Teacher’s Professionalism For Enhanced Competence In The Administration Of Public Primary Schools In Obioakpo LGA Area In Rivers State

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Teacher’s Professionalism For Enhanced Competence In The Administration Of Public Primary Schools In Obioakpo LGA Area In Rivers State


Abstract


This study focused on the teacher’s professionalism for enhanced competence in the administration of public primary schools in Obioakpo LGA In Rivers State. The study is was specifically focused on establishing the relationship between the teachers‟ code of conduct and competence in the administration in public primary schools in Obioakpo LGA Area In Rivers State; establishing the relationship between teachers‟ commitment in terms of planning, assessment, and teaching and teachers‟ performance in public primary schools in Obioakpo LGA Area In Rivers State and finding out the perception of teachers towards the teachers‟ code of conduct in public primary schools in Obioakpo LGA Area In Rivers State.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 180 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are staff of public primary schools in Obioakpo LGA In Rivers State.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses
  • 4.5 Discussion of Findings

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

Teachers are an important factor in determining the quality of education that children receive. Their professionalization therefore has been a centre of much concern among educators and researchers (Nkwanga, 1992). Its importance is not only for repute, differentiation from members of other professions, but in a sociological sense, as a form of social control. Therefore, for an educational institution to excel, it must focus on the quality, competence, knowledge and commitment of the teaching staff, which are actually embedded in their teaching profession code of conduct. Though professionalism is the ultimate goal of all professions, poverty, poor remuneration and poor training at times constrain its attainment. There are many factors which influence teacher professionalism such as attitude of the different education stake holders towards the teacher, gender, age and duration of service. These all have a bearing to the teachers‟ professionalism and the implied performance in and outside class.

Before the advent of colonialism there was no school to train teachers and there were no trained teachers (Ssekamwa, 1997). Most of the teaching was done informally at home, in clan meetings or in peer gatherings (Roscoe, 1915). And so in the traditional African society, teacher professionalism was built in their societal norms and prescriptions especially the values that were espoused at the time such as respect, honesty, integrity, trust among others (Muwagga, 2006). With the coming of the missionaries between 1877 and 1879, formal education begun though the teaching was being carried out under verandahs (Ssekamwa, 1999). Later, missionaries established schools which necessitated the establishment of teacher training schools to train teachers who would become professionals and these were equipped with both content and pedagogical skills (Ssekamwa, 1997). A professional is a person who has received training in theory and practice in a discipline for a long period of time and usually constrained by a code of conduct. The curriculum which basically constituted the 3Rs (that is; Reading, Writing, and Arithmetic) was designated not only to create a new class of elites but also religiously adherent citizens (Nkwanga, 1992). The missionaries used a recruiting system of pupil-teacher to become their assistants in teaching but only those whose personalities seemed ideal for exemplary conduct in the community and had grasped some aspects of the 3Rs were recruited. This was the humble beginning of the emphasis of teachers‟ conduct in Nigeria which underlies this study. As Wandira (1971) observed about early recruitment,

“Each missionary could make an effort to further the spiritual, mental and pastoral training of such individual workers who by grace… need special training for the work of the ministry”.

The early recruitment and routine of teachers both in the school and outside it was monitored by his conduct. The missionary view of teacher-professional conduct was gauged against the Bible and Clergymanship (Nkwanga, 1992). A teacher who could avoid intoxicating drinks, got married in church and regularly attended church services, such teachers‟ works could be appreciated. Despite this emphasis on the puritanical conduct of teachers, less emphasis was put on content and pedagogy.

In 1925, a department of education was established in Nigeria to oversee education in the protectorate and the colonial government then started normal schools to train teachers. Since most of these schools were run by missionaries, puritanical conduct was emphasized among teachers and those who found it difficult to comply with these standards found their way to private schools (Okorie, 2019). The pre-independence era in Nigeria‟s education system therefore witnessed a high degree of teacher‟s discipline and high respectability in regard to the core values such as; integrity, trust, equality, service, fairness, honesty and respect in their profession (Moses, 2019).

