diplomacy

Terrorism, Child Protection And Care In Northern Nigeria


Abstract


This study examine sterrorism, child protection and care in northern Nigeria. Specifically, the study determines whether states have effectively demonstrated the child right act in northern Nigeria, determines whether states have put mechanisms in place in ensuring the protection and care of the child in the northern part of Nigeria, investigates the effect of terrorism on the violation of the rights of the child in northern Nigeria and determines whether there are structure in northern Nigeria promoting vulnerability of the child towards terrorist attack.. The study employs the survey descriptive research design. A total of 400 responses were validated from the survey. The study adopts the relative deprivation theory. From the responses obtained and analysed, the findings reveals that the states have effectively demonstrated the child right act in northern Nigeria. Furthermore, the findings reveals that the states have put mechanisms in place in ensuring the protection and care of the child in the northern part of Nigeria. The study recommends that there should be calls for the integration of tailor-made programs that recognize the peculiar needs of children and provides robust responses to meeting such needs. This will include a preventive program, which would focus on safeguarding schools, communities and playgrounds such that children are adequately protected from terror. The study further recommends that there is the need to establish a tailored emergency response program through which children could be adequately treated, rehabilitated, assisted and re-united with families after a disaster or attack. Through such a robust and holistic approach, the rights of a child to health, life, education, development, survival, recovery and reintegration, as guaranteed under international and national law, would be progressively realized and achieved in Nigeria.


Table of Content


Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • REFERENCES
  • APPENDIX

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

According to United Nation UN (2017), terrorism affects everyone, its social, economic and environmental effects are hardest on vulnerable groups all over the world. The impacts of terrorist attacks, whether in the form of bombing, massive shooting, kidnappings and abductions, organized attacks, or use of chemicals, are felt most acutely by those segments of the population already in vulnerable situations. Vulnerable groups includes women, children, racial and ethnic minorities, migrants and non-citizens, refugees, indigenous peoples, and those living in extreme poverty, who bear the most disproportionate burden of terrorism (Wessells, 2018). Due to the age, mental and physical limitations, children are particularly vulnerable to the far-reaching impact of terrorism (UNICEF, 2016). Generally, children are often unable to make or implement decisions that could protect, care for or liberate them from violent situations. Even when able to do so, children often lack the economic powers to escape violent situations (UNICEF, 2016). The resulting chaos, fear and causalities associated with terrorism would most often times mean that children are separated form their families, watch their parents die, themselves sustain fatal bodily injuries, suffer permanent physical disability, suffer disruption to daily routines or school, or in some cases get dislocated from residence or simply get missing (UNICEF, 2016).

Children in Nigeria have had their fair share of the problem of terrorism ravaging the fragile North Eastern part of the country. Children have been killed, abducted, forcefully recruited, and internally displaced while others have sought refuge in neighbouring countries. According to Zerrougui (2015), there is dramatic rise in violence, growing recruitment and use of children, sexual violence against girls as well as countless attacks on schools, hence these group of children deserve urgent care and protection. A recent report of UNICEF (2016) declared that owing to the Boko Haram insurgency in Nigeria, over 1.2 million children with over half less than five years of age have been forced to flee their home and an additional 265 000 have been uprooted in Cameroon, Chad and Niger. Attacks on the schools, killing and kidnapping of school children has forced them to stay away from school out of fear of terrorist attacks.

Children are also at risk for experiencing mental health difficulties after a disaster or act of terrorism, most especially children that witnessed the event, lost parents, friends or their loved ones as a result, and even those children who merely reside in the affected community or watch coverage of the event on television. Incidents of terror therefore affect children protection right and care in terms of right to health; education; life, survival and development; food; family unification; and a suite of other civil, cultural, economic, political and social rights enshrined in the legally binding constitutional child protection and care policy.

Nigeria including the northern part is a signatory to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) that requires the family, society and the State to ensure without discrimination, the right of the child to such measures of protection and care as required by his status as a minor. The ICESCR requires special measures of protection of children from economic and social exploitation and requires States to set age limits below which paid employment or child labour should be prohibited. Other international instruments extending protection and care to children are the Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women, African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights, the Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights on the Rights of Women in Africa (African Women’s Protocol). Though the various human rights documents are applicable to all human beings, these legal statutes has been utilized by respective regulatory institutions in the north since there is no child specific instrument to adequately address the peculiar needs of children.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

One of the most pressing concerns facing Nigeria for about a decade now is the geometric rise in the incidence and notoriety of terrorism and terrorist activities. Women and the children are badly affected. Zerrougui (2016) said children in the north-eastern part of Nigeria are in desperate need of protection and care from acts of terrorism and violence perpetuated by Boko Haram insurgents.

There is a saying that cuts across the nation that children are the future.” They are the future of any family, country etc. To this extent, it is the duty of every government and society to ensure that children are given every care, help, protection, training and education, they may need, in order to grow into useful citizens and members of society. All legal instruments made for protecting the rights of children come under one banner in the best interest of the child (Zerrougui 2016).

