Terrorism And Its Implications On Food Security In The 21st Century (North Eastern Nigeria As A Case Study)
This research examined terrorism and its implications on food security in north east Nigeria.
The study adopted qualitative method and historical/analytical design was used in analyzing its data. Data were collected through secondary sources which include newspapers, archives, books, conference proceedings, etc.
The findings revealed that; an increase in exposure to the Boko Haram insurgency negatively affects food security conditions for Nigerian households. Boko Haram insurgency resulted in households having to rely on less preferred foods, limit the variety of foods eaten and limit the portion size of meals consumed. The insurgency did not result in households having to skip a whole day without food.
The study concluded that; Food insecurity is both a cause and a consequence of violence, contributing to a vicious cycle or “conflict trap”. International food assistance plays an important role both during conflicts and in the post-conflict recovery period. Food plays a critical – but often underemphasized –role in these processes. The study recommends that; It is expected that the state government and other stakeholders including non-governmental organization should provide opportunity for the young unemployed youth to be engaged in meaningful work;. Governments should, as a short time-measure, demand and distribute food from the national reserve in order to reduce the hardship being experienced by the people.
1.1 Background to the Study
All over the world, food security requires appropriate agricultural management and utilization of natural resources and eco-systems, as well as good governance and sustainable political systems Tappis, Doocy, Paul & Funna, (2013). Food security is directly affected by climate change effects that lead to worry in global livelihoods. Clarke (2010) stated that adequate provision and distribution of food can be more essential than food production itself because it actually became a military strategy to starve off certain armed groups and civilian supporters. More commonly, the flow of staple food was inadequately interrupted as a result of the conflict which usually results into roads closed and increased the cost of transportation, making it extremely difficult to reach rural areas.
Many developing nations experience food and water insecurity on a higher scale than developed nations because of irresponsible or malicious government policies, conflicts that can results in war, effects of climate change, and rising food prices Attah, (2012). For instance, the war in Afghanistan has left many rural Afghans without access to food because war usually lead to increase in prices of staple food. D’Souza and Jolliffe (2013) stated that the reason why some provinces are experiencing declines in food security in Africa is violence and terrorism. During the 1990s, civil conflict made it extremely difficult to grow and distribute enough food to feed everyone in Afghanistan Henk-Jan & Hendrix, (2011). In Somalia, there are many long-standing concerns about the link between extreme food security crises and stability, security and other political imperatives. The food insecurity may have been the cause of the severity of the crisis and the extent of human suffering, but the food insecurity was in many ways characteristic of the kinds of crises likely to be experienced in the future Pangaribowo, Gerber & torero, (2013).
In Nigeria, for instance people living in rural areas are the most exposed to food insecurity, owing to limited access to food and financial resources since rural farmers are comprises of small scale farmers, landless farmers and some pastoral farmers who have limited or no access new technology or access to storage and processing facilities FAO (2015); Awodola & Agyeno, (2014). However, food security have undergone a rapid transformation in recent years with significant implications for people’s diets, because number of factors such as globalization, expanding food trade, technological innovations, longer food supply and processing chains, and volatile prices of food commodities come into play Adepoju, (2011). There is also concern about increasing deforestation, as well as the prospects for bio-fuel production to displace land allocated for food crops. Furthermore, trade smooth’s out local production insecurity, which is expected to increase in times of weather extremes caused by climate change. However, trade can be a two-edged sword, which can also result in worsening certain producer’s situations in case products from other producers reach the markets with lower costs Adelaja, Justin, Takashi M. & Eva, (2019).
Terrorism is not a new phenomenon in world history in that it has existed in every age for several centuries. Historically, the following examples of important terrorist groups can be identified: Baader Mainhof gang of West Germany, the Japanese Red Army, the Italian Red Brigade, the Palestinian al Fatah, Israeli Haganah, Lebanese Hezbollah, Osama bin Laden‘s Al-Qaeda, Khmer Rouge of Cambodia, the Viet Cong in Vietnam, Somalian al Shabaab, Al-Qaeda in the Maghreb (AQIM) and lot more Garrison, (2013). Terrorism in the world at large has risen to a sublime and the global community in a bid to stave-off this act which has constituted a threat to global peace and stability unanimously agreed to counter terrorism in all its forms and to also bring its perpetrators to justice Kolberston, (2017). The effects of terrorism range from short, medium and even long term. The economic effects of terrorism are enormous and they erode the savings of the state, divert some money designed for other projects to fighting terrorism and rebuilding of infrastructure as well as relief services Waugh, (2010).