Historically, therefore, one can note that in Nigeria teachers‟ professionalism has developed over the years. The 1950s saw the development of teaching as a profession as noted by Ssekamwa (1999). Those who took up the profession became professional teachers and these came to be termed as persons who have undergone formal training in a Primary Teachers Colleges (PTCs), National Teachers Colleges (NTCs) or a University College (Ssekamwa, 2000). Teacher professionalism therefore became a major source of contention between the different stakeholders in Nigeria (Muwagga, 2006), and due to the growing autonomy that was given to educators, it has remained one of the most influential attributes of education today (Ilukena, 1999). Therefore, teacher professionalism has had relevant significance in education and thus emphasizes both academic and professional obligations (Ssekamwa, 1997).

Society expects teachers to be exemplary but much as this is so, it is unfortunate that the liberalization of education in Nigeria in the early 1990s, and the increase in private secondary schools in post independence Nigeria has eroded most of the core values espoused in the code of conduct for teachers (Nkwanga, 1992). Hence, this has led teachers to develop a negative attitude towards the code thereby leading many to have a low perception, and thus resulting into many problems such as teachers‟ disrespect of their profession, hence leading to poor students‟ performance, indiscipline, unending strikes, truancy and other delinquent behaviors of students among others (Nsereko, 1997). There is an increased report of dysfunctional plus poor job performance by most teachers in Nigeria and the argument and blame is placed on poor professional conduct by some teachers (Emojong, 2008). It is from the liberalization of education that allegations that the existence of private secular secondary schools and government secondary schools and those which are denominational but government aided coupled with lose control by the Ministry of Education has had an impact on teachers‟ professionalism and the implied performance (Muwagga, 2006).

By professionalism it is meant the basis of our contract with society and this embeds in it a professional code of ethics or conduct. According to Wandira (1986), teacher professionalism means a teacher adhering to the teaching code of conduct. Therefore, teacher professionalism affects the role of the teacher and his or her pedagogy, which in turn affects the student‟s ability to learn effectively. Teacher training emphasizes both academic and professional obligations whereby the professional obligations imply teacher‟s professionalism (Ssekamwa, 1997). Teachers‟ professionalism has developed over the years. On the other hand today teachers‟ professionalism is referred to as the teachers‟ code of conduct (Ilukena, 1999). By teachers‟ code of conduct one refers to principals, values, standards, or rules of behavior that guide the decisions, procedures and systems of a school in which teachers work and in a way that (a) contributes to the welfare of its key stakeholders, and (b) respects the rights of all constituents affected by its operations (Wandira, 1986). It could also refer to the expected professional standards of behaviour of members of a profession governed by professional code of conduct (Nkwanga, 1992).

Professionalism has been found out to be the most challenging approach to mandated content while motivating, engaging, and inspiring aspect of preparing new teachers (Freidson, 1994). Talbert and McLaughlin (1996) define professionalism as “the internalized beliefs regarding professional obligations, attributes, interactions, attitudes, values, and role behaviors.” Professionalism means that teachers fully accept the challenges of teaching which are reflected in the three primary indicators of professionalism namely; responsibility, respect and risk taking (Hyland, 2002). Teachers‟ professionalism as per this study is taken to be teachers‟ adherence to the code of conduct, teachers‟ commitment, and teachers‟ perception of the code of conduct and so, by code of conduct one refers to the core values which include; respect, honesty, integrity, trust, equality, service, fairness, and tolerance, teachers‟ perception refers to teachers‟ attitude (that is positive and negative) towards the teachers‟ code of conduct and commitment refers to dedication, willingness, cooperation, voluntarism, belongingness, excitement, and pride.

The researcher also adopts the International dictionary‟s meaning of a „teacher‟ and then „perception‟. A teacher is “one who teaches or instructs learners to acquire knowledge or skills usually with the imparting of necessary incidental information and the giving of incidental help and encouragement”. On the other hand, perception is a sensory impression or mental image derived from past experiences (Namugwanya, 2006). As per this study, perception refers to the positive and negative attitude of teachers, towards the core values of the code of conduct for teachers. Performance on the other hand refers to how well or badly an individual, organization, group or institution does something or some task (Nampa, 2006). On the other hand, Otemo (2004) defines performance as the consistent ability to produce results over prolonged periods of time and in a variety of assignments. Thus, this research treats job performance of teachers as planning, teaching, and assessment which are reflected in setting objectives, evaluating lessons, organization, extra duties, time management, and lesson planning, preparing schemes of work, creating a conducive environment, using various methods, strategies, and ensuring discipline and records of work and lastly giving students exercises, examinations, quizzes, and debates.

