Technological Advancement And Psycho Social Issues As Determinant Of Academic Performance Of Economics Students In Higher Institutions In Ogun State (A Study Of Babcock, Convenant, Olabisi Onabanjo, Tai-Solarin University)
The study sought to examine technological advancement and psychosocial issues (resilience, academic stress, peer relations and family structure) as determinants of academic performance of Economics Students in Tertiary Institutions in Ogun State. A two-stage sampling technique was adopted to select 600 (200-400 Level) students in Covenant University Ota, Babcock University, Ilishan, Tai-Solarin University of Education, Ijebu-Ode and Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ago-Iwoye. The study made use of a well-structured questionnaire to solicit information from the respondents. Data collected were subjected to the quantitative technique of regression analysis.
The results revealed that technological advancement is not a significant determinant of academic performance (p>.05); resilience (p<.05) and academic stress (p<.05) are the psychosocial issues that significantly determined academic performance and lastly, the joint influence of academic performance and psychosocial issues significantly determined academic performance (p<.05). Based on this, the study suggests amongst others that, students should properly utilize technological facilities such as internet, laptop, e-notebook, ipad and the like in their academics. These facilities should be used to source for information pertaining to their courses, assignments, tests, term-papers, examinations and projects. This will widen the knowledge frontiers of the students, raises their level of exposure and enlightenment, which will further improve their academic performance.
1.1 Background of the Study
The Nigerian government in her National Policy on Education (2004) sees major subjects like mathematics, English language and economics as one of the core subjects to be offered at the senior Secondary School level. Despite this, there are some psychosocial factors that are affecting the teaching and learning of Economics. It should be noted that no great cornerstone of our understanding about the psychosocial factors affecting the teaching and learning of Economics is either erected or overthrown. Psychosocial factor is referred to the psychological and social factors that may or mar the study of a subject or course. The school, home background and the interest of the student stand out as strong variables in explaining variation in the teaching and learning of Economics in senior secondary schools. Again, it could not be established that differences among school related arrangements bear any direct simple universal relationship to teaching and learning of Economics performance especially when the home and interest factors are held constant. Consequently, it should be noted that most students get a lot out of school, the highest variations in the teaching and learning of Economics is observed around that basic levels may be attributed more to home and interest than to school differences. Cultural and psychosocial learning theories have not been used to explain the factors affecting the performance of students in the teaching and learning of Economics. This is because no literature has been established in this area of study. However, in order to promote effective teaching and learning of Economics, the secondary school, home and the interest of the students are pertinent factors that must be considered. According to Cohen et al. (2003), school fees constitute an important for schools and represent potential for creating an enabling teaching and learning environment Cohen et al. further stated that school with few financial resources tend to perform poorly in relation to school with greater finances. Oyenuga (2007) linked poor teaching and learning to shortage of qualified teachers and this accounted for poor academics performances in senior secondary schools. Oyenuga (2007) also attributed the poor teaching and learning in secondary schools to inadequate material and infrastructural resources which are below expectation with some schools having few classroom accommodations without windows, poor spacing and crowded seats. Okonkwo (2010) attributed the students’ poor academic performance to indiscipline in schools and low level of educational standard. From the above, it is pertinent to say that the school is a psycho social factor that may affect the teaching and learning of Economics in Nigeria senior secondary schools. On the issue of the home as a psychosocial factor in the teaching and learning which can also make or mar students’ performance, Oyenuga (2007) argued that good home background and conducive environment tends to promote students academic performance. Ajila and Olutola (2007) viewed that the state of the home affects the individual since the parents are the first socializing agents in an individual life. This according to Okonkwo (2010) is because the family background and concern of a child affect his reaction to life situations and his level of performance. Okonkwo (2010) also sees the home as having a great influence on the students’ psychological, emotional, social and economic state. However, one could deduce that the home is a recognized psychosocial factor having a lot of influence in teaching and learning of various subjects in which Economics is of no exception. On the issue of interest, the home plays a significant role in this regard as many parents may discourage or encourage their children towards a particular subject or career. Teachers also play a significant role in the interest of a student in a particular subject. In a study carried out by Fakunade (1993), it was reported that students’ hatred for some school subjects was a result of poor instructional strategies by the teachers. In order to facilitate teaching and learning of Economics, interest of the students is also a relevant factor (Oyenuga 2010). Chukwu (2002) stated that interest has been viewed as emotionally oriented behavioral trait which determines a student’s whim and vigour in tackling educational programmes or other activities. Therefore, interest is an affective behaviour that can be aroused and sustained in teaching and learning through motivation and appropriate teaching technique. It has been widely acknowledged in technical and vocational acquisition research that the learning of Economics is an inseparable subset of technical education as the school; home and interest may influence the perception of the society on the subject.
1.2 Statement of the General Problem
It is a known fact that there is a decline in the academic performance of secondary school students in the teaching and learning of Economics in recent times as many students fail in both internal and external examinations. The low performance of the students in Economics may be attributed to many factors such as school, home and interest. However, the extent to which these variables facilitate the teaching and learning of Economics is not certain. The study, therefore, examined the psychosocial factors affecting the teaching and learning of Economics in babcock, covenant, olabisi onabanjo, tai-solarin university.
1.3 Objective of the Study
the main objective of the study is to evaluate the technological advancement and psycho social issues as determinant of academic performance of economics students in higher institutions in ogun state. (a study of babcock, covenant, olabisi onabanjo, tai-solarin university). specifically, the study aims to:
- Examine the level of students’ academic performance in the schools?
- Determine the relationship between the psychosocial factor and student performance
- Determine the individual contribution of psychosocial factors on students academic performance
1.4 Research Questions
The following questions were raised to guide the study
- What is the level of students’ academic performance in schools?
- What is the relationship between the psychosocial factor and student performance?
- What is the individual contribution of psychosocial factors on students academic performance?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
The following null hypotheses were postulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance
- H01: Technological advancement has no significant influence on students’ academic performance.
- H02: School environment has no significant influence on students’ academic performance
- H03: Parental factor has no significant influence on students’ academic performance.
- H04: Students’ disposition has no significant influence on students’ academic performance.
1.6 Significance of the Study
The study would be of immense importance to secondary school teachers as it would reveal the psycho social factors affecting economic students’ academic performance. The study would also be of immense importance to researchers, students and scholars who are interested in developing a further study on the subject matter.
1.7 Scope and Limitation of the Study
The study is restricted to the assessment of psycho social factors that influence academic performance of secondary school students in economics in babcock, covenant, olabisi onabanjo, tai-solarin university.
Limitation of the Study
Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
1.8 Operational Definition of Terms
Psychosocial is relating to the combination of psychological and social behavior. An example of psychosocial is the nature of a study that examines the relationship between a person’s fears and how he relates to others in a social setting
Economics is the social science that studies the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services. Economics focuses on the behavior and interactions of economic agents and how economies work
Academic achievement or (academic) performance is the extent to which a student, teacher or institution has achieved their short or long-term educational goals.
Summary Conclusions and Recommendation
This study revealed that the level of students’ academic performance in sampled schools is low. This finding agreed with the conclusion of Oshokoya and Omoteso, (2018) that many students fail each year and so end up forfeiting the pursuit of many careers that should have benefitted them and the country better. The finding of the study revealed that the technological advancement has significant influence on students’ academic performance. This corroborated with the work of Okoruwa (2009) found that teachers’ teaching experience has significant effect on students’ achievement in the sciences. This finding also revealed that the school environment has no significant influence on students’ academic performance. However, the school environmental factor is the least predictor of academic performance of students. The finding disagree with the opinion of Black, (2001) and Fettler (2009) found that students in old buildings scored 5-7% points lower than students in new buildings and so established independent findings that there is a relationship between the school environmental condition and students’ achievement. However, high performance school could be traced to improve acoustical environment.
The finding of the study also shows that parental has significant influence on students’ academic performance. This is in agreement with Mihaila, (2012) that greater parental involvement at early stage in children’s learning, positively affects the child’s school performance including higher academic achievement. The finding was in concordance with Oshokoya and Omosteso (2018) who stated that educational background of the parent is one of the important aspects in the study of Mathematics. This implies that socio-economic status of parents has a great impact on the students’ performance in Mathematics. This finding also revealed that students’ disposition has significant influence on students’ academic performance. However, Students’ disposition is the most predictor of academic performance. This agree with Olatunde (2010) who in a research conducted on students’ self-concept and Mathematics achievement contented that, students who have positive self-concept of themselves performed well in Mathematics. The child who views himself and his abilities positively is the one who can maximally benefit and achieve good results in school learning experiences.
Based on the findings obtained in the study, the researchers make the following recommendations: Parents should be sensitized on the need to provide for the educational needs that will motivate the children to learn effectively and perform satisfactorily in schools; Family counseling services should be intensify in order to sensitize couples on the need to reduce the incidence of divorce and broken homes in the society so as to enable children benefit from intact family upbringing; Teachers should, as much as possible, try to reduce the anxiety level of students and promote student interest in economics; The school counselors should monitor what goes on in the home with a view to providing students with learning experiences commensurate with their circumstances. It is believed that the suggestions presented in this study could be implemented with minimal financial input and would reverse the parlous state of student’s under-achievement in Nigeria schools.
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