The Use Of Technology In Improving Road Transportation: A Study Of Bolt (Taxify)


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Project and Seminar Material for Transport Management Technology

The Use Of Technology In Improving Road Transportation: A Study Of Bolt (Taxify)


Abstract


E-hailing is a popular mode of transportation conceptualized and developed abroad and later introduced in Nigeria. The service is classified by the Department of Transportation and Communications (DOTC) under what they defined as Transportation Network Company (TNC). The rise of these transport modes has a direct impact to a segment once dominated by conventional taxis as it became popular in the market in terms of the premium services they provide to riders.

The main objectives of this study are the following: a) To examine the factors of technology such as bolt and taxify and how it relates to urban transportation in the study area.To determine the extent to which technology such as bolt and taxify affect the road transportation system in.To examine the effect of technology such as bolt and taxify on urban road transportation in the study area.

The surveys were conducted in Lagos, with 150 taxify operators. The surveys revealed common complaints about existing taxi services.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background To The Study

Interrelationships of ICT innovations and changes in transport demand have been debated for more than three decades (Line et al. 2011; Salomon 1986; Senbil and Kitamura 2003; Thomopoulos, Givoni and Rietveld 2015; Wagner et al. 2004). The basis of discussions has however changed fundamentally over time, as ICT opportunities constantly evolved, specifically with the development of the smartphone. Wagner et al. (2004) and Banister and Stead (2004) were the first to comprehensively discuss the complexity of ICT and transport interrelationships, considering ICT demand responses as well as spatial and temporal distribution outcomes. Specifically, this included ‘living’, ‘working’ and ‘producing’, the latter comprising logistics, manufacturing systems, customized services, retailing and distribution, teleshopping, distance working and self-employment. Wagner et al. (2004) and Banister and Stead (2004) concluded that ICT would stimulate travel, as new ‘opportunities’ for transport became available, though ICT would also substitute for travel, as a growing number of tasks could be carried out at-a-distance.

A refined understanding of ICT, social (media) networks and travel was presented by Carrasco and Miller (2006), who found that transport demand depends on the social importance of the contacts in the network, as well as physical distances to social activities. Evidence of transport demand growth as a result of mobile phone use was later presented by Nobis and Lenz (2009), who found that changes in life circumstances triggered changes in mobile phone use and travel behavior. Notably, at the time of these studies, the authors still focused on the implications of mobile phone, regular phone and email use: Smartphones and their opportunities (apps, chats) as well as social media had not as yet made a mass-market entry. This affirms that less than a decade ago, studies investigating ICT and transport interrelationships still had a starting point in considerably more limited technologies and opportunities for use. In one of the more recent studies, Line et al. (2011) investigated students and part-time working mothers. They found that new technologies were embedded quickly in everyday routines, as communication opportunities allowed for the re-scheduling and adjusting of activities and their co-ordination and organization in time and space. Social media (in particular Facebook) was identified as an important factor in the expansion of social networks, including invitations to social events and the revival of old friendships.

Line et al. (2011) concluded that while ICT affected communication patterns, its implications for transport demand change appeared to be more limited. A notable exception was long-distance relationships maintained through Facebook, which necessitate occasional personal meetings (Larsen et al. 2006). Line et al. (2011) also noted the importance of mobile technologies for ‘inhabiting’ space, i.e. the use of mobile phones for navigation or listening to the radio, as well as their potential to both “fragment” and “lubricate” life (ibid: 1498). Aguiléra, Guillot and Rallet (2012) added to this that ICT improved public transport experiences, security perceptions, and the possibility to make travel time more productive (see also Wang and Law 2007), while Cohen-Blankshtain and Rotem-Mindali (2016) more recently affirmed that ICT influence perceptions of distance, accessibility and availability.