The effects of terrorism are contagious in Africa where there is interconnection of activities including food security and trade routes. Terrorism is a threat and is like an aching tooth which needs to be rooted out but has no immediate remedy Siebet, (2010). The magnitude of destruction, loss of life, injuries and disabilities have all made human kind fail to find comfort in their governments as citizens are left vulnerable to indiscriminate attacks of terrorists. While death, injuries and capital destruction are the most visible effects of terrorist attacks, fear, violence, uncertainty and indirect effects of terror are harmful to the economy in the long term Abdalla, (2012).
Terrorism is an insidious act common and conducted daily over decades and has been responsible for the physical and or structural violence experienced by many people in Nigeria Adagba, ugwu & Eme, (2012). The increase in the circulation, use and transfer of sophisticated weaponry and the consequences for violence, increased mass casualties and perennial violence in Nigeria, this past years have spirited scholarly efforts towards identifying the underlying causes, proffering solutions and curtailing futuristic tendencies of terrorism in Africa- particularly Nigeria Adamu, (2015). Adeola & Oluyemi (2012) concluded that terrorism has negatively affected collective state effort in maintaining international peace and security especially the period between 2000 and 2010.
Generally, the activities of terrorists have been evident in many countries especially in Nigeria. It presents the most serious threat to human life and liberty, it’s operations are designed to create a sense of insecurity among the public, to show the inability to contain terrorism, and to promote the ideology of the terrorists. It can also destroy communities and destabilizes entire regions of attack, with the use of one-sided violent approach against civilians to fight a state or group of people with uneven violent confrontation which requires effective countering strategies Aniceto & Clive, (2013). However, counterterrorism forces have expanded its network with the perceived growing threat of terrorism in the late 20th century Shaffer, (2015).
North East Nigeria is responsible for massive production of varieties of food crops and the region has contributed to food security since Nigeria’s independence, this trend has been threatened by terrorist activities in the last decade, this has made it necessary to carry out the current research by examining the implications of terrorism on food security in the 21st century with focus on North Eastern Nigeria.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Many conflict and civil war has evolved in Nigeria which has threatened food security Hassan, (2014). The underlying cause of the instability seen in that North East region of Nigeria today is as a result of terrorism which has lead to limited accessibility to food, water and other resources. Concerns about access to food during and after the attacks of terrorist are of great concern in Nigeria. North East Nigeria generally have large agricultural sectors but may lack the infrastructure or government institutions to supply all of its citizens with adequate food Koubi, (2012). Fighting closed roads and increased cost of transportation, makes it extremely difficult to reach rural areas. The displaced farmers in the areas of attacks found themselves relying on locally produced food to survive rather than their own harvests thus affecting food availability and accessibility. These are massive problems that gave rise to food insecurity in such areas Oni & Fasogbon, (2013). Several studies has be carried out on terrorism and its implication on food security in the 21st century with focus on North Eastern Nigeria but there is no recent study on the subject, hence, the current study will build on the existing studies and analyze the current issues on the subject.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The main objective of this study is to analyze the implications of terrorism on food security in the 21st century with the focus on North Eastern Nigeria.
The specific objectives are to:
- Examine the effect of terrorism on food availability in North Eastern Nigeria.
- Analyze the effect of terrorism on food production in North Eastern Nigeria.
- Investigate how terrorism has affected food production activities in North Eastern Nigeria.
1.4 Research Questions
Following the objectives, the following research questions are raised to solve the research problems:
- What is the effect of terrorism on food availability in North Eastern Nigeria?
- What is the effect of terrorism on food production in North Eastern Nigeria?
- How has terrorism affected food production activities in North Eastern Nigeria?
1.5 Significance of the Study
The following are the significance of this study:
The outcome of this study will enlighten government, policy makers, security agencies, stakeholders in food production and the general public on terrorism and its implication on food security in North Eastern Nigeria.
The findings from this study will constitute a basis for future research and also contribute to the body of knowledge since it will be used as literature. Outcome of this study will also be a guide for policy formulation both at national and state level that will enhance food security.
1.6 Scope of the Study
This study will cover terrorism and its implication on food security in the 21st century. It will also focus on entire North Eastern Nigeria. It will also cover issues spanning 2015 to 2019.
1.7 Operational Definition of Terms
Is the use of intentionally indiscriminate violence as a means to create terror among masses of people or fear to achieve a religious or political aim.
This is the conclusion that can be drawn from something although it is not explicitly stated.
Is the state of having reliable access to a sufficient quantity of affordable, nutritious food.
Is the current century of the Anno Domini era or the Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. It is the first century of the 3rd millennium. It is distinct from the century known as the 20th century; it began on January 1, 2000 and will end on December 31, 2099.
Summary of Findings, Conclusions and Recommendation
5.1 Summary of Findings
This research examined terrorism and its implications on food security in north east Nigeria. explore the conflict-related pathways to food insecurity by examining the impacts on price, farm input and income-induced food insecurity situations experienced by households. Based on various robustness checks, including alternate model specifications and regressions using alternate conflict measures, the results are consistent. The study finds that an increase in exposure to the Boko Haram insurgency negatively affects food security conditions for Nigerian households. The results suggest that the impact of conflict on food insecurity is mainly through the income and farm input pathways, not through price. This study found that the Boko Haram insurgency resulted in households having to rely on less preferred foods, limit the variety of foods eaten and limit the portion size of meals consumed.
The study also found the insurgency did not result in households having to skip a whole day without food. For example, our results suggest that a household’s exposure to 100 additional Boko Haram related fatalities annually would lead to an increase of up to 0.4 additional day of food insecurity per week. An increase in conflict intensity resulted in a reduction in the food consumption scores. Further analysis provide evidence that two pathways from conflict to food insecurity are particularly important: reduced availability of production inputs and reduced income.
Food insecurity is both a cause and a consequence of violence, contributing to a vicious cycle or “conflict trap”. Food security is critical for political stability. Food insecurity is linked to increased risk of democratic failure, protests and rioting, communal violence and civil conflict. Violent conflicts, in turn, create food insecurity, malnutrition and – in some instances – famine. Thus food insecurity can perpetuate conflict, although its effects depend on the context, with the strongest links evident in states that already have fragile markets and weak political institutions (Collier et al., 2003). Food price stabilization measures are important tools to prevent food prices from rising and causing unrest. Safety nets are critical instruments that can mitigate the effect of short-term spikes in food prices on food insecurity, helping to prevent violent conflict and contribute to long-term development. Because young men as a group are most in need of livelihoods and also most likely to participate in political violence, income instability among them must be addressed. Safety nets have the added advantage of mitigating horizontal inequalities, which are one cause of conflict.
International food assistance plays an important role both during conflicts and in the post-conflict recovery period. International organizations are particularly important in these situations because of reduced government capacity to provide basic services in states experiencing conflict and because of the perceived impartiality of aid workers. Funding of food and nutrition assistance in post conflict situations is often problematic, especially in the recovery stage. Food is one of the better-funded areas in relief operations but in the recovery, transitions and early development stages, food is often phased out too quickly, leaving populations at risk and potentially reversing earlier gains in building peace. Transition, peacebuilding, capacity building and the recovery of agriculture are long-term processes; progress is measured in decades, rather than in years (Pritchett and Weijer, 2010).
Food plays a critical – but often underemphasized –role in these processes. Recovery activities focusing on improving food access often come too late, last too short a time, are poorly funded and are too small in scale. After decades of consistent gains in eradicating hunger, food insecurity is once again on the rise. The effects of food insecurity for human security are dire, as are the consequences for political stability and conflict. Though the challenge is great, the international community can play a positive role in addressing hunger and breaking the link between food insecurity and conflict.
This study examined the implications of terrorism on food security in North Eastern Nigeria. Data analysis established likely threat to food security in Maiduguri and beyond due to activities of BH. To this end, effort by the government of Nigeria, and indeed the international community, in curbing the menace of BH would be a welcome development.
Following the findings and conclusions, the following recommendations are made:
- It is expected that the state government and other stakeholders including non-governmental organization should provide opportunity for the young unemployed youth to be engaged in meaningful work so as to prevent them from being instrument of violence.
- Governments should, as a short time-measure, demand and distribute food from the national reserve in order to reduce the hardship being experienced by the people.
Terrorism And Its Implications On Food Security In The 21st Century (North Eastern Nigeria As A Case Study)
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