However, it should be noted that terrorism activities has therefore led to the violation of various child right that is required for protection and care, hence, the need to carry out this study on terrorism, child protection and care in northern Nigeria.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The general objective of this study is to analyze terrorism, child protection and care in northern Nigeria while the specific objectives are to:

  1. Determine whether states have effectively demonstrated the child right act in northern Nigeria.
  2. Determine whether states have put mechanisms in place in ensuring the protection and care of the child in the northern part of Nigeria.
  3. Investigate the effect of terrorism on the violation of the rights of the child in northern Nigeria.
  4. Determine whether there are structure in northern Nigeria promoting vulnerability of the child towards terrorist attack.

1.4 Research Questions

The following research questions will be answered:

  1. Have states effectively demonstrated the child right act in northern Nigeria?
  2. Have states put mechanisms in place in ensuring the protection and care of the child in the northern part of Nigeria?
  3. What are the effects of terrorism on the violation of the rights of the child in northern Nigeria?
  4. Are there structures in northern Nigeria promoting vulnerability of the child towards terrorist attack?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

The following research hypotheses will validate this study:

  • H01: States have not effectively demonstrated the child right act in northern Nigeria.
  • H02: States have not put mechanisms in place in ensuring the protection and care of the child in the northern part of Nigeria.

1.6 Significance of the Study

Outcome of this study will be useful for government, policy makers and the general public in understanding the demonstration of the child right act in northern Nigeria. It will also educate in understanding the effects of terrorism on the violation of the rights of the child to protection and care in northern Nigeria and also reveal the structures in northern Nigeria promoting vulnerability of the child towards terrorist attack.

This research will be a contribution to the body of literature in the area of terrorism, child protection and care in northern Nigeria, thereby constituting the empirical literature for future research in the subject area.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This study focuses on terrorism, child protection and care in northern Nigeria. Specifically, this study focuses on determining whether states have effectively demonstrated the child right act in northern Nigeria, determining whether states have put mechanisms in place in ensuring the protection and care of the child in the northern part of Nigeria, investigating the effect of terrorism on the violation of the rights of the child in northern Nigeria and determining whether there are structure in northern Nigeria promoting vulnerability of the child towards terrorist attack.


1.8 Limitations of the Study

In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents. However, the researcher were able to manage these just to ensure the success of this study.

Moreover, the case study method utilized in the study posed some challenges to the investigator including the possibility of biases and poor judgment of issues. However, the investigator relied on respect for the general principles of procedures, justice, fairness, objectivity in observation and recording, and weighing of evidence to overcome the challenges.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Terrorism:

Is a calculated, politically motivated violence perpetrated against noncombatant targets by subnational groups or clandestine agents, usually intended to influence an audience.

Child Protection:

Child protection is the safeguarding of children from violence, exploitation, abuse, and neglect. Article 19 of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child provides for the protection of children in and out of the home.


1.10 Organization of the Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows.

  • Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
  • Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
  • Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
  • Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
  • Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.

Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Summary

The broad objective of the study was to examine terrorism, child protection and care in northern Nigeria. The study determined whether states have effectively demonstrated the child right act in northern Nigeria, determined whether states have put mechanisms in place in ensuring the protection and care of the child in the northern part of Nigeria, investigated the effect of terrorism on the violation of the rights of the child in northern Nigeria, and determined whether there are structure in northern Nigeria promoting vulnerability of the child towards terrorist attack.

The study adopted a survey research design and with the aid of convenient sampling method, the researcher enrolled 400 participants for the study who are all residents from Borno State, Bauchi State, Kano State and Katsina State. Well structured questionnaire was issued to the respondent of which a total of 400 responses were received and validated for the study.


5.2 Conclusion

Findings from the study revealed that

  1. The states have effectively demonstrated the child right act in northern Nigeria
  2. The states have put mechanisms in place in ensuring the protection and care of the child in the northern part of Nigeria.
  3. The effects of terrorism on the violation of the rights of the child in northern Nigeria include:
    • It leads to the violation of human rights
    • Leads to traumatic experiences
    • Leads to physical injuries on the children and
    • Leads to mental disorders in children
  4. There are structures in northern Nigeria promoting vulnerability of the child towards terrorist attack

5.3 Recommendation

The following suggestions were made base on the findings from the study:

  1. There should be calls for the integration of tailor-made programs that recognize the peculiar needs of children and provides robust responses to meeting such needs. This will include a preventive program, which would focus on safeguarding schools, communities and playgrounds such that children are adequately protected from terror.
  2. There is the need to establish a tailored emergency response program through which children could be adequately treated, rehabilitated, assisted and re-united with families after a disaster or attack. Through such a robust and holistic approach, the rights of a child to health, life, education, development, survival, recovery and reintegration, as guaranteed under international and national law, would be progressively realized and achieved in Nigeria.

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