Aguiléra et al. (2012) provided new insights regarding the potential of ICT innovations to stimulate and substitute transport demand. Of particular importance is their finding that ICT changes the nature of transport demand, as it adds “new value to physical presence” (Aguiléra et al. 2012: 666). In their view, travel no longer addresses instrumental needs; it makes up for 3 “relational deficits”. This is confirmed by Cohen-Blankshtain and Rotem-Mindali (2016) who noted that ICT lead to some travel substitution, though both physical and virtual activity types grow. Ad


1.2 Statement Of The Problem

Advances of Internet platforms, smartphone and tablet applications, and the rise of social media platforms are becoming increasingly relevant in transport contexts, as they facilitate travel, allow for co-presence in the sharing of distant lives, while also generating new forms of social and network capital (Germann Molz 2012; see also van den Berg et al. 2013). As an example, Cohen, Prayag and Moital (2014) found that social media had gained considerable importance for tourism behavior and mobility patterns, as a result of opportunities to communicate travel patterns. Social media can also set in motion competitive travel and changes in collective and individual identities modeled on movement (Gössling and Stavrinidi 2015). The review suggests that interrelationships of transport and ICT have evolved over at least three decades, with several central information technologies, such as smartphone apps, having been adopted by mass markets only more recently. As the scale of this change is unprecedented (Witt, Suzor and Wikström 2015), there is evidence that the perception and use of transport systems is now increasingly shaped by apps (van Wee 2015). To better understand these complexities, the paper identifies ICT innovations and conceptualizes these with regard to their implications for transport behaviour.


1.3 Objectives Of The Study

The basic objectives of this study are:

  1. To examine the factors of technology such as bolt and taxify and how it relates to urban transportation in the study area.
  2. To determine the extent to which technology such as bolt and taxify affect the road transportation system in.
  3. To examine the effect of technology such as bolt and taxify on urban road transportation in the study area.
  4. To make recommendations that would improve transportation.

1.4 Hypothesis

The hypotheses to be tested in this study are:

  1. Ho: There is no significant relationship between technology and road safety in the study area
  2. Ho: There is no significant relationship between technology and urban transportation development

1.5 Significance Of The Study:

The study will assist the government in policy formulation as it relates to transportation. This study will educate the stakeholders in the transportation sector and the general public on the relationship between ICT and urban transportation in Nigeria. This research will be a contribution to the body of literature in the area of the effect of personality trait on student’s academic performance, thereby constituting the empirical literature for future research in the subject area.


1.6 Scope/Limitations Of The Study

This study will cover the relationship between road information technology and transportation and how the duo influence development in Nigeria.


1.7 Limitation Of Study

Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).

Time constraint

The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work

Financial constraint

Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).

Time constraint

The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.


Chapter Five


Discussion Of Findings, Conclusion And Recommendation

5.1 Discussion of findings

  1. The rise of the e- hailing transport modes proved that there are problems in the current conventional taxi service in Lagos. Overcharging, Reckless Driving, Rude Driver are found to be the most common complaints people experience in riding a taxi in Lagos.
  2. From the survey conducted, it was found out that sixty-two percent (62%) of Taxify users are also private car owners. It is noted that 8.4% are female and 71.6% of the users have a Bachelor’s Degree. Hence, the seventy-six percent (76%) of riders are anticipated to be employed. Furthermore, it is noted that the average age of Taxify users is 31.48 years old, and the median is at 26 years old.
  3. From the survey, it is was founf out that the e- hailing technology has impacted road transportation positively, as road hassles and crime is reduced.
  4. The study determined that due to the poor public transport system, most numbers of women opt to ride either a conventional taxi or book a ride through Taxify for safety and convenience.
  5. Convenience, Safety, Reliability, Less hassle, Just like my own car, Easy to book a ride, Cashless Payment, Drivers have undergone background check, and Cars are new are the top reasons why people book a ride through Taxify.
  6. This study also proved that private car owners now have hthe option to use their cars occasionally and still enjoy the same service through Taxify. Fifty-seven percent (57%) of the respondents are willing to give up their car for a convenient mode of transportation. The other 43%, however still prefer to have a car because of the present condition of our transportation sector as evident in the growing sales of cars.
  7. The primary purpose of riding Taxify of the respondents is to “commute to work”. This is due to the better service Taxify provide which filled the gap that the other public transport modes lacked and complements the poor service of some conventional taxis. Twenty-four (24%) of the respondents are willing to add 100 to 150 pesos for a convenient and reliable ride.

5.2 Conclusion

  1. Furthermore, the top reason for using Taxify is to have another mobility option for commuters that is safe and reliable. It was found out that reliability is the most attractive feature of Taxify and the convenience of online booking is better than hailing a taxi on the roadside or falling in line in a taxi stand.
  2. The average trips of respondents per month based on the answers from the survey is 12.03 trips while the median is 8 trips per month.
  3. Also, if Taxify service is stopped, 29% of the respondents (riders) answered to use transit more often, and 24 % answered to use taxis more often.
  4. Most of the respondent operators came from different fields of work before Taxify arise. Fifty- two percent (52%) are both driver and operator, 33% are solely operators, while 15% are only drivers. The top reason why the operators joined Taxify is to have an additional income.
  5. Based on the online survey conducted, Taxify operators work at an average of 5.35 times a week, at 11 to 12 hours a day or even at 16 hours and 70% of operators bought their vehicle brand new.
  6. The reasons why e- hailing does not contribute to sustainable transport are as follows:
  7. If Taxify service is not available, the 44% of the riders will shift to taxi, while 32% will use public transportation; The use of existing taxi and public transportation during the unavailability of Taxify promotes to sustainable urban transport by avoiding car use.
  8. If Taxify service is stopped, the 29% of the riders will use the transit more often, 24% will use taxis more often, and 15% will walk more often; The inexistence of Taxify service makes the commuters shift through the use of transit more often, use of existing taxis more often and, will make people walk more often which in return in favor to sustainable urban transport.
  9. Seventy percent (70%) of the operators bought their vehicle brand new for Taxify; The purchase of new cars for Taxify use of the operators is against the principle of sustainable urban transport which is car reduction.
  10. Most of the operators of Taxify works six (6) times a week and at 11 to 12 hours a day and some are even at 16 hours a day; Furthermore, the operation of Taxify at six (6) times a week at 11 to 12 hours a day is also against the principle of sustainable urban transport which is reduction of car use and promoting the use public transportation.
  11. Taxify’s role in Lagos is to have another mobility option for commuters that is safe, convenient and reliable. e- hailing however compete with the service provided by taxis and this healthy competition is said to eliminate the taxi operators’ monopoly in the transport market creating a benchmark that challenges the taxi operators to improve the quality of their service.
  12. From the perspective of supply and demand, e- hailing services can be optimized based on the demand of passengers in a certain area which is missing in taxi service.
  13. Taxify in Lagos deviate from the true concept of car-sharing because most cars were bought brand new instead of using the existing vehicle for the purpose of becoming a e- hailing partner. We can still experience the same positive impacts of car-sharing if private car users will shift to using e- hailing instead.

5.3 Recommendations

The following recommendations are made towards improving transport services provided by e- hailing as well as in aid of regulations and policy making for these modes:

  1. In order to maximize the utilization of conventional taxis, dispatching method based on demand of passengers per city and per time should be used. Global Positioning System (GPS) and radio communication can also be used in assigning the taxis nearby.
  2. Other e- hailing service providers should immediately process the accreditation with LSRSC to legalize its operation. Trade dress with branding logo requirement should be imposed to e- hailing vehicles to associate to its operator. e- hailing should not perform as a rent a car service or through hailing. A trip request shall only be done through online booking via e- hailing Application.
  3. Taxify and other transport agencies should comply with all the other requirements mandated by the Government. Thus, e- hailing being part of our public transportation, should be regulated to ensure the safety of the public. e- hailing in coordination with LSRSC, should regulate the number of their partners to prevent traffic congestion caused by the excessive volume of members. This is essential in order to retain the basic principle of ride-sharing that was the original context by which Taxify were established and for which sustainability is anchored on;
  4. Further studies on the fare setting on Taxify should be conducted to help determine the amount of fare that shall be regulated. This should include strict examination of surge fee computation to address the users’ queries and concerns;
  5. Number of vehicles per e- hailing operator should be limited to give opportunities for other private car owners to ride share through e- hailing;
  6. E- hailing in order to contribute to a sustainable transport should consider the concept of ride-sharing by maximizing the occupancy of the vehicle, and by encouraging the people to share their ride. e- hailing should highly discourage its members to buy new vehicles but instead utilize the existing units in good condition and qualified to the age requirement set by LSRSC.

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