Teachers` Perception Of Motivation As A Measure Of Increasing Efficiency In The Teaching Profession

Project and Seminar Material for Education

Project and Seminar Material for Education


Abstract


Teachers` motivation has been found to be a measure of increasing efficiency in the teaching profession. This research work examined the teachers` perception of motivation as a measure of increasing efficiency in the teaching profession. To affect the purpose, three hypotheses were formulated, while literatures relevant to the study were reviewed with a view of showing its relevance to the study. The descriptive survey research design was employed using random sampling technique in obtaining the samples for the study.

Seventy-five (75) questionnaire copies were designed and administered to teachers from five secondary schools in Amuwo-odofin. Three research hypotheses were formulated and analyzed using chi-square inferential statistic. The findings revealed that, teachers` motivation is major determinant in their morale to perform in Amuwo-Odofin Local Government. Also teachers` intrinsic motivation correlates strongly with teachers` efficiency in Amuwo-Odofin Local Government. And extrinsic motivation of senior secondary school teachers plays a very vital role in influencing their productivity in schools in Amuwo-Odofin Local Government.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

Teacher motivation has become an important issue given their responsibility to impart knowledge and skills to learners. It is argued that satisfied teachers are generally more productive and can influence studentsā€™ achievement. Motivation guide peopleā€˜s actions and behaviours toward achievement of some goals (Analoui, 2000). In work and other contexts therefore, motivation is often described as being intrinsic or extrinsic in nature (Sansone & Harackiewicz, 2000). Intrinsic motivation, deriving from within the person or from the activity itself, positively affects behavior, performance, and well being (Ryan & Deci, 2000). Extrinsic motivation on the other hand, results from the attainment of externally administered rewards, including pay, material possessions, prestige, and positive evaluations among others.

The systematic literature review of Edmonds et al. (2002) concluded that teachers are primarily attracted to teaching as a career by intrinsic motivators, for reasons of intellectual satisfaction and in order to make a contribution to society. Morgan (2005) highlighted the appeal of intrinsic rewards: working with young people, pupilsā€™ learning, rapport with pupils, improved teaching, relations with colleagues, feeling part of a team and enjoying autonomy at work. Teachers are highly dissatisfied with their remuneration and other conditions of service (Chimwenje 2003). There is also a broad consensus among other stakeholders, including community members and students that poor incentives and conditions of service have resulted in low morale and thus poor performance among teachers (Kadzamira 2003). Absenteeism and attrition were largely influenced by teacher motivational factors with low salaries and poor working conditions coming out strongly as underlying causes of absenteeism and attrition (Moleni and Ndalama, 2004).

Teacher job efficiency is a concern of everybody in the society. Wordweb Dictionary defines efficiency as Skillfulness in avoiding wasted time and effort. In this respect, teacher efficiency connotes the teachersā€™ role of teaching students in class and outside the class. The key aspects of teaching involve the use of instructional materials, teaching methods, regular assessment of students, making lesson plans, assessment of pupils, conduct of fieldwork, teachersā€™ participation in sports, attending school assembly and guidance and counseling. Therefore, teacher job efficiency is the teacherā€˜s ability to integrate the experience, teaching methods, instructional materials, knowledge and skills in delivering subject matter to students in and outside the classroom. Teacher efficiency in this study will be measured by regular and early reporting at school, participation in extra-curricular activities, supervision of school activities, adequate teaching preparation (schemes of work, lesson plans), marking and general punctuality among others. Teaching is a mass occupation, which accounts for one-half to two-thirds of public sector employment in most developing countries (Bennell, 2004).

While other professions (engineers, medical doctors and lawyers) enjoy a high degree of self-regulation and are successful in maintaining high barriers to entry in terms of qualification requirements and registration, teachers on the other hand, tend to have weak, state-dominated professional organizations with several trade unions. In addition, public sector recruitment freezes in many countries during the 1990s have seriously constrained the growth of the number of teachers in government or government-aided schools. Although such events are expected to have affected the morale of teachers to perform, detailed studies examining the effect of motivation on efficiency of teachers are still scanty. Available evidence, however, reveals that the teaching force has expanded rapidly in only a relatively few countries (most notably Bangladesh, Malawi, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Mozambique and Uganda) (Bennell, 2004).

Teaching has become employment of the last resort among university graduates and secondary school leavers. Teachers often lack a strong, long term commitment to teaching as a vocation. Besides, the status and pay of primary school teachers compared to secondary school teachers is generally much lower in developing countries. Thus, in the absence of alternative employment opportunities, becoming a secondary school teacher is the main avenue for social and economic advancement for the most able primary school teachers. This has had important implications for intrinsic motivation of primary school teachers (Bennell, 2004).

In Nigeria, the Ministry of Education controls primary and other levels of education. It trains, registers, constructs schools and teachers houses, supplies all required teachers, prescribes a national curriculum and provides text books, administrators and inspects all schools in the country. The primary school system since independence has continued to expand, through service providers such as government and the private sector who have been encouraged to open up schools. There is growing fear that perhaps the massive number of teachers without commensurate expansion in facilities, learning and teaching materials; teaching morale may have compromised the quality of education along the remuneration prior to the introduction of Universal Primary Education (UPE) when most schools charged additional fees through Parentsā€˜ Teachers Associations (PTA) which money was used to supplement teachersā€˜ salaries. This is no longer the practice and thus teachers must rely on the government salary.

Coupled with that, a high teacher-pupil ratio is a common phenomenon. Given the fact that in practice it is not un common for a primary teacher to have more than 150 pupils, one may be surprised to note that there is a double shift system where one teacher teaching two classes, one in the morning, the other one in the evening as a model of reducing the class size without increasing the teaching force. Yet as teachersā€™ salaries are so low, primary school teachers are sometimes obliged to have a second job to make ends meet for them and their family. All these coupled with frequent delays in the payment of these little salaries, absence of staff accommodation, poor or no staff meals; tend to reinforce absenteeism, low morale and lack of commitment to work (Ward, Penny and Read, 2006). In view of the above situation, a study to examine the effect of motivation on the performance of secondary school teachers was deemed necessary by the researcher.


1.2 Purpose of the Study

The purpose of the study is to investigate teachersā€™ perception of motivation as a measure of increasing efficiency in the teaching profession. The following are the specific objectives meant to guide the study:

  1. To examine the effect of motivation on teachersā€™ morale to perform.
  2. To examine the effect of intrinsic motivation on efficiency of teachers.
  3. To examine the effect of extrinsic motivation on efficiency of teachers.

1.3 Statement of the Problem

The level of motivation of teachers remains central in the teaching job performance debates. Government has improved the teacher payroll management and made resources available for increase on the secondary school teachersā€™ salaries as a way of motivation. Despite the above motivational factors, there has been deteriorating standards of professional conduct, including serious misbehavior (in and outside of work), poor preparation of teaching materials especially lesson notes and general poor professional performance.

Teacher absenteeism is unacceptably high and rising, time on task is low and falling, and teaching practices are characterized by limited effort with heavy reliance on traditional teacher-centred practices. Such a situation has prompted the researcher to conduct a study on teachersā€™ perception of motivation as a measure of increasing efficiency in the teaching profession.


1.4 Research Questions

The research will provide answers to the following questions:

  1. What is the relationship between teacher motivation and their morale to perform?
  2. What is the relationship between intrinsic motivation and teachersā€™ efficiency?
  3. What is the relationship between extrinsic motivation and teachersā€™ efficiency?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

The following hypotheses will be tested during data analysis at 0.05 level of significance:

  1. There is no significant relationship between the motivation of teachers and their morale to perform.
  2. There is no significant relationship between intrinsic motivation and teachersā€™ efficiency.
  3. There is no significant relationship between extrinsic motivation and teachersā€™ efficiency.

1.6 Significance of the study

This study is of importance in this era of universal primary education, especially now that Nigeria needs motivated staff if performance is to be enhanced at this level. The study, therefore, seeks to explore possible strategies for improving school management and administration. The study is of importance to the policy makers, primary school and secondary school administrators as it identifies major strategies to modify the behavior of teaching staff towards their job performance. It will in particular identify strategies that will help to improve teachersā€™ morale and working conditions, at the same time counteract the factors that lower the teachersā€™ motivation. The study will be undertaken with the explicit objective of enabling the researcher obtain a post graduate degree in education in Lagos State University (LASU).


1.7 Delimitation of the study

The study is delimited to the following:

  1. The study will be carried out in secondary schools in Amuwo Odofin Local Government Area of Lagos.
  2. The researcher will limit his findings to only secondary schools teachersā€™.
  3. Regarding its content scope, the study investigated whether motivation of teachers affected their morale to perform, as well as the effect of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation on the performance of teachers. Indicators of intrinsic motivation assessed by the study included job satisfaction derived from teaching, enjoyment of teaching, the challenging and competitive nature of teaching, recognition, career development, control over others and, teaching as oneā€˜s goal in life. On the other hand, extrinsic motivation included externally administered rewards like salary, free accommodation, free meals, weekly duty and extra teaching allowances, advance payments in case of financial problems, leave of absence and free medical care among others.
  4. Also the study will be limited to five selected senior secondary schools selected schools in Amuwo Odofin Local Government:
    • Amuwo Grammer School
    • Awori Secondary School
    • Kings High School
    • Hope Bay Collegeg
    • Kuje Secondary School

1.8 Limitation of the Study

The following constraints may be encountered during the study:

Attitudes of Respondents:

The attitude of respondents in some cases may not be very encouraging. Many of them may show great apathy, some may withhold necessary information about themselves, while others may give wrong information for reasons best known to them. The researcher would persuade the respondents in filling the questionnaires, assuring and explaining to them that information provided would be used only for research purpose.

Lack of inadequate material:

The nature of this research work demands a critical search for materials usage; materials such as journals, textbooks, magazines and other relevant materials, and this has posed a great challenge to the researcher and has made the research a tedious exercise. Internet source, libraries, and other sources will help to ease this burden.

Transportation problem:

There are some secondary schools that are very difficult to reach as a result of poor communication, distance and bad roads. The researcher will make use of schools located in urban areas in order to avoid these unpleasant situations.

Unavailability of much data:

Unavailability of much data due to the fact that the study is restricted to teachersā€™ alone in those selected schools. The researcher will increase the sample size in order to avoid this situation.


1.9 Operational Definition of Terms

Motivation:

Is defined as a physiological or psychological deficiency or need that activates behaviour or a drive that is arrived at a goal or incentive.

Extrinsic Motivation:

Extrinsic motivation results from the attainment of externally administered rewards, including pay, material possessions, prestige, and positive evaluations from others.

Intrinsic Motivation:

Intrinsic motivation is an inducement derived from within the person or from the activity itself and, positively affects behavior, performance, and well-being.

Teaching:

A process of impacting knowledge, skills, competence into a learner.

Profession:

An occupation that requires special education.

Efficiency:

Skillfulness in avoiding wasted time and effort.


Teachers` Perception Of Motivation As A Measure Of Increasing Efficiency In The Teaching Profession


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