Teacher performance in Obioakpo LGA Area In Rivers State is observed to be going down. Ugu (2008) reports that there is poor performance of secondary teachers in Obioakpo LGA Area In Rivers State which is reflected in the poor results of the students they are teaching. Nakabugo (2008) reports on the poor performance of teachers that is as a result of their late coming to school thus leading to students missing their morning lessons, having little time for consultation and obtaining poor grades. She attributes this poor performance to teachers‟ absenting themselves from schools and hardly giving monthly tests and continuous assignments to students. The same author has further asserts that most head teachers are never in offices to execute their duties; defilement rate by some teachers is at its pick and use of vulgar language before students in class. Emojong, (2008) & Miti (2008) reports that teachers do not give exercises to students, teachers miss classes without strong reasons and are irregular at school. The district reports 2006, 2007, and 2008 also reveal that there is persistent poor performance in examinations, staff turnover and students‟ indiscipline.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Teacher competence is looked at as one of the ways in which academic excellence in schools can be enhanced, motivates students to work hard, reflects teachers‟ competence and brings out teachers as agents of social change (Manana, 2005). Unfortunately, Nampa (2006) comments that the performance of teachers has sunk, and reports (2007) and Waiswa (2009) comment that students are often left without being given class work, they are defiled, teachers absent themselves from school duties, come late and leave early and head teachers are hardly seen in their offices executing their duties. This failure to fully embrace their duties is breeding several negative results such as low and poor academic performance, student indiscipline, and student turn-over. In turn, this is affecting teachers‟ adherence to their code of conduct, their attitude towards the core values of the code of conduct, their dedication, willingness, voluntarism, belongingness, cooperation, excitement and pride. If the current situation is not urgently addressed, it may increase immorality that may eventually paralyze the profession of teachers. While several sources such as news articles and education stakeholders are reporting a decline in teachers‟ performance in different parts of the country, none is looking at teachers‟ professionalism as a likely factor that may be playing a major role. This concern therefore drives the researcher to examine how teacher’s professionalism for enhanced competence in the administration of public primary schools in Obioakpo LGA Area In Rivers State.


1.3 Objective of the Study

The study aimed at achieving the following specific objectives;

  1. To establish the relationship between the teachers‟ code of conduct and competence in the administration in public primary schools in Obioakpo LGA Area In Rivers State.
  2. To establish the relationship between teachers‟ commitment in terms of planning, assessment, and teaching and teachers‟ performance in public primary schools in Obioakpo LGA Area In Rivers State.
  3. To find out the perception of teachers towards the teachers‟ code of conduct in public primary schools in Obioakpo LGA Area In Rivers State

1.4 Research Questions

The study was guided by the following research questions:

  1. How does the teachers‟ code of conduct contribute to teacher competence in the administration in public primary schools in Obioakpo LGA Area In Rivers State?
  2. How does teachers‟ commitment in terms of planning, assessment, and teaching contribute to teacher performance in public primary schools in Obioakpo LGA Area In Rivers State?
  3. What is the teachers‟ perception of the teachers‟ code of conduct in public primary schools in Obioakpo LGA Area In Rivers State?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

H0: The teachers‟ code of conduct has a positive relationship with teacher competence in the administration in public primary schools in Obioakpo LGA Area In Rivers State

Hi: The teachers‟ code of conduct has a positive relationship with teacher competence in the administration in public primary schools in Obioakpo LGA Area In Rivers State.


1.6 Signifcance of the Study

This study will be of immense benefits to teachers, students, educational administrators and planners, future researchers and government.

The study through its findings will inform the teachers on how to teach effectively classroom for proper assimilation on the parts of the students and also how to motivate their students to higher academic performance.
School administrators will benefit from the study by ensuring that only trained, competent and experienced teachers are employed in the teaching profession.

Students will be made aware to comprehend the style of teaching adopted by their teachers for effective learning outcomes.

Government will realize the need to formulate attractive incentive package to stir up the commitment and dedication of teachers to their jobs.

Future researchers will be guided via this study in their prospective research undertakings.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This study examined the effect of teacher’s professionalism for enhanced competence in the administration of primary schools with strong emphasis on some selected public primary schools in Obioakpo LGA Area In Rivers State.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents. However, the researcher were able to manage these just to ensure the success of this study.


1.9 Defintion of Terms

Teacher:

A person who teaches, especially one employed in a school.

Educational Qualification:

This refers to degrees, certificates, diplomas and other professional titles that an individual has acquired in his country or abroad that is conferred by educational authorities or endorsed professional bodies.

Teaching Experience:

The number of years a teacher has spent in the teaching profession.

Secondary School:

It refers to high or senior school which provides post-primary education for students depending on location, after primary education and before higher education.

Public Primary School:

A primary school owned and funded by government at state or local level.

Student:

A person who is going to school to learn.

Teachers’ Professionalism:

The competence, skill and expertise exuded by a teacher in his job.

Academic Performance:

The outcome of education to which a student has achieved his or her educational goals.


1.10 Organization of the Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows.

  • Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
  • Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
  • Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
  • Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
  • Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.

Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the teacher’s professionalism for enhanced competence in the administration of public primary schools in Obioakpo LGA In Rivers State. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was on the teacher’s professionalism for enhanced competence in the administration of public primary schools in Obioakpo LGA In Rivers State. The study is was specifically focused on establishing the relationship between the teachers‟ code of conduct and competence in the administration in public primary schools in Obioakpo LGA Area In Rivers State; establishing the relationship between teachers‟ commitment in terms of planning, assessment, and teaching and teachers‟ performance in public primary schools in Obioakpo LGA Area In Rivers State and finding out the perception of teachers towards the teachers‟ code of conduct in public primary schools in Obioakpo LGA Area In Rivers State.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 180 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are staff of public primary schools in Obioakpo LGA In Rivers State.


5.3 Conclusions

With respect to the analysis and the findings of this study, the following conclusions emerged;

The study concludes that the results indicated that the code of conduct and teacher performance were not significantly correlated because it was well beyond the benchmark sig meaning that the code of conduct does not have a positive effect on teacher performance. The study also concludes that teachers who act more professionally and are aware of their obligation and duty to the teachers‟ code of conduct do perform well both in and outside class (extra-curricular activities). The study also concluded that teachers‟ performance is greatly associated with adherence to the teacher‟s code of conduct.

The study also concluded that teacher commitment and teacher performance were not significantly correlated because the results were well beyond the benchmark sig meaning that teacher commitment does not have a positive effect on teacher performance.

The study concludes that teacher perception in terms of positive and negative attitudes affects teacher performance. In addition, a big number of respondents have a positive attitude towards the code of conduct for teachers. The study also concludes that what seems to be poor perception is a result of other factors such as poor remuneration, nature of the school and the implied school leadership and students.


5.4 Recommendation

Based on the findings the researcher recommends that;

  1. The study recommends that different authorities such as the schools of education, ministry of Education and sports, schools and denominational education secretariats should avail to teachers‟ personal copies of teachers‟ code of conduct and that if possible, professional ethics and moral education should be taught as independent disciplines to pre-service teachers to be examinable both in theory and practice.
  2. The study also recommends that in order to enhance the teachers‟ commitment emphasis should be laid on the need to act professionally. This implies that teachers should be treated well in terms of appropriate emoluments and here the BOG would be required to subsidize teachers‟ salaries to uplift their economic welfare.
  3. It also recommends that in order to enhance teachers‟ knowledge and perception of the code the inspectorate could make regular visits to schools and also there should be regular and refresher programmes through which teachers are educated on the value of behaving professionally and also for the purpose of their professional development